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DWDM Networking Primer

October 2003

ONS 15454 MSTP

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Agenda

Introduction Optical Fundamentals Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)

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Optical Fundamentals

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Some terminology
Decibels (dB): unit of level (relative measure)
X dB is 10-X/10 in linear dimension e.g. 3 dB Attenuation = 10-.3 = 0.501 Standard logarithmic unit for the ratio of two quantities. In optical fibers, the ratio is power and represents loss or gain.

Decibels-milliwatt (dBm) : Decibel referenced to a milliwatt


X mW is 10 log10(X) in dBm, Y dBm is 10Y/10 in mW. 0dBm=1mW, 17dBm = 50mW

Wavelength (): length of a wave in a particular medium. Common unit: nanometers, 10-9m (nm)
300nm (blue) to 700nm (red) is visible. In fiber optics primarily use 850, 1310, & 1550nm

Frequency ( ): the number of times that a wave is produced within a particular time period. Common unit: TeraHertz, 1012 cycles per second (Thz)
Wavelength x frequency = Speed of light x
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=C

Some more terminology


Attenuation = Loss of power in dB/km
The extent to which lighting intensity from the source is diminished as it passes through a given length of fiber-optic (FO) cable, tubing or light pipe. This specification determines how well a product transmits light and how much cable can be properly illuminated by a given light source.

Chromatic Dispersion = Spread of light pulse in


The separation of light into its different coloured rays.

ps/nm-km

ITU Grid = Standard set of wavelengths to be used in Fibre Optic communications. Unit Ghz, e.g. 400Ghz, 200Ghz, 100Ghz Optical Signal to Noise Ration (OSNR) = Ratio of optical signal power to noise power for the receiver Lambda = Name of Greek Letter used as Wavelength symbol () Optical Supervisory Channel (OSC) = Management channel
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dB versus dBm

dBm used for output power and receive sensitivity (Absolute Value) dB used for power gain or loss (Relative Value)

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Bit Error Rate ( BER)

BER is a key objective of the Optical System Design Goal is to get from Tx to Rx with a BER < BER threshold of the Rx BER thresholds are on Data sheets Typical minimum acceptable rate is 10 -12

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Optical Budget
Basic Optical Budget = Output Power Input Sensitivity
Pout = +6 dBm R = -30 dBm

Budget = 36 dB

Optical Budget is affected by:


Fiber attenuation Splices Patch Panels/Connectors Optical components (filters, amplifiers, etc) Bends in fiber Contamination (dirt/oil on connectors)
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Glass Purity

Fiber Optics Requires Very High Purity Glass


Window Glass Optical Quality Glass Fiber Optics 1 inch (~3 cm) 10 feet (~3 m) 9 miles (~14 km)

Propagation Distance Need to Reduce the Transmitted Light Power by 50% (3 dB)
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Fiber Fundamentals
Attenuation Dispersion Nonlinearity Distortion It May Be a Digital Signal, but Its Analog Transmission

Transmitted Data Waveform


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Waveform After 1000 Km

Analog Transmission Effects


Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and Nonlinearities:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Signal detection and recovery is an analog problem

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Fiber Geometry
Core Cladding

An optical fiber is made of three sections:


The core carries the light signals The cladding keeps the light in the core The coating protects the glass

Coating

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Propagation in Fiber
n2
0
n1 1 Intensity Profile

Cladding
Core

Light propagates by total internal reflections at the core-cladding interface Total internal reflections are lossless Each allowed ray is a mode

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Different Types of Fiber


n2 Multimode fiber
Core diameter varies 50 mm for step index 62.5 mm for graded index Bit rate-distance product >500 MHz-km
n1 Core

Cladding

Single-mode fiber
Core diameter is about 9 mm Bit rate-distance product >100 THz-km

n2
n1

Cladding
Core

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Optical Spectrum
UV Visible IR 125 GHz/nm

Light
Ultraviolet (UV) Visible Infrared (IR)

850 nm 980 nm 1310 nm 1480 nm 1550 nm 1625 nm

Communication wavelengths
850, 1310, 1550 nm Low-loss wavelengths

Specialty wavelengths
980, 1480, 1625 nm
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Wavelength:

Frequency:

C = x
(nanometers) (terahertz)

Optical Attenuation

Specified in loss per kilometer (dB/km)


