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1.

2.

1940- 1950-
1946 .
ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator
and Computer),
.

,
,


: ~ 20 . ,
2000


: : 2000
, 500


-1

:

1950-
1960-

: -


-6

1960- 1970-


IBM-360



1970-



Intel-4004
(1971.) - 2250 .

Intel-8080 (1974.) 4500 (


).
16- Motorolla68000 (1979 .) - 70 000 .

32-
Hewlett Packard (1981 .) - 450 .
.


Altair-8800 (1974.)

Intel-8080
(1974.).


,

.
256

(Micro-soft) (1975.)
Basic
(4)


Apple 1 (1976.)

Apple 1: 4 RAM, 8
MOS 6502 1


Osborne I : (1980)

Zilog Z80A.
64 ; .

,

.
:






()

/

,







( )


,


.


()
() ()
(),
( )
.
()
,


()
/ (open(), close(), read(), write())
:
HD IBM

...

HDD IBM

F:

HDD IBM


()


-

.

,
.


()
,


(
, )



,
.

1.
2.
3.
4.
()

:
50-

( ) ,
.

50-
60-

(, -60,
.).
.

60-

90-

,
- .

90-


, CASE (Computer-Aided Software/System Engineering),
UML.



,
, , ,
.
,


,
.


,

.

+
.

+
, ...

()

+
.


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