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MIT 3710 Methods Design

Welcome to the methods design course!

INTRODUCTION

Instructor Course Syllabus Grading Text

METHODS ENGINEERNING
Definition
the systematic procedure for subjecting all direct and indirect operations to close scrutiny in order to introduce improvements that will make work easier to perform and will allow work to be done in less time and with less investment per unit1 without an adverse effect upon quality Thus, the real objective of methods engineering is profit improvement1 through lowering unit cost by continuous Improvement of manufacturing processes.

METHODS ENGINEERNING
Methods Engineering is simply a discipline of using systematic analyses of processes, both proposed and existing, in order to eliminate waste (muda). Therefore, the tools and techniques of methods engineering are very useful in achieving the goals of lean manufacturing.

METHODS ENGINEERING
With the detailed analysis of any job, you will find waste. That can, almost, be guaranteed. The causes and necessary corrective measures for the waste will vary, making some corrective action easier than others (low hanging fruit).
Minimum job content Process inefficiency issues shortcomings

Total work content

Ineffective time

Total time content of an operation under current conditions

METHODS ENGINEERING
Some Typical Methods Engineering Functions

Design and develop processes Design and develop tooling and fixtures Optimize operator and machine relationships Continuous improvement of workstation layouts Developing and maintaining work standards

The result of these efforts will be more efficient production by making work easier to perform, less time consuming, and less costly per unit produced.

HISTORY

Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856 1915)2


Father of Scientific Management or modern time study Began time study in 1881 at Midvale Steel Co.3 Presented findings in 1895 to ASME3 Shop Management presented to ASME in 19033 Scientific Management approach to work (see p. 28) Innovations (see page 28 of text) Early controversy with efficiency experts5

HISTORY
Are Taylors Principles Out of Date?

Read about Dr. Shigeo Shingo (page 33 of text) and excerpts from The Visual Factory, by Michel Greif, pages 61 through 66. The techniques are still useful, today, and can be key in implementing lean manufacturing by assisting in eliminating waste.

History

Frank (1868-1924) and Lillian (1878-1972) Gilbreth4


Parents of motion study Frank founded motion study around 1900 They developed many new techniques to study work Elimination of wasted motion = Work Simplification Developed 17 basic manual motions, Therbligs

HISTORY
For some twenty years or so (ca. 1910 until 1930) there were two groups conducting work study. One group followed Taylors scientific management approach and the other followed the motion study techniques of the Gilbreths. Finally, it was realized that the efforts of the two should be combined, and this led to what is known by some as methods engineering.

LEAN MANUFACTURING
Chapter two of the text has a nice, brief discussion about lean in the manufacturing context. At the center of this discussion is Dr. Shigeo Shingo, a world renowned Japanese industrial engineer. Dr. Shingo was a follower of Fred Taylors analytical philosophy and Frank Gilbreths exhaustive pursuit of goals and the single best method of doing a job.6

LEAN MANUFACTURING
The philosophy of Shigeo Shingo and its application to motion and time study tools is the basis for the lean environment approach.7

The lean production environment focuses upon the elimination of all forms of waste in manufacturing. The term was coined by James Womack and is used to differentiate the practices of Toyota from those of mass production.7

LEAN MANUFACTURING
Lean involves an environment that will utilize the efforts of the entire workforce to achieve the elimination of waste (muda). This means that anyone may use tools available through motion and time study, quality and process control, or any other traditional mass production system functional area that may be helpful in achieving lean manufacturing.8

LEAN MANUFACTURING
Dr. Shingo attributes Toyotas tremendous improvements over their bleak situation in the 1960s to the application of traditional motion and time study problem-solving techniques, applied as needed to obvious bottlenecks.9 The text presents Womack and Jones five-year time frame for developing a lean organization, but this is beyond the scope of this course. We will focus upon motion and time study techniques.

