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NAMES RAAJAPANNDIYAN THANKADURAI SATHISWARAN RAMESHWARAN TRILOSHANAN S/O ARUMUGAM JEEVAN RAJ S/O TAMIL SELVAN

MATRIC NUMBER 15DEM10F1044 15DEM10F1068 15DEM10F1074 15DEM10F1063 15DEM10F10

INTRODUCTION

Sensor and transducer are widely used in the description of measurement systems. 'sensor' is a device that detects a change in a physical stimulus and turns it into a signal which can be measured or recorded.
'sensor' 'to perceive'

'transducer' is a device that transfers power from one system to another in the same or in the different form. ( converting energy)
'transducer' '

to lead across'

SENSOR CLASSIFICATION

Sensor classification schemes range from very simple to the complex. One good way to look at a sensor is to consider all of its properties, such as;

-stimulus
-specifications -physical phenomenon - conversion mechanism -material and application field.

In machine tools, sensor's conversion phenomena are mainly physical phenomena such as; thermoelectric

photoelectric
photo magnetic Electromagnetic and so on.

TYPES OF SENSOR
Microwave Sensor The Microwave Sensor uses radar technology to detect the disturbance of, or mass movement in its field of operation.

Detection produces a contact closure. This technology is resistant to false detentions caused environmental conditions. Its small size allows the Microwave Sensor to be mounted almost anywhere.

This allows the Microwave Sensor be hidden behind plastic, wood, fibre glass, cloth, glass, etc and not effect the aesthetics of your installation.

Microwave Sensor
Key Features:
Small form factor, Minimal power requirement Microwave technology Does not require line of sight Adjustable sensitivity Contact closure output

Photoelectric sensor A photoelectric sensor, is a device used to detect the distance, absence, or presence of an object by using a light transmitter, often infrared, and a photoelectric receiver.

There are three different functional types: opposed(through beam) retro reflective proximity-sensing (diffused).

Sensing Modes ( photoelectric sensor)


Opposed An opposed (through beam) arrangement consists of a receiver located within the line-of-sight of the transmitter. In this mode, an object is detected when the light beam is blocked from getting to the receiver from the transmitter.
A Retro Reflective A retro reflective arrangement places the transmitter and receiver at the same location and uses a reflector to bounce the light beam back from the transmitter to the receiver. An object is sensed when the beam is interrupted and fails to reach the receiver.

A proximity-sensing(Non-contact sensor )

Its arrangement is one in which the transmitted radiation must reflect off the object in order to reach the receiver. In this mode, an object is detected when the receiver sees the transmitted source rather than when it fails to see it. Some photo eyes have two different operational types, light operate and dark operate.
Light operate photo eyes -> "receives" the transmitter signal Dark operate photo eyes -> does not receives the transmitter signal

VISUAL SENSOR

A visual sensor network is a network of spatially distributed smart camera devices capable of processing and fusing images. Visual sensors Charge Injection Device(CID) Charge-coupled Device (CCD)

CCD from a 2.1 megapixel Argus digital camera.

CCD from a 2.1 megapixel HewlettPackard digital camera

LASER SENSOR

Its is used for generating, amplifying and concentrating light waves into powerful beam.

TRANSDUCER

a device that converts one type of energy to another. Energy types include electrical, mechanical, electromagnetic, chemical, acoustic or thermal energy. While the term transducer commonly implies the use of a sensor/detector, any device which converts energy can be considered a transducer. Transducers are widely used in measuring instruments.

APPLICATIONS OF TRANSDUCERS

Electromagnetic:

Magnetic cartridge converts motion into electrical form Tape head converts changing magnetic fields into electrical form Hall effect sensor converts a magnetic field level into electrical form only

Electrochemical:

Electro-galvanic fuel cell Hydrogen sensor

Electromechanical;

Electroactive polymers Potentiometer when used for measuring position Load cell converts force to mV/V electrical signal using strain gauge

Electrostatic: Electrometer

Thermoelectric:

Resistance temperature detector (RTD) Thermocouple

Radio acoustic:

Receiver (radio)