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MASONRY

(BRICK/BLOCK/STONE)

MASONRY

Contents of lecture
Masonry materials Types of masonry units Manufacture of bricks and blocks Characteristics and testing of bricks Mortar for brickwork/masonry work

Masonry
Masonry is a type of construction whereby units are laid together to form a structure

Masonry
Masonry Construction = masonry units + mortar Masonry units: Bricks Blocks Stones Made from a variety of non-organic material
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DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS
Strength Durability Resistance to water, noise and fire Aesthetic Other special requirements e.g. blast resistance
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MASONRY UNIT
BLOCK

STONE

BRICK

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Block

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Block

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Stone

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Bricks
Bricks are produced in many formats: solid, perforated and hollow Typically 215 x 102 x 65 mm (length x width x height)

Made of clay, sandcement, concrete and calcium silicate


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Types of bricks (shape)


Face shell Central web

End web

Cell

Solid
End web

Hollow

cavities exceeding 25 % of total volume of brick.

Frogged Perforated holes 25 % of gross volume of the brick volume of indentations must not exceed 20 % of gross volume.

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Types of Clay Bricks


Three types of clay bricks: Common general use; not design to provide good finish or high strength; usually plastered, non-load bearing Facing for attractive appearance; no cracks; may or may not be load bearing; durable Engineering good strength and durability; high density; well fired (load bearing walls, retaining walls, sewers, embankments etc.) 17

Common Brick

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Facing Brick

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Facing Brick

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ENGINEERING BRICK

Column

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CLAY BRICKS
Clay bricks continue to be the most important building units Raw materials are clay or shale Efficient material to use in terms of their energy consumption Strong and durable
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Clay for Brick-making


A variety clay composition and minerology deposited at different geological period; from soft sticky mud to shale Hence bricks are differ in their propertiescolour, texture, strength, density and durability Only 30-40% of brick making clay are clay minerals Clay minerals-size less than 2 microns; the amount and particle size present in the clay affect the cohesiveness, forming characteristics, drying and firing properties of the clay
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Cont.
Too much clay can result in high drying shrinkage; adding sand can reduce drying shrinkage Clays are hydrated aluminosilicates (predominance is silica and alumina); the main minerals are: kaolinite, Illite, montmorillonite Other mineral present in clays are: potash (K2O), Lime (CaO), Soda (Na2O), Magnesium (MgO) and iron (FeO, Fe2O3) Chemical analysis may be undertaken, together with minerological examination can assist in identifying the presence of chemicals and clay 24 minerals in the raw materials

Manufacturing of clay bricks

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Stiff mud process


PUG MILL Preparation Grind clay

MIXER

Mix clay

Formation

EXTRUDER

Form clay strip

WIRE CUTTER

Cut bricks

Drying

TUNNEL DRYER

@ 40oC 150 oC Dry bricks 24 48 hrs Burn bricks @ 930 oC 1320oC. 60-80 hrs.
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Firing

KILN

Manufacturing Clay Bricks


1) Clay Preparation
Objectives: improve homogeneity and plasticity of clay control of physical and chemical properties such as shrinkage, colour and vitrification temperature well prepared clay eliminate problems during the production process thereby reduces the rejection rates
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Clay Preparation (cont.)


Process Digging, crushing, sieving, grinding, proportioning, mixing, tempering Add chemicals for special purpose; eg. barium carbonate react with soluble salts producing insoluble product (expensive)

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MOULDING
Process of giving shape to the bricks A variety of shaping methods that depends on the moisture content and consistency of the clay

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Semi Dry Process


Moisture content @ 10% Granular consistency, pressed in 4 stages After pressing be textured or sand faced Can be fired without going through drying stage Smooth finish
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Stiff-Plastic Process
Moisture content @15% Extruded and then compacted into a mould under high pressure Many engineering bricks are made this way; clay containing large quantity of iron oxide help the fusion during firing Smooth finish

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The Wire-Cut Process


Moisture content @ 20% Extruding a column of clay through a die and cut by tensioned wire Extrusion to a size which allow dry and firing shrinkage Perforated bricks are made this way, the perforation being formed during extrusion
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Soft Mud Process


Moisture content @ 30% Soft clay from shallow deposit Rolled in sand or sawdust and pressed manually into a mould

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DRYING OF BRICKS
Green bricks contain a considerable amount of moisture depending on the shaping process The moisture content has to be further reduced before firing can be carried out Objectives: Enable brick to be stacked higher in the kiln Avoid too much shrinkage happening in the kiln which might cause the stack to become unstable Enable firing temperature to be increased more rapidly
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Drying of Bricks (cont.)