LEAN MANUFACTURING
Dr. Shingo pointed out the importance of analyses of processes and operations, and motion and time study techniques are designed for these purposes.10
Process: a continuous flow by which raw materials are converted to finished goods11

Operation: any action performed by man, machine, or equipment on raw materials or intermediate or finished products11

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Motion Study
As has been implied, motion and time study are two different subjects, each with its own set of tools or techniques. Motion studies were conducted by the Gilbreths in search of the one best way of doing a task. These studies seek to eliminate wasted motion and specify the proper way of completing a task. They were not concerned with cycle time, since the proper method will have minimal cycle time.12

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Motion Study
The first step in process or operation improvement should begin with motion study. It is with motion study that you will, often, find the largest savings opportunities.13 There are two sets of motion study tools. They are referred to as:

1. Macromotion: factory or process flow 2. Micromotion: operation or job

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Motion Study
Macromotion studies should be conducted prior to micromotion studies for three reasons: 1. Macro savings are usually greater 2. Macro may eliminate or change operations 3. Starting with micro could waste your time! Of course there are appropriate times to conduct micromotion studies of operations without macro studies, first.

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Motion Study
Improvement Actions14
(in priority sequence)

1. 2. 3. 4.

Eliminate if possible Combine with another activity Change or rearrange the sequence Simplify the activity as much as possible

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Time Study
Time study is a work measurement technique used for the setting of a time standard. The texts author provides a definition of time standard as follows: the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions: (1) a qualified, well-trained operator, (2) working at a normal pace, and (3) doing a specific task15

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Time Study
Definitions
(ANSI)

Time study: is a work measurement technique consisting of a careful time measurement of a task with a time measuring instrument, with appropriate adjustments for work pace, unavoidable delays, and personal needs. It is used to determine the time required by a qualified and trained person working at normal pace to do a task

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Time Study
Definitions
(ANSI)

Qualified operator: A worker who, by virtue of his/her training, skill, and experience, is able to perform a task within acceptable quality and time limits. Normal pace: the manual pace required to produce an acceptable amount of work by a qualified operator following a prescribed method under standard conditions with an effort that does not incur cumulative fatigue from day to day
(considered 100% and often referred to as 100% pace)

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Time Study

Proper procedure is to always conduct motion study (or methods study)

prior
to conducting the time study!

Why do you think this is true?

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Definition
(ANSI)

Work measurement: is a generic term used to refer to the setting of a time standard by a recognized industrial engineering technique

What are these recognized industrial engineering techniques?


(Also referred to as work measurement techniques.)

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Work Measurement Techniques16
1. 2. 3. 4. Time study Standard data PTS (pre-determined time systems) Work sampling (ratio-delay studies)

There are two other techniques for setting time standards, but they are not work measurement techniques. They are historical data and estimates. We will discuss these, later.

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Time Study

The most commonly used technique Uses a time measurement instrument Follows a specific procedure: (after proper method determined)
Job is broken into elements Each element is timed Performance rating is necessary Allowances must be added Standard time is calculated

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Standard Data

Time formulas used to calculate standard times Linear regression graphs used to depict rates/times Requires much time, effort, and documentation Most cost effective way of setting time standards Most consistent method of setting time standards

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Pre-Determined Time Systems (PTS)

Developed through research, including film analysis Body motions are broken into basic elements Forces methods analysis (motion study) Can set standards prior to actual production

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Work Sampling18

Based upon the laws of probability Random samples (observations) Samples taken have the same pattern as population Also referred to as ratio-delay studies

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Work Measurement
Not Work Measurement Techniques

Historical Data
Standards based upon similar jobs previously produced19 Uses actual clock hours on similar work Builds in inefficiencies of previous work

Estimates
Based upon expert opinion (often the supervisor) Commonly used prior to time study Lacks in accuracy (avg. deviation from actual time = 25%)19

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Importance and Uses of Time Study
Time standards provide goals for production. It has been estimated that organizations that operate without time standards only achieve about 60% performance. With time standards, the performance improves to an average of 85%, or a forty-two percent improvement! Rules of thumb:

Plants without standards average 60% Plants with time standards average 85% Plants with incentive systems average 120%17

MOTION & TIME STUDY


Importance and Uses of Time Study

Lets look at the material presented in the text on pages 43 through 57.