0.40 dB/km at 1310 nm 0.25 dB/km at 1550 nm
1550 Window

Loss due to absorption by impurities


1400 nm peak due to OH ions

1310 Window

EDFA optical amplifiers available in 1550 window

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Optical Attenuation
Pulse amplitude reduction limits how far Attenuation in dB Power is measured in dBm:
Examples
10dBm 0 dBM -3 dBm -10 dBm -30 dBm 10 mW 1 mW 500 uW 100 uW 1 uW

Pi T
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P0 T

Types of Dispersion

Chromatic Dispersion
Different wavelengths travel at different speeds Causes spreading of the light pulse

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states Fast and slow axes have different group velocities
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A Snapshot on Chromatic Dispersion

Interference

Affects single channel and DWDM systems A pulse spreads as it travels down the fiber Inter-symbol Interference (ISI) leads to performance impairments Degradation depends on:
laser used (spectral width) bit-rate (temporal pulse separation) Different SM types
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Limitations From Chromatic Dispersion


Dispersion causes pulse distortion, pulse "smearing" effects Higher bit-rates and shorter pulses are less robust to Chromatic Dispersion Limits "how fast and how far
10 Gbps
60 Km SMF-28
t

40 Gbps
4 Km SMF-28
t
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Combating Chromatic Dispersion

Use DSF and NZDSF fibers (G.653 & G.655) Dispersion Compensating Fiber Transmitters with narrow spectral width

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Dispersion Compensating Fiber

Dispersion Compensating Fiber:


By joining fibers with CD of opposite signs (polarity) and suitable lengths an average dispersion close to zero can be obtained; the compensating fiber can be several kilometers and the reel can be inserted at any point in the link, at the receiver or at the transmitter

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Dispersion Compensation Total Dispersion Controlled


Cumulative Dispersion (ps/nm) +100 0 -100 -200 -300 -400 -500

No Compensation With Compensation

Distance from Transmitter (km) Dispersion Shifted Fiber Cable

Transmitter Dispersion Compensators


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How Far Can I Go Without Dispersion?

Distance (Km) =

Specification of Transponder (ps/nm) Coefficient of Dispersion of Fiber (ps/nm*km)

A laser signal with dispersion tolerance of 3400 ps/nm is sent across a standard SMF fiber which has a Coefficient of Dispersion of 17 ps/nm*km. It will reach 200 Km at maximum bandwidth.
Note that lower speeds will travel farther.

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Polarization Mode Dispersion


Caused by ovality of core due to:
Manufacturing process Internal stress (cabling) External stress (trucks)

Only discovered in the 90s Most older fiber not characterized for PMD
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Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)


Ey nx Ex ny Spreaded Pulse As It Leaves the Fiber

Pulse As It Enters the Fiber

The optical pulse tends to broaden as it travels down the fiber; this is a much weaker phenomenon than chromatic dispersion and it is of little relevance at bit rates of 10Gb/s or less

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Combating Polarization Mode Dispersion


Factors contributing to PMD
Bit Rate Fiber core symmetry Environmental factors Bends/stress in fiber Imperfections in fiber

Solutions for PMD


Improved fibers Regeneration Follow manufacturers recommended installation techniques for the fiber cable

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Types of Single-Mode Fiber


SMF-28(e) (standard, 1310 nm optimized, G.652)
Most widely deployed so far, introduced in 1986, cheapest

DSF (Dispersion Shifted, G.653)


Intended for single channel operation at 1550 nm

NZDSF (Non-Zero Dispersion Shifted, G.655)


For WDM operation, optimized for 1550 nm region TrueWave, FreeLight, LEAF, TeraLight Latest generation fibers developed in mid 90s For better performance with high capacity DWDM systems MetroCor, WideLight Low PMD ULH fibers
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Different Solutions for Different Fiber Types


SMF (G.652) DSF (G.653) NZDSF (G.655) Extended Band (G.652.C) (suppressed attenuation in the traditional water peak region) Good for TDM at 1310 nm OK for TDM at 1550 OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt) OK for TDM at 1310 nm Good for TDM at 1550 nm Bad for DWDM (C-Band) OK for TDM at 1310 nm Good for TDM at 1550 nm Good for DWDM (C + L Bands) Good for TDM at 1310 nm OK for TDM at 1550 nm OK for DWDM (With Dispersion Mgmt Good for CWDM (>8 wavelengths)

The primary Difference is in the Chromatic Dispersion Characteristics


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The 3 Rs of Optical Networking


A Light Pulse Propagating in a Fiber Experiences 3 Type of Degradations:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Loss of Energy

Shape Distortion
Phase Variation

Loss of Timing (Jitter)


(From Various Sources)

ts Optimum Sampling Time

ts Optimum Sampling Time

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The 3 Rs of Optical Networking (Cont.)


