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.

1.

2.

3.

DMA

4.
(DMA) .
5.

/.


( ,
)

(,
)
( ,
, );


( , );


:
HDD 15
: 4, 40, 11, 35, 7, 14
FIFO

11
15 4
36
4 40
40 11 29
11 35 24
28
35 7
7
7 14
. 135
. 22,5

11 14 15

35

40


Shortest Service Time First

SSTF

LIFO

1
15 14
3
14 11
4
11 7
3
74
31
4 35
5
35 40
. 47
. 7,83

1
15 14
7
14 7
28
7 35
35 11 24
11 40 29
36
40 4
. 126
. 20,83


PRI , .

SCAN

15 35 20
5
35 40
40 14 26
3
14 11
4
11 7
3
74
. 61
. 10,16


, ,


2 _


-SCAN

11
15 4
3
47
4
7 11
3
11 14
14 35 21
5
35 40
. 47
. 7,83


.
,


N-step-SCAN
N
( FIFO).
.
. ,
.
(
).

RAID
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent (Inexpensive)
Disks) ()
(1987, , , ).
RAID
, ,
(
,
,

).

RAID
0

10

11

12

13

14

15

RAID 0 ( )
0

10

11

10

11

12 13

14

15

12

13

14

15

RAID 1 ()

RAID
b0

b1

b2

b3

f0(b)

f1(b)

f2(b)

RAID 2
: 4 ,
:

b0

b1

b2

b3

RAID 3 (
)

P(b)

X4(i) = X3(i) XOR X2(i)


XOR X1(i) XOR X0(i)
X1(i) = X4(i) XOR X3(i)
XOR X2(i) XOR X0(i)

RAID
0

P(0-3)

P(4-7)

10

11

P(8-11)

12

13

14

15

P(12-15)

RAID 4
: 4 , :
:
X4(i) = X3(i) XOR X2(i) XOR X1(i) XOR X0(i)
X1:
X4new(i) = X4(i) XOR X1(i) XOR X1new(i)

RAID
0

P(0-3)

P(4-7)

P(8-11)

10

11

12

P(12-15)

13

14

15

P(16-19)

16

17

18

19

RAID 5 (
)

RAID
0

P(0-3)

Q(0-3)

P(4-7)

Q(4-7)

P(8-11)

Q(8-11)

10

11

12

P(12-15)

Q(12-15)

13

14

15

RAID 6 (

: N+2 )

UNIX:

1. ,
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.



,
/

2.
3. -
4.

,

(/dev)
-
-

:
(major number)

(minor number)

:
bdevsw
cdevsw

open(), close()
read(), write()
ioctl()
intr()
strategy()

,

,

/
,


( )
( )

12 .

12 pointer1
1 pointer2

name
3
name

name

fork


1. . 2.
3.
4.

5.


,

:

, ,

,
SYNC
,

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