MACROMOTION STUDY
As was mentioned earlier, the overall process flow should be studied prior to analysis of individual jobs, and the macromotion techniques are designed for this purpose.20 Take a look at what the author of the text refers to as the Cost Reduction Formula (p. 68). This table summarizes the actions of the methods engineer when conducting a macromotion study.

MACROMOTION STUDY
In order to eliminate waste and improve your manufacturing facilitys processes, it is important to, first, understand the product flow through the entire organization. Macromotion tools allow you to develop this knowledge in a systematic way. The simple procedure outlined in the Cost Reduction Formula will lead to this knowledge.

MACROMOTION STUDY
All motion study tools have been developed to assist in the analysis of processes or operations. These tools may be tweaked by the analyst to fit a particular need, so let your imagination flow and utilize the tools as they best fit your specific need. Lets, briefly, look through part of chapter 5 to see some of what the texts author presents, beginning on page 69.

MACROMOTION STUDY
Flow Diagram, Fig. 5-1
Elimination of handling & travel by relocating press & receiving castings at back door.

MACROMOTION STUDY

MICROMOTION STUDY
The micromotion study tools and techniques are designed to focus upon an individual job or activity. As was pointed out earlier, these studies should be completed after macromotion study. Do you remember why?

The goal of micromotion study is to eliminate waste on the operation level.

PRACTICE
Process Charting
We will review the process chart form (to be handed out) in order to understand its format, then you will be given a task, already broken into elements, to transfer to the form. Complete these steps for this present method:

Fill in the header information so the details will not be lost Write in each element and mark the appropriate symbol Document any distances traveled Fill in appropriate quantities Enter task element times Complete the Summary information

OPERATOR-MACHINE CHART
Micro-Motion Technique
What is it?
a chart showing the exact relationship in time between the working cycle of the person and the operating cycle of the machine or machines21

When is it used?
to analyze one work station

Why is it used?
to reduce waste (lower unit cost) by identifying inefficient utilization of the operator and/or machines time

OPERATOR-MACHINE CHART
How does it work?

Breaks person & machines work into elements Charts the exact time for each, to scale, side by side Clearly shows idle time for each (operator and machine) Improvement possibilities are identifiable Machine coupling possibilities are evident

OPERATOR-MACHINE CHART
Fig. 6-2 (current)
(pp. 93 - 95 of Text)

Fig. 6-3 (new)

OPERATOR-MACHINE CHART
We will use this format.
This is an example of an alternate format for Fig. 6-3.
Drawn to Scale

OPERATOR-MACHINE CHART

PRACTICE
Operator-Machine Chart (page 1 of 4)
On grid paper, to be provided by the instructor, and using a pencil, construct an operator-machine chart, given the following information:

One operator is operating one machine Operator loading the machine requires 0.250 minute Operator unloading the machine requires 0.250 minute The machine is unloaded just prior to loading The machines cycle time is 0.500 minute The machine produces one unit per cycle Leave space on the chart for adding additional machines!

PRACTICE
Operator-Machine Chart (page 2 of 4)
After constructing the operator-machine chart, answer the following questions:

How much idle time per cycle does the operator experience? How much idle time per cycle is being experienced by the machine? How many normal units per minute are being produced? How many units per shift should be expected of this operation?*

* Allowances are 10% for this operation (Allowance Factor = 1.10)

PRACTICE
Operator-Machine Chart (page 3 of 4)
Add a second, identical machine to the chart, given the following information:

One operator is operating both machines Operator loading requires 0.250 minute for each machine Operator unloading requires 0.250 minute for each machine The machines are unloaded just prior to loading The machines, each, have a cycle time of 0.500 minute Walk time between the machines is 0.100 minute (one way) Each machine produces one unit per cycle

PRACTICE
Operator-Machine Chart (page 4 of 4)
After constructing the operator-machine chart with an additional machine, answer the following questions:

How much idle time per cycle does the operator experience? How much idle time per cycle does each machine experience? How many normal units per minute are being produced? How many units per shift should be expected of this operation?*

* Allowances are 10% for this operation (Allowance Factor = 1.10)

WORK STATION DESIGN


Chapter 7 in the text is divided into three sections:

Work Station Design


Top view of workstation usually depicted Include a layout of the entire work area Show all materials used (raw and finished) Include all fixtures and tools needed Initiated by the Gilbreths but added to over the years22 Leads to more efficient and easier jobs Depicts paths of both hands during the work cycle Jobs are divided into elements

Principles of Motion Economy


Motion Patterns

WORK STATION DESIGN


The Principles of Motion Economy can be broken into three subdivisions:23
1. 2. 3.

