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## CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle

12.0 Chapter Objectives / Learning Outcomes
To introduce the concepts of position, displacement,
velocity, and acceleration.
To study particle motion along a straight line and
represent this motion graphically.
To investigate particle motion along a curved path
using different coordinate systems.
To examine the principles of relative motion of two
particles using translating axes.
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.1 Introduction
Kinematics
- analysis of the geometrical aspects of the motion
(position, velocity and acceleration)
Particle
- has a mass but negligible size and shape
- can be applied to large bodies if:
i. the motion of the body is characterized by the
motion of its mass center
ii. any rotation of the body is neglected
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.2 Rectilinear Kinematics - Continuous Motion
The kinematics of a particle is characterized by specifying:
i. Position : to specify the location of a particle
vector
scalar
ii. Displacement : change in
particles position
vector
scalar
r

s
r r r

= A '
s s s = A '
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
iii. Velocity/Speed
Average velocity :

Average speed :

Instantaneous velocity :

( )
t
s
v
T
sp
A
=
avg
dt
dr
v

=
dt
ds
v =
t A
A
=
r
v

avg
t
s
v
avg
A
A
=
5
CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
iv. Acceleration
Average acceleration :

(vector) (scalar)

Instantaneous acceleration :

(vector) (scalar)

ALSO :
t A
A
=
v
a

avg
t
v
a
A
A
=
avg
dt
dv
a

=
2
2
dt
s d
dt
dv
a = =
dv v ds a =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Special Case (Constant acceleration, a = a
c
)
Velocity as a function of time
- integrate a
c
= dv/dt with v=v
0
at t=0 :

Velocity as a function of position
- integrate a
c
ds= v dv with v=v
0
at s=s
0
:

Position as a function of time
- integrate v = ds/dt = v
0
+ a
c
t

with s=s
0
at t=0 :
t a v v
c
+ =
0
) ( 2
0
2
0
2
s s a v v
c
+ =
2
2
1
0 0
t a t v s s
c
+ + =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 1 (Ex 12.5)
A particle moves along a horizontal path with a
velocity of v = (3t
2
- 6t) m/s, where t is the time in
seconds. If it is initially located at the origin O,
determine the distance traveled in 3.5 s, and the
particles average velocity and average speed
during the time interval.
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 2
A motorcycle starts from rest and travels on a
straight road with a constant acceleration of 5 m/s
2

for 8 s, after which it maintains a constant speed
for 2 s. Finally it decelerates at 7 m/s
2
until it
stops. Determine the total distance travelled and
the average speed.
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Homework Problems
12.11, 12.15, 12.18 & 12.22
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.3 Rectilinear Kinematics - Erratic Motion
motion of a particle that cannot be described by one
continuous mathematical function
motion needs to be broken down into segments and
must be analyzed separately by graphical means
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.3.1 Construct the v-t graph from the s-t graph

velocity = slope of s-t graph
dt
ds
v =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.3.2 Construct the a-t graph from the v-t graph

acceleration = slope of v-t graph

dt
dv
a =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle

12.3.3 Construct the v-t graph from the a-t graph

change in velocity = area under a-t graph

}
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.3.4 Construct the s-t graph from the v-t graph

displacement = area under v-t graph

}
= A vdt s
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle

12.3.5 Construct the v-s graph from the a-s graph

integrate equation

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.3.6 Construct the a-s graph from the v-s graph

|
.
|

\
|
=
ds
dv
v a
acceleration = velocity times
slope of v-s graph
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 3 (Prob 12.49)
A particle travels along a curve defined by the
equation s = (t
3
-3t
2
+2t) m, where t is in seconds. Draw
the s-t, v-t and a-t graphs for the particle for
0 s t s 3 s.
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 4
The jet plane starts from rest at s=0 and is
subjected to the acceleration shown. Construct the
v-s graph and determine the time needed to travel
200 m.

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Homework Problems
12.44, 12.61, 12.65 & 12.66
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.4 Curvilinear Motion
occurs when a particle moves along a curved path
12.4.1 Rectangular Components
i. Position

| |
z y x | |
t z z t y y t x x t
z y x
r
r
r
u r
r r
r r
k j i r

=
+ + =
= = = =
+ + =
,
,
) ( ); ( ; ) ( i.e ) (

2 2 2
of Direction
of Magnitude
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
ii. Velocity
- Average velocity

- Instantaneous velocity

t A
A
=
r
v

avg
k + j i
k + j i
k j i
r
= v

)

( )

( )

(
z y x
v v v
z y x
z
dt
d
y
dt
d
x
dt
d
dt
d
+ =
+ =
+ + =

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
- Magnitude of ,

- Direction of ,

2 2 2
z y x
v v v + + = v

v
v
u

=
v

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
iii. Acceleration
- Average acceleration