Important for green bricks with high moisture content; Temperature being increased while humidity progressively decreased Low rate of drying to avoid stresses that cause cracking and distortion Dried until approximately at critical moisture content (leather-hard) Sufficiently rigid and strong for handling and stacking Chamber or tunnel dryers takes 1 or 2 days, 35 natural drying takes 6 weeks

FIRING OF BRICKS
Changes their physical structure and give them good mechanical properties and resistance to water Sintering of clay increases the strength and decreases the soluble salt without loss of shape Silica and alumina do not melt, they are fused together with metallic oxides THREE stages of firing: 100 C water evaporation 400 C burning of carbonaceous matter 36 900 1200 C sintering of clay

Firing of Bricks (cont.)


Clay composition and chemical changes during firing influence the final colour of bricks Fe2 oxidation produce red colour bricks Large amount of lime produce yellowish-brown colour bricks
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Firing of Bricks (cont.)


(Firing Processes)

Clamps: Bricks are stacked in large special


formations on a layer of breeze, though the bricks also contain some fuel. The breeze base is ignited and the fire spreads slowly through the stack, which contracts as the bricks shrink on firing. The process may take up to one month to complete and fired product is very variable, many underburnt and overburnt bricks being obtained. After firing, bricks are sorted and marketed for various applications.

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Firing of Bricks (cont.)


(Firing Processes)

Continuous kiln: These are based on the Hoffman


kiln and comprise a closed circuit of about 14 chambers arranged in two parallel rows with curved ends. Divisions between the chambers are made from strong paper sealed with clay and, by means of flues, the fire is directed to each chamber in turn. Drying is carried out prior to the main firing process and is achieved by warm air obtained from fire is not extinguished. Coal was traditionally used but firing now may be oil or gas. This process or kilns are widely used for proper brick production.
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Firing of Bricks (cont.)


(Firing Processes)

Tunnel kilns:

Recently introduced kilns and they can reduce firing time to little over one day. Bricks are specially stacked onto large trolleys incorporating heatresistant loading platform. The trolleys are then pushed end-to-end into a straight tunnel with a waist that fits the loading platform closely. The bricks pass successively through drying, firing and cooling zones, firing normally being by oil or gas. The process provides high degree of control over temperature, so that the process is suited to the production of high-strength, dimensionally accurate bricks. Perforated bricks are often fired in this way.
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Clay Bricks
These are made by pressing a prepared clay sample into a mold, extracting the formed unit immediately and then heating it in order to sinter (partially vitrify) the clay.

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What is Clay?
Definition: A natural earthy material that is plastic when wet, consisting essentially of hydrated silicates of aluminum: used for making bricks, pottery. The common clay, containing some iron, and therefore turning red when burned.

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Types of Bricks
Common Bricks: These are ordinary bricks which are not designed to provide good appearance or high strength. They are therefore in general the cheapest bricks available. Facing Bricks: These are designed to give attractive appearance, free from imprefections such as cracks. They are derived from common bricks to which a sand facing and/ or pigment has been applied prior to firing. Engineering Bricks: These are designed primarily for strength and durability. They are usually of high density and well fired.
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Indentations and Perforations in Bricks


Indentations (space) and perforations (cylindrical holes passing through the thickness of the bricks) may be provided for one or more of the following reasons: They assist in forming a strong bond between the brick and the remainder of the structure; They reduce the effective thickness of the brick and hence reduce firing time; They reduce the material cost and hence the overall cost of the brick without strength loss.
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Manufacturing of Clay Bricks


There are four basic stages in brick manufacturing

Clay preparation Moulding Drying Firing


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Properties of clay bricks


Physical properties Colour Texture Size Density Engineering properties Compressive strength Water Absorption Initial rate of suction Efflorescence and soluble salt content