The use of the human body The arrangement of the workplace The design of tools and equipment

By the titles of the subdivisions, it is easy to see the close relationship between motion economy and ergonomics and human factors.
Ergonomics: the study of the interface (or interaction) between humans and the objects they use and the environments they function in24

WORK STATION DESIGN

Turn to page 111 of the text, and we will look through the motion economy points made by Meyers

More complete lists of principles and discussions can be found in Barnes or Neibels books (listed in the bibliography).

TIME STUDY
Remember that time study is the most frequently used method of developing a time standard.25 Also, recall that a time standard is the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions: (1) a qualified, well-trained operator, (2) working at a normal pace, and (3) doing a specific task15 (following the prescribed method)

TIME STUDY
Tools
What tools are necessary to conduct a study?

Stopwatch (select appropriate type) Form Clipboard Pencil & eraser Calculator Tachometer (if needed for belt or shaft speeds) Videotape recorder (if appropriate or needed)

TIME STUDY
Types
There are two basic types of time study. They are:

Continuous
watch runs continuously during the study reading is noted at end of each element much clerical work required preferred method by some forces discipline

Snap-Back
watch snapped back to zero at end of each element less clerical work and easier to conduct Must be disciplined to avoid neglecting delays, etc.

TIME STUDY
Procedure

Lets look through and discuss pages 172 through 184 of the text.

TIME STUDY
Procedure

TIME STUDY
Number of Observations
The following is the formula I prefer, where:
N = number of observations (samples) s = standard deviation (calculated) t = value from table k = accuracy desired (given) = sample mean (calculated)

st N kx

TIME STUDY
Number of Observations
Given the following information from a time study, calculate the number of observations necessary to provide 95% confidence that our sample mean is within +/- 5% (accuracy) of the true mean for the job element.

Element Observed Times tn-1 distribution table value = 2.262 0.023 minute 0.019 0.020 0.023 0.025 0.025 0.022 0.027 0.023 0.023 N

st kx

TIME STUDY
Continuous

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Rating, leveling, and normalizing are all terms that
refer to the same process of adjusting the observed time to perform an operation to the time that should be required, keeping in mind the definition of standard time: the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions: (1) a qualified, well-trained operator, (2) working at a normal pace, and (3) doing a specific task15

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
More simply put: Performance rating is leveling the actual observed time to the time it should take to complete the task (normal time).
Rating performance is considered the most difficult and debated portion of time study, and there have been a number of attempts to remove the subjectivity of rating by devising systems that objectively determine the rating factor; however, simplicity has won out over the years!

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Of all the more complicated systems developed, probably the most popular was the Westinghouse System or LMS System, named for its developers: Lowry, Maynard, and Stegemerten. This system, published in 1927, rates four factors:26
1. 2. 3. 4.

Skill (qualified and trained - not learning the job) Consistency (an indication of skill) Conditions (working conditions are not often a factor) Effort (the most important factor - operators speed)27

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Speed rating (or performance rating) is by far the most widely used rating system.28 It is, also, the simplest, since it rates only one factor, effort or the speed/pace/tempo of the operator.
The time study analyst must have a good understanding of normal pace for his/her industry. It is necessary to have knowledge of the jobs studied, to include safety and quality requirements, tolerances of parts, and extra care demands (highly polished surfaces, etc.)

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Normal Pace Benchmarks for Effort29

Walking 264 feet in 1.000 minute (3 mph) Dealing 52 cards in 0.500 minute 30 pins into a pin-board in 0.435 min.

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
In order to normalize or level the observed time, you simply apply the performance rating factor (PRF) to the average observed time.