- Instantaneous acceleration

t A
A
=
v
a

avg
k + j i
k + j i
k + j i
k j i
v
= a

x
)

v (
dt
d
)

v (
dt
d
)

v (
dt
d
dt
d
z y x
z y x
z y x
+ =
+ =
+ =
+ + =

24
CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
- Magnitude of ,

- Direction of ,

2 2 2
z y x
a a a + + = a

a
a
u

=
a

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 5 (P12.74)
The velocity of a particle is given by v = {16t
2
i + 4t
3
j +
(5t + 2)k} m/s, where t is in seconds. If the particle is at
the origin when t = 0, determine the magnitude of the
particles acceleration when t = 2 s. Also, what is the
x, y, z coordinate position of the particle at this instant?
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Projectile Motion
assumptions:
- acts in x-y plane
- a
x
= 0 ; a
y
= -g

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Horizontal motion:

Vertical motion:
) y y ( g ) v ( v ) y y ( a v v ) (
gt t ) v ( y y t a t v y y ) (
gt ) v ( v t a v v ) (
y y c
y c
y y c
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
1
0 0
2
2
1
0 0
0 0
2 2 = + = |
+ = + + = |
= + = |
+
+
+
x x c
x c
x x c
) v ( v ) x x ( a v v ) (
t ) v ( x x t a t v x x ) (
) v ( v t a v v ) (
0 0
2
0
2
0 0
2
2
1
0 0
0 0
2 = + =
+ = + + =
= + =
+
+
+
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 6
The nozzle of a garden hose discharges water at
the rate of 15 m/s. If the nozzle is held at ground
level and directed u = 30
0
from the ground,
determine the maximum height reached by the
water and the horizontal distance from the nozzle
to where the water strikes the ground.
29
CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 7 (P12.102)
A golf ball is struck with a velocity of 24 m/s as
shown. Determine the distance d to where it will
land.

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Homework Problems
12.74, 12.76, 12.105 & 12.110
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.4.2 Normal and Tangential Components
When a particle is moving
along a known path, we can
select n & t co-ordinates
which act normal and
tangent to the path.
Define:
curvature of center
segment each of
in or unit vect
in or unit vect
=
=
=
=
' O
t

t
n

u
u
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
i. Velocity
- velocity is tangent to
the path i.e along t axis

where
dt
ds
s v

v
t
=

=
u = v

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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
ii. Acceleration

v
a
ds
dv
v v a
a a
v
v v
n
t
n n t t
n t
t t
=
= =
+
=
+

where
u u = a
u u
u u = v = a
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
- Acceleration magnitude:

- If a
t
is constant:

2 2
n t
a a a + =
( )
( )
( ) ( )
0
2
0
2
2
2
1
0 0
0
2 s s a v v
t a t v s s
t a v v
t
c
t
c
t
c
+ =
+ + =
+ =
2
2
2 / 3
2
1
); (
dx
y d
dx
dy
x f y
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
= = : Given
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 8
The car B turns such that
its speed is increased
by , t is in
seconds. If the car starts
from rest when u = 0
o
,
determine the magnitudes
of its velocity and
acceleration when t = 2s.
Neglect the size of the
car. Also, through what
angle u has it travelled?

( )
2
m/s 5 0
t
B
e . v =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Homework Problems
12.112, 12.115, 12.138 & 12.147
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
12.5 Relative-Motion of 2 particles - Translating Axes
Consider two particles A and B
moving along two separate paths.
Define a fixed reference axes
with origins at O, and a
translating (moving) reference
axes with origins at A.

A B A B /
r r r

+ =
: ,
B A
r r

absolute position vectors
of A and B with respect
to O
:
/ A B
r

## relative position vector

of B with respect to A
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Velocity

: Velocity Relative
: Velocities Absolute
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
A B
A B
A
A
B
B
A B A B
/
/
/
;
r
v
r
v
r
v
v v v

=
= =
+ =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Acceleration
: on Accelerati Relative
: on Accelerati Absolute
dt
d
dt
d
dt
d
A B
A B
A
A
B
B
A B A B
/
/
/
;
v
a
v
a
v
a
a a a

=
= =
+ =
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Example 9
At the instant shown, cars A and B are travelling at
speeds of 45 km/h and 30 km/h, respectively. If B is
increasing its speed by 1800 km/h
2
, while A maintains a
constant speed, determine the velocity and acceleration
of B with respect to A.
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CHAP 12 : Kinematics of a Particle
Homework Problems
12.223, 12.225 & 12.231