Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 40

(

3.
3.5. 3.6.
3.6.1. 3.6.2.

3)

3.7.
3.6.1. 3.7.2. ISO/OSI TCP/IP

: (

(M. Flynn) )

(SISD Single Instruction, Single Data stream)

(SIMD Single Instruction, Multiple Data stream) (MISD Multiple Instruction, Single Data stream) ? (MIMD Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data stream)

MIMDMIMDMIMD

UMA c c

NUMA

(Uniform Memory Access) SMP

(NonUniform Memory Access)

MPP (Massively Parallel Processors)

(symmetric multiprocessor)

COW ( Cluster Of Workstations )

MIMDMIMD, ,

UMA Uniform Memory Access y SMP Symmetrical MultiProcessing NUMA Non-Uniform Memory Access

UMA
UMA:

SMP
( ).

SMPSMPCPU 0 Cache L1 CPU 1 Cache L1

UMA-

CPU N-1

Cache L1

RAM

SMPSMPC / .

( )

SMPSMPSMP SMP ( ) ) (

NUMANUMANUMA: , , .

CPU 0

CPU N1

N1

CPU 0 CPU N1

NUMANUMA: Cache L2) ccNUMA ccNUMA (NUMA) , . (

NUMANUMA , NUMA SMP NUMA


ccNUMA

MIMDMIMD, , . . MPP Massively Parallel Processors COW Cluster Of Workstations

MPPMPPMPP , : , n: MPP3. : .

MPPMPPMPP MPP

COWCOW-

( ( ) , )

COWCOWCOW

COW

, .

...

/

. : ,

( )

), . .

C
1. 2. 3. ,

( , , , ) ( )

4.


( , , )


). ,

. . / .

ISO/OSI
7. 6. 5. 4. 3. 2. 1.

( ) ( ) ( . . ( ) , . , . . )

ii i-1 2 1 i i-1 2 1

i) 1 2

TCP/IP TCP/
4. 3. 2. 1.

ISO/OSI ISO/ TCP/IP TCP/


TCP/IP 1. . 2. OSI, . ISO/OSI

ISO/OSI ISO/ TCP/IP TCP/


TCP/IP 3. , OSI, TCP/IP . TCP/IP . TCP, UDP. ISO/OSI

ISO/OSI ISO/ TCP/IP TCP/


TCP/IP 4. , . OSI, . ISO/OSI

TCP/ TCP/IP

( )

TCP/IP TCP/

TCP

UDP

Ethernet Xerox (1976 .

).

, (Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection CSMA/CD)


IP

IP

IP IP

IP
32

0 10 110 D 1110 E 1111

IP.

G1

G2

Control Protocol)

(TCP, Transmission

. User Datagram Protocol) , TCP , . . , (UDP,

TCP , . , TCP TELNET (Network Terminal Protocol) FTP (File Transfer Protocol) SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) , UDP DNS (Domain Name Service) RIP (Routing Information Protocol) NFS (Network File System)

Оценить