Observed time x PRF = normal time


The PRF is, simply, your rating of the operators effort. For example, if you feel the operator is working at 90% of normal, the PRF is 0.90. If your rating is 110%, the PRF is 1.10.

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Lets assume we are in the process of a time study of a job with three elements and have the following observed times and ratings: Elem. 1 2 3 Avg. Observed Time Rating Normal Time 0.033 minute 90% 0.157 95% 0.082 105%

Calculate the normal times for each element of this job.

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
When do I rate the operators performance?
As you know, jobs are divided into elements prior to a time study, and each element is timed. Some analysts rate the performance of each element (53%), some rate each observation (13%), and some rate the overall job (34%).30 However you prefer to do it, the rating must be done while watching the operator, not at your desk, later. Remember, performance rating is not for machine time!

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Concept of Normal Performance & Human Capability32

Approximately 95% of the industrial workforce (18-65) are capable of achieving 100% (normal) performance The average worker can achieve 120% performance The degree of variation in workers capabilities is a ratio of around 1:2 Max. human performance capability is about 160% (Sketch normal curve on board depicting the above)

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating
Why isnt a process achieving 100% performance?32

Worker(s) not following the prescribed method Inadequate delay allowances (discuss later) Inexperienced workers (learning curve) not qualified Materials out of specification Equipment or tooling failure (down time) poor PMs Incapable workers allowed to remain in workforce

TIME STUDY
Performance Rating

Performance rating practice!

TIME STUDY
Allowances
If the normal time to complete a unit of production is 1.000 minute, how many units should be expected at the end of an eight-hour shift? 480?
(There are 480 minutes in an eight-hour shift.)

No! Why not??

TIME STUDY
Allowances
The final step to arrive at a fair standard is to include time for basic needs during the shift. These basic needs fall into three categories:
1.
2. 3.

Personal Fatigue (if applied, only to the effort portion) Unavoidable Delays

(These are commonly referred to as P,F,&D allowances.)

TIME STUDY
Allowances
The fundamental purpose of allowances is to add enough time to the normal production time to enable the average worker to meet the standard when performing at a normal pace.31 To be realistic, the accepted lost production time during the shift must be factored into the time to do the work to arrive at an accurate standard.

TIME STUDY
Allowances - Personal
The personal allowance generally includes things like:

trips to the restroom trips to the drinking fountain adjusting safety equipment or cleaning glasses

TIME STUDY
Allowances - Fatigue
The fatigue allowance is cause for debate in many work measurement circles. With modern workplace comforts and conveniences, the fatigue allowance is often unnecessary and may be considered covered by the morning and afternoon breaks. Fatigue allowance should not be added unless a loss of production is experienced due to fatigue or monotony. How do I know if production is lost due to fatigue?

TIME STUDY
Allowances - Fatigue
There have been a number of methods devised in an attempt to measure fatigue created by work. These have included:

physical tests (work rate) chemical tests (body fluids) physiological tests (pulse, BP, oxygen consumption)

However, the most often used method attempting to measure fatigue is measuring the decline of production during the day.33

TIME STUDY
Allowances - Delays
Only acceptable unavoidable delays that enhance or are necessary for production to occur are to be considered for inclusion in allowances. If a delay is avoidable, eliminate it! You, certainly, do not want to accept lost production time due to an avoidable issue.
Some unavoidable delay examples:

receiving set-up instructions discussing quality issues with supervisor or quality inherent equipment demands (adjustments, etc.) removing and putting on safety equipment (at breaks) clean-up time (end of shift)

TIME STUDY
Allowances
How is the allowance percentage calculated?34
Allowances are a percentage of production time, so the correct method of determining the allowance percentage includes removing non-productive time from the calculation.

The total percentage allowance calculation is:


Allowance = allowance min. / (shift min. allowance min.)
Allow. Factor (AF) = shift min. / (shift min. allow. min.)

TIME STUDY
Allowances
How are allowances determined?35 Allowances are usually determined by work sampling. They may, also, be determined through delay studies (production studies), but these are very demanding.