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Colour and texture


Variety of colours: red, yellow, brown etc Depending on mineral content and firing temperature Variety of textures: smooth, rough, bark face etc.
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Density
Varies from 1300 2200 kg/m3 Important for thermal and acoustic property of wall
Heavier wall better sound and thermal insulation Solid units have higher thermal conductivity
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Size
Header face Bed face

102.5 mm 65 mm 215 mm

Stretcher face

Bed joint

Head joint

Actual size 215 X102.5 X 65 mm often called work size (BS)

Coordinating size (brick size +mortar thickness) 225 X112.5 X 75 mm

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Size
Dimensional tolerance (MS 76/BS 3921):
Sizes of bricks must not be outside the ranges

shown in Table 1

Must not exceed the coordinating size Test method overall measurement of 24 bricks
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Table 1:
Coordinating size (mm)

Limits of sizes (MS/BS)


Work size Overall measurement of 24 (mm) bricks Maximum (mm) Minimum (mm)

225 112.5 75

215 102.5 65

5235 2505 1605

5085 2415 1515

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Compressive strength
Most important mechanical properties Measure of quality Use for classifying bricks Varies in accordance to materials and manufacturing methods Available in strengths of 5 100 N/mm2
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Water Absorption
Water absorption is the quantity of water that could be absorbed by the unit Indicate porosity Varies widely, clay units from 4.5 to 21%, calcium silicate units from 7 to 21% and concrete units from 7 to 10% Clay bricks which absorb between 4.5 and 7.0% of their weight can be used as damp-proof course material
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Water Absorption
Highly absorptive clay bricks remove water from mortar preventing complete hydration of cement Relation of water absorption to flexural strength of masonry

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Classification of clay bricks according to compressive strengths and absorption (BS)


Designations Average compressive strength not less than (N/mm2) Average absorption not greater than (% by weight)

Engineering A Engineering B Damp-proof course 1 Damp-proof course 2 Others

70 50 5
5 5

4.5 7.0 4.5


7.0 No limits
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Characteristic flexural strengths and levels of water absorption (BS 5628 Pt. 1, 1985)
Characteristic flexural strength, fkx N/mm2 Plane of failure parallel to Plane of failure perpendicular to bed joints bed joints Mortar designation

(i)

(ii) and (iv) (iii)

(i)

(ii) and (iii)

(iv)

Clay bricks having a water absorption less than 7% Between 7 % and 12 %


Over 12 %

0.7

0.5

0.40

2.0

1.5

1.2

0.5

0.4

0.35

1.5

1.1

1.0

0.4

0.3

0.25

1.1

0.9

0.8
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Initial rate of suction (IRS)


The rate at which bricks absorb water from mortar during laying Measured in kg/m2/min. For clay bricks generally range from 0.25 2.05 kg/min/m2 Low values < 0.25 kg/min/m2 High values > 1.5 kg/min/m2 Necessary for bond between bricks and mortar

Water tightness
Critical for highly stressed masonry structures
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Efflorescence and soluble salt content


Efflorescence is the white deposits (salts) on brick surfaces Salts from bricks, ground and environment Usually occurs on new brickwork Affect appearance but often harmless Bricks exceeding the heavy category should be rejected
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Efflorescence and soluble salt content

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Efflorescence and soluble salt content

Spalling effects of bricks

Source of water
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Levels of efflorescence (MS/BS)


Nil No perceptible deposit of salt

Slight

Up to 10% of the area of the face covered with a deposit of salt, but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface. More than 10% but not more than 50% of the area of the face covered with a deposit of salts but unaccompanied by powdering or flaking of the surface. More than 50% of the area of the face covered with a deposit of salts and/or powdering or flaking of the surface.
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Moderate

Heavy

Calcium Silicate Bricks (sand-lime)


Consists of 90-95% sand (majority passing 1.15 mm sieve) lime (aggregate lime ratio by weight of 10 20 :1) water

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Manufacturing
Mixing
Mixing of sand, lime, pigments and water Pressed under very high pressure to give shape and compaction

Pressing

Autoclave

High pressure steam curing combining lime and sand to form calcium silicate.
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Properties of Calcium Silicate Bricks


Size Colour Water absorption Strength Shrinkage

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Size and Colour


Size similar to clay bricks Colour Calcium silicate and are usually light grey and other paler shades

