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PSYCHOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS

Maffy Lagrada-Batungbacal Psychological and Sociological Foundations Dr. Leni Mustapha

Presentation Outline
A. An Overview of Educational Psychology B. An Overview of Psychology
1. Schools of Psychology

C. Some of Its applications


1. in Instructional Design and Technology 2. in Teaching

A. Overview of Educational Psychology


is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the pscyhology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations.

B. Overview of Psychology
Psychology is the scientific study of
behavior, and mental processes.
Science : it uses systematic methods to observe, describe, predict and explaing behavior. Behavior : can be directly observed.

Mental Processes : thoughts, feelings, and motives experienced privately but cannot be observed directly.

1. Structuralism
Focused on discovering basic elements or structures of mental processes through three dimensions of feelings : pleasure/displeasure, tension/relaxation, and excitement/depression. Used a method of research called INTROSPECTION (observe and report their mental
processses, feelings and experiences).

Proponent : William Wundt

2. Functionalism
Emphasized on the interaction between the mind and the outside environment. Looked at what was going on in the persons interaction with the outside world.

Proponent : William James

3. Behaviorism
Observable behavior and not inner experience, was the only reliable source of information. Stressed the importance of the environment in shaping an individuals behavior. Looked for connection between observable behavior and stimuli from the environment. Proponents : John B. Watson, BF Skinner

Other Behavioral Concepts


1. Rewards and Punishment 2. Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura
- Imitation is one of the main ways in which we learn about our world.

4. Gestalt
German word means pattern, form or shape. Behavior should be studied as an organized pattern rather than as separate incidents of stimulus and response. The whole is greater than the sum of its part. Proponent : Max Wertheimer

Some Exercises

5. Psychodynamic
Based on the theory that behavior is determined by powerful inner focus, most of which are buried in the unsconscious mind.

The repressed feelings can cause pesonality disturbances, self-desctructive behavior or even physical symptoms.
Proponent : Sigmund Freud

Other Psychodynamic Concepts


1. Free Association 2. Three Personality Structures
- Id : unconscious and no contact with reality; seeks pleasure and avoids pain - Ego : abides by the reality principle; brings pleasure within the norms of society - Superego : conscience , moral branch of personality

6. Cognitive
Focuses on the mental processes involved in knowing; how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems. An individuals mental processes are in control of behavior through memories, perception, images, and thinking.

Some Exercises
1. The Nine-Dot Problem 2. The Six-Matchstick Problem

7. Existential
Synthesis of philosophy and psychology. Existence precedes essence.

Core Characteristics :
Being-in-the world
Umwelt ( world around ) Mitwelt ( with world ) Eigenwelt ( own world )

Proponents : Kierkegaard and Heidegger

8. Humanistic
Believe that individuals are controlled by their own values and choices and not entirely the environment.

It believes that people are inherently good.


Proponent : Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow

Other Humanistic Concepts


Maslows Heirarchy of Human Needs
Physiological Safety Love and belongingness Esteem Self-Actualization (ones full potential)

C. Some of Its Applications


1. Applications in Instructional Design and Technology
In defining learning goals or objectives, instructional designers often use the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives by Benjamin Bloom

2. Applications in Teaching
The goals of classroom management are to create an environment conducive to learning and to create students self-management skills. Create positive teacher-student and peer relationships, manage student groups to sustain on-task behavior, and use counseling and other psychological methods to aid students who present persistent psychosocial problems.

Man is good. He strives to attain goodness. If he is vile, it is because the path to goodness has been Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi closed to him