TIME STUDY
Allowances
Given the information, below, from a study to determine appropriate allowances for a production area, calculate the total allowance percentage and the allowance factor (AF).

Personal time Fatigue time Delays: (Unavoidable)


Start-Up at beginning of shift

15 minutes 20 minutes (breaks)

2 minutes Communications with supervisor 5 minutes Remove & put on safety equip. 6 minutes Clean up at end of shift 7 minutes

TIME STUDY
Allowances
Given the time and effort put into developing an accurate standard time, applying an arbitrary allowance factor should be avoided. This would only destroy the accuracy. In addition, be aware of how allowances are applicable, since they may be applied to three different categories of work. Every allowance time may not apply to every job.

allowances applicable to the total cycle time allowances applicable to the machine time, only allowances applicable to the effort time, only36

STANDARD TIME
Recall the definition of a time standard or standard time: the time required to produce a product at a work station with the following three conditions: (1) a qualified, well-trained operator, (2) working at a normal pace, and (3) doing a specific task15 (following the prescribed method)
(Standard time is sometimes referred to as allowed time or standard allowed time.)

STANDARD TIME
We have, now, covered all the steps necessary to determine the standard time to complete a task, using time study. In summary, they are:

Develop the proper method (micro-motion study) Determine the average observed time Performance rate the operator Calculate the normal time for the task Apply the allowance factor

STANDARD TIME
For the sake of simplicity, let us assume that the following observed times were taken for the completion of a oneelement task. Calculate the standard time for this job. Performance rating: 90% (overall) Allowances: 15% Observed times (minutes): 0.100 0.090 0.130 0.110 0.110 0.120 0.110 0.100 0.120 0.100 0.120 0.110

0.100 0.090 0.110

STANDARD TIME
What would be the standard number of units expected from the previous operation:

per minute: per hour: per shift:

If you went out to watch the operation, what should be the rate of production (in units per minute)? Have enough observations been taken (for 95%, +/- 5%)?

STANDARD TIME
Calculate the Standard Time
(Times shown in hundredths of a minute. Standard allowance is 12%) Element CYCLES Normal Description 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Avg. PR Time 1. Unit to 5 6 4 5 5 6 5 7 5 5 90 Bench 2. Assemble 17 15 17 18 14 17 16 15 17 37 90 3 screws 3. Assemble 10 9 9 8 11 10 9 10 11 9 110 handle 4. Assemble 20 19 22 18 23 17 20 21 22 20 85 Brace 5. Aside to 4 5 7 5 6 5 5 7 5 7 90 conveyor

STANDARD TIME
Calculate the Standard Time
Element Description 1. Unit to bench 2. Assemble 3 screws 3. Assemble handle 4. Assemble brace 5. Aside to conveyor 1 2 5 6 3 4 CYCLES 4 5 6 7 5 5 6 5 8 7 9 5 Normal 10 Avg. PR Time 5 0.0530 90 0.0477 37 0.1622 90 0.1460

17 15 17 18 14 17 16 15 17 10 9 9 8 11 10 9 10 11

9 0.0960 110 0.1056 20 0.2020 85 0.1717

20 19 22 18 23 17 20 21 22

0.0560

90 0.0504

Total Task Normal Time: 0.5214 Task Standard Time: 0.584 m/u

STANDARD TIME

Handout time study problem -- standard time calculation practice --

times are in minutes assume enough observations for desired accuracy Process time for equipment is rated at 100% Resupply and other occasional tasks are pro-rated

STANDARD DATA
Definition
Standard Data
(ANSI) a structured collection of normal time values for work elements codified in a tabular or graphic form. The data is used as a basis for determining time standards on work similar to that from which the data was collected without making additional studies.

STANDARD DATA
Levels of Standard Data

Motion = the most detailed and flexible but requires more time to apply

Element = Data that covers an entire element of a task. It is less flexible than motion but quicker to apply. Task = data that covers a complete task, not flexible but very fast

STANDARD DATA
When developing standard data, you must distinguish between constant and variable portions of the task.37 constant = This portion of the job will not change significantly even though the part being produced changes; therefore the time to perform this portion of the job will remain the same. variable = time requirements change with part characteristics (dimensions, weight, etc.)

