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Gardners Art Through the Ages, 12e

Chapter 6 Paths to Enlightenment:


The Art of South and Southeast Asia before 1200

South and Southeast Asia

Goals
Understand the late Neolithic origins of Indian and Southeast Asian art and culture. Understand how the indigenous beliefs and the beginnings of Buddhism and Hinduism influenced the art and architecture. Identify hallmarks of architecture from Hindu and Buddhist monuments. Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism in Southeast Asia and the varying appearances of the human figure in art. Identify hallmarks of temple and monastic architecture in Southeast Asia Understand the role of the monarchs in Southeast Asia in the middle ages.
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6.1 India and Pakistan


Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley. Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period. Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems. Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties. Understand the artistic influences of the Gandhara and Mathura regions of the Kushan dynasty. Explore the Buddhist and Hindu imagery and temples of the Gupta dynasty and afterwards in India.

The Indus Valley


Understand the late Neolithic urban development of northern India and Pakistan in the Indus Valley. Examine early art form and compare with Near Eastern and Egyptian arts of the same time period.

Art and Architecture in the Early Dynasties


Identify the first Buddhist leader and the influence on art and architecture in the early dynasties. Explore the construction and purpose of the Buddhist Stupa.

The Early Art of Buddhism


Understand how the early art of Buddhism relates to preHindu ideas and imagery. Understand why abstract imagery the wheel, the bohdi tree -- is also used in early Buddhism.

Figure 6-8 Section (top right), and plan (bottom right) of chaitya hall, Karle, India, ca. 100 CE.

Gandhara and Mathura


Examine the design traditions and influences in the Buddhist art from Gandhara. Understand why the Buddhist art from Mathura presents a different tradition.

Art of the Guptas


Examine the Buddhist and Hindu imagery of the painted caves of Ajanta. Explore ideas of Buddhist and Hindu coexistence in Shiva and Vishnu imagery.

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The Belief Systems


Examine indigenous beliefs as they lead to the origins of Buddhism and Hindu belief systems. The Vedas: great religious knowledge written in Sanskrit The Upanishads: samsara, karma, moksha (nirvana) Hinduism: an outgrowth of indigenous beliefs coupled with the Vedas and the Upanishads, codified between 8-500 bce. Buddhism: a reaction to indigenous beliefs begun with the preaching of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha after 500 bce.

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6.2 Southeast Asia


Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia. Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia. Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia. Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.

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Art of Southeast Asia


Understand the artistic influence of Buddhism and Hinduism, combined with the indigenous beliefs of the various peoples of Southeast Asia. Identify hallmarks of monumental temple and monastery architecture in Southeast Asia.

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The Human Image in Southeast Asia


Understand the different presentations of the human form between India and Southeast Asia.

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The Khmer Kingship


Identify the key leaders in the middle ages whose works set the standards for art and architecture.

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Discussion Questions
What ideologies in Buddhism and Hinduism determined the appearance of figures in art and architecture? Why does the Buddhas appearance change in different places and time periods? Do you think that the Gandharan style is the result of Alexander the Great and the Greeks contact with India? Explain why or why not (or to what extent). What is the purpose of the Stupa and how is it similar or different from other large scale architecture we have examined?

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