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Water Absorption
Varies between 6 to 16 % Absorption is less relevance for calcium silicate and concrete units

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Strength
Compressive strength is the criterion Typically strength varies from 14 27.5 N/mm2

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Compressive Strengths Classes and Requirements of Calcium Silicate (BS187)


Designations Class Mean compressive Shrinkage not strength of 10 bricks greater than not less than (N/mm2) (%) 48.5 41.5 34.5 27.5 20.5 14.0 0.040

Load-bearing brick or facing brick

7 6 5 4 3 2

Facing brick or common brick

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CONCRETE BRICK AND BLOCK

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Concrete Bricks and Blocks


Bricks are units with size not exceeding 337.5mm in length, 225mm in width and 112.5mm in height. Bigger than this are called blocks Lengths 400 600 mm, heights 150 300 mm Thickness 60 250 mm Consists of aggregates, cement and water May contain additives such as air entraining agents, pozzolanic material, colouring pigments
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Concrete bricks and blocks

Standard blocks Screening blocks


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Blocks
Three main types of blocks
Solid blocks blocks containing no formed cavities Hollow blocks blocks containing cavities which fully penetrate the block Cellular blocks blocks containing cavities which do not fully penetrate the block
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Manufacturing of Concrete Blocks


Aggregates are stored separately by density and gradation, then weighed and transported by conveyor to mixer. Cement, aggregate, water, pigments and other admixtures are combined to form damp but not wet mix. Mix is fed into a mould and consolidated by vibration

Separate and weigh aggregate

Mixing

Molding

Curing
Curing is done under saturated conditions. Temperature may be raised to accelerate hydration (steam curing) for 18 hours, or autoclaving (high pressure) steam for 4-12 hours.

Ejection

Units in sets of three ejected from moulds.

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Manufacturing

Handling of aggregates in a plant

Block machine in operation

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Properties of Concrete Blocks (BS 6073)


Type Face size (440 215 mm) Thickness (mm) Minimum average compressive strengths of unit (N/mm2)

Solid

75 100
7.0 21.0 140 150 190 200 215

Solid or cellular or hollow

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Paving Units

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Stones
Most common Limestone Granite Marble Slate
Marble quarry
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Glass Blocks

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Test Methods for Bricks

Length

Width

Height

Dimensional deviations Overall measurements of 24 bricks


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Test Methods for Bricks


Compressive strength Select 10 bricks from a stack Bricks are immersed in water for 24 hours before testing Faces are capped between 3 mm ply sheets or packed before testing to reduce the effects of roughness, lack of plane and platen effects Bricks loaded normal to its bed face. Tested until failure. Compressive strength is calculated as the average of 10 bricks as below: Compressive strength

maximum load = N/mm2 bed face area


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Compressive Strength

Compressive Machine (Tonipact)


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Water Absorption
2 types of tests: 24 hours cold immersion test (Partially saturated condition) 5 hr. boiling test (Fully saturated condition

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24 hours cold immersion test (ASTM C67)


Select 5 bricks from a stack Dry bricks in the oven @110C for not less than 24 hrs Cool the specimen and weigh each brick (Wd) Immerse the dry bricks in clean water at 15 to 30C for 24 hours Remove the bricks and weigh each brick (Ws) Calculate the absorption of each brick as follows:
Absorption % =
Ws - Wd 100 Wd

Report the average absorption for the 10 bricks


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5 hours Boiling Test


Select 10 bricks. Heat at 110 C for not less than 48 hours dry bricks. When cool, weigh the bricks and record the dry mass (wd) Then boil for 5 hours and then allow to cool naturally in the water a minimum of 16 hours and a maximum of 19 hours. Weigh each brick and record the wet mass (ws) W -W 100 Water absorption A %= W
s

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Initial Rate of Suction


Select 10 bricks Dry bricks in the oven When cool, weigh the bricks and record the dry mass (m1). Then immerse the dry brick in water for 1 min. Depth of immersion is 3 1mm After 1 min remove the wet bricks and weigh (m2) Calculate initial rate of suction using formula below:

