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Excretory System

Your body must eliminate wastes to remain healthy. These systems function together as parts of your excretory system.

The Urinary System


The urinary system rids the blood of wastes produced by the cells.

controls blood volume by removing excess water produced by body cells during respiration.
Gets rid of excess salts

Organs of the Urinary System


The kidneys filter blood that contains wastes collected from cells.

Each kidney is composed of three sections:

The Kidney

the outer (renal) cortex, the (renal) medulla (middle part) and the hollow inner (renal) pelvis.

The cortex is where the blood is filtered. The medulla contains the collecting ducts which carry filtrate (filtered substances) to the pelvis. The pelvis is a hollow cavity where urine accumulates and drains into the ureter.

The kidneys are more than excretory organs. They are one of the major homeostatic organs of the body.

They control water pH, secrete erythropoietin (a hormone that stimulates red blood cell production) and activate vitamin D production in the skin. That is why a doctor can tell so much from a urine sample.

The kidney has other functions but it is usually associated with the excretion of cellular waste such as : 1) urea (a nitrogenous waste produced in the liver from the breakdown of protein. It is the main component of urine) ;

2) uric acid (usually produced from breakdown of DNA or RNA) and 3) creatinine (waste product of muscle action).

Filtration in the Kidney

NEPHRONSfiltering unit in the kidney

Parts of the Nephron Each nephron consists of the following parts:


1) glomerulus ; 2) Bowmans capsule ; 3) proximal tubule ; 4) loop of Henle ; 5) distal tubule ; 6) collecting duct.

Filtration in the Kidney


Blood enters the kidneys through the renal artery. Blood enters the nephrons. Water,sugar,salt and wastes in the blood enter a cuplike structure in nephron. Capillaries reabsorb most of the water,sugar, and salt.

The renal vein returns purified blood to be circulated. Urine drains from each collecting tubule into funnel shaped areas of the kidney Urine flows from ureters to the urinary bladder Urine flows from the bladder through the urethra and out of the body.

Excretion by the Liver recycles worn out red blood cells * produces urea (a semi-toxic nitrogenous waste) from the breakdown of amino acids (contains nitrogen)

Excretion by the Lungs


* are

responsible for the excretion of carbon dioxide and water (waste products of cellular respiration) * these are removed as gases during the process of exhalation

Sweat Glands (Skin) water (98%), salts, and a small amount of urea diffuse from the blood into sweat glands * excreted through the process of perspiration (sweating!) * main job of sweating is to maintain body temperature (cool down)

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