STANDARD DATA
Let s look at examples of
> motion > element > task

standard data

STANDARD DATA
Turn to page 213 in the text,
and we will review Meyers list of advantages of standard data.

METHODS ENGINEERING
and the Product Life Cycle

Lets look at a couple of things that may assist in the understanding of when methods work applies during the product life cycle.

Product Life Cycle Continuous Improvement Cycle

LINE BALANCING
Very often, situations are encountered where several operators will be performing work as a single production unit. Each operator has a specific portion of the product to assemble, and after all the operators have completed their portion of the work, the product is completed. These operations may be connected by means of a conveyor or may be in close proximity so that parts are easily passed from one to the other.

LINE BALANCING
Purposes of Assembly Line Balancing38

Equalize workload among the assemblers Identify the bottleneck operation Establish the speed of the assembly line Determine number of work stations/operators Determine labor cost Establish workload of operators Assist in plant layout Reduce production cost

LINE BALANCING
Sketch assembly line examples on the board.

Identify the line balance operation Calculate the standard time per unit Determine the normal time production rate Stress the importance of balancing work Discuss the significance of the bottleneck Calculate percent line balance

LINE BALANCING
Given the information, below, for an assembly line, answer or calculate the requested information:

Seven operations & operators: (the standard minutes include 12% allowance)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

0.372 std. min. 0.237 0.389 0.273 0.279 0.155 0.333 Identify the bottleneck or line balance operation Calculate the standard time (in minutes) per unit How many units per 8-hour shift are expected? At what production rate (units per minute) should this line be running?

LINE BALANCING

LINE BALANCING
Some Thoughts for Improving Output

Assign a portion of the line balance operations work to another station Improve the method of the line balance station
(may or may not require capital investment)

Utilize an additional operator at the line balance station, full or part-time Work bottleneck operation overtime in order to accumulate units from which to supplement

PERFORMANCE
In order to assist in maintaining proper efficiency and performance, production data are collected and measurements made of actual results versus expectations. One of the measures used is performance against standard.

EarnedTime X 100 % Performance ActualTime

PERFORMANCE
Recall this problem worked earlier. Performance against standard, based upon a given amount of production, has been added to the calculations, below.

Seven operations & operators: (the standard minutes include 12% allowance)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

0.372 std. min. 0.237 0.389 0.273 0.279 0.155 0.333 Identify the bottleneck or line balance operation Calculate the standard time (in minutes) per unit How many units per 8-hour shift are expected? At what production rate (units per minute) should this line be running? What is the performance vs. standard if 1,150 units are produced in 8-hours?

PERFORMANCE
The percent performance versus standard calculation is used for all production work, whether single operator work or assembly line.

For example:
A single operator bench assembly job has a standard time of 1.233 minutes. What is this jobs eight-hour performance if 400 units are produced?

PERFORMANCE
Effect of Performance on Actual Labor Cost
1/performance x labor rate = actual labor cost
(The performance number is not in percent.)

Calculate the actual cost of labor given these assumptions:


One operator bench assembly (from previous problem) Operator earns $12.00 per hour Operator produces 330 units in one 8-hour shift (std = 1.233 min.)

This calculation is possible for a part, a department, or the entire plant.

PERFORMANCE
Your plant manager is interested in a better understanding of your plants labor cost. You decide to compute the effective actual direct labor hourly wage rate, based upon the current labor standards, for the past month. You have recently performed an audit of the standards and are comfortable with their accuracy. Here are the assumptions:

Total hours earned (all products produced) 13,700 hours Total hours used (100 people for 20 work days) 16,000 hours Weighted average direct labor hourly wage rate $13.50
13,700 / 16,000 = 0.856 1 / 0.856 = 1.168 1.168 x $13.50 = $15.77

This information could be used as a benchmark from which to measure improvements. It could, also, include indirect labor, if desired.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

HANDOUT Perform the calculations required to answer the questions on the practice problems.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
(Page 1 of 2)

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