IRS (kg/m2 /min) =

1000 (m - m ) 2 1 A A is the area of the immersed face of the brick in mm2


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MORTAR FOR BRICKWORK

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MASONRY MORTAR

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MORTAR

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MORTAR

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MORTAR

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MORTAR
A mixture of materials for jointing masonry units Made up of sand, a binder such as cement or lime, and water The thickness of mortar in brickwork is normally 10 mm thick and should not exceed 15 mm because of high shrinkage
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FUNCTION OF MORTAR
Joint the units together Seals any gaps to resist wind and rain penetration Take up the tolerances between building units, fill up the holes between the units
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REQUIREMENTS
Should be able to support the weight of the brick Should not segregate, easy to spread and align the units Adhere to the vertical face of the units Should impart sufficient strength to the whole unit

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REQUIREMENTS (cont.)
Should permit movement (unless this is negligible or joints are provided). When movement occurs, it should take place in the form of microcracks within the mortar rather cracking of the bricks or blocks mortar must not be stronger than the units it is bonding Should be durable, resisting the penetration of water through the units Should contribute to the aesthetic appearance of the wall
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SAND FOR MORTAR


Well graded even distribution of particle sizes from fine to coarse. In well graded sand the void is one-third of the total volume San containing silt and clay should not be used which can lead to unacceptable shrinkage movement Sand lack in finer particles causes poor water retention resulting in a harsh unmanageable mortar
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BINDER MATERIALS
Hydraulic lime

From limestone contaminated with clay which gave the resulting hydraulic properties Relatively weak and slow setting Only suitable for thick wall and low stress Lime-sand mortars are obsolete
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ORDINARY PORTLAND CEMENT


Principal binding ingredients in modern binders Cement and sand (1:3) by volume produces high strength, good durability, density and hardness For most application such properties are not required. Can be replaced with pozzolanic materials
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MASONRY CEMENT
Premixed binder, 75% OPC, 25% inert fine mineral filler and powdered air entraining admixture On no account should masonry cement be used in place of OPC in making up the other type of mortar
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SULPHATE RESISTING CEMENT

Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement may be used in place of OPC to combat sulphate attack where prolong wet condition are likely The soluble sulphates are either from the ground or in clay bricks The proportion of the mortar constituents are not altered
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Table 15 BS 5628:Part3
Masonry Cement: Lime: sand cement:sand Cement:San d with Superpl.

Increasing

Increasing

1:0 to :3

1:2.5 to3.5
1:4 to 5 1:5.5 to 6.5

1:3 to 4
1:5 to 6 1:7 to 8

Strength and Ability to


Improving durability

1:1/2:4 to 4.5 accommodate 1:1:5 to 6


movements 1:2:8 to 9

(arrow upward) (arrow downward)

1:3:10 to 12

1:6.5 to 7

1:8

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NON-HYDRAULIC LIME
Insufficient setting and hardening strength to make them as a total binder Added as a binder constituent to produce cement: lime: sand mortar Lime has good water retentive properties which give good workability characteristics and promote bonding of the Portland cement Have better resistance to rain penetration
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AIR-ENTRAINERS
As an alternative to lime as a binder supplement, the reduced volume can be made with minute bubbles by adding air-entraining agent In powder/liquid form but must be intended for mortar Air entrainment must not exceed 12% of the volume because it reduces the bond strength At 15% or above the bonding performance is seriously impart Induces good plasticity/workability characteristics
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Linear Thermal Movement of Masonry unit and Mortar Material Fired-clay masonry units Concrete masonry units Calcium silicate masonry units Mortars Coeff. Of Linear Thermal Expansion (x 10-6/K) 4-8 7 - 14 11 - 15 11 - 13
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Moisture movement and Thermal properties of Common Building Materials


Material Reversible moisture movement Irreversible moisture Coeff. Of Thermal movement Exp. (x10-6/K)

Timber Steel Concrete Dense concrete agg. products Lightweight agg. conc. Aerated (autoclave) products Calcium silicate brick Clay brick

+- 0.5-2.5

+-0.02-0.10

_ _
-(0.03-0.08)

4 - 70

10 - 18
7 - 14

+-0.02-0.04
+-0.02-0.06 +-0.02-0.03 +-0.01-0.05

-(0.02-0.06)
-(0.02-0.06) -(0.05-0.06) -(0.01-0.04)

6 12
8 - 12 8 8 - 14

+-0.02

+(0.02-0.07)

5 - 108 8

Thank You
HAVE A NICE DAY

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