The Options to Recover the Signal from Attenuation/Dispersion/Jitter Degradation Are:
Pulse as It Enters the Fiber Pulse as It Exits the Fiber

Amplify to Boost the Power

Re-Shape
Phase Variation

DCU
Phase Re-Alignment

Re-Generate

O-E-O
ts Optimum Sampling Time

ts Optimum Sampling Time

Re-gen, Re-shape and Remove Optical Noise

ts Optimum Sampling Time

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DWDM

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Agenda

Introduction Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design Summary

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Increasing Network Capacity Options


More Fibers (SDM)
Same bit rate, more fibers Slow Time to Market Expensive Engineering Limited Rights of Way Duct Exhaust

W D M

Same fiber & bit rate, more s Fiber Compatibility Fiber Capacity Release Fast Time to Market Lower Cost of Ownership Utilizes existing TDM Equipment

Faster Electronics (TDM)


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Higher bit rate, same fiber Electronics more expensive

Fiber Networks
Time division multiplexing
Single wavelength per fiber Multiple channels per fiber 4 OC-3 channels in OC-12 4 OC-12 channels in OC-48 16 OC-3 channels in OC-48 Channel 1 Channel n
Single Fiber (One Wavelength)

Wave division multiplexing


Multiple wavelengths per fiber 4, 16, 32, 64 channels per system Multiple channels per fiber
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l1 l2 Single Fiber (Multiple Wavelengths)

ln

TDM and DWDM Comparison


TDM (SONET/SDH)
Takes sync and async signals and multiplexes them to a single higher optical bit rate E/O or O/E/O conversion
DS-1 DS-3 OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-48

SONET ADM

Fiber

(D)WDM
Takes multiple optical signals and multiplexes onto a single fiber No signal format conversion
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OC-12c OC-48c OC-192c

DWDM OADM

Fiber

DWDM History
Early WDM (late 80s)
Two widely separated wavelengths (1310, 1550nm)

Second generation WDM (early 90s)


Two to eight channels in 1550 nm window 400+ GHz spacing

DWDM systems (mid 90s)


16 to 40 channels in 1550 nm window 100 to 200 GHz spacing

Next generation DWDM systems


64 to 160 channels in 1550 nm window 50 and 25 GHz spacing
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Why DWDMThe Business Case


Conventional TDM Transmission10 Gbps
40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km 40km
1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 RPTR 1310 TERM TERM RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR RPTR

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

DWDM Transmission10 Gbps


OA 120 km 120 km OA OA 120 km OA

OC-48 OC-48 OC-48 OC-48

4 Fibers Pairs 32 Regenerators


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1 Fiber Pair 4 Optical Amplifiers

Drivers of WDM Economics


Fiber underground/undersea
Existing fiber

Conduit rights-of-way
Lease or purchase

Digging
Time-consuming, labor intensive, license $15,000 to $90,000 per Km

3R regenerators
Space, power, OPS in POP Re-shape, re-time and re-amplify

Simpler network management


Delayering, less complexity, less elements
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Characteristics of a WDM Network


Wavelength Characteristics

Transparency
Can carry multiple protocols on same fiber Monitoring can be aware of multiple protocols

Wavelength spacing
50GHz, 100GHz, 200GHz

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400

Defines how many and which wavelengths can be used

Wavelength capacity
Example: 1.25Gb/s, 2.5Gb/s, 10Gb/s

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Optical Transmission Bands


Band Wavelength (nm) 820 - 900 1260 1360 1360 1460 1460 1530 1530 1565 1565 1625 1625 1675

New Band S-Band C-Band L-Band U-Band

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ITU Wavelength Grid


1530.33 nm 195.9 THz

0.80 nm 100 GHz

1553.86 nm 193.0 THz

ITU-T grid is based on 191.7 THz + 100 GHz It is a standard for laser in DWDM systems
Freq (THz) 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 1 11 1. 1 ITU Ch 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Wave (nm) 1 1 11 1 11/ 1 11. 1 1 11 x 11. 1 1 11 11. 1 1 11 x 11. 1 1 11 11. 1 1 11 x 11. 1 1 11 11. 1 1 11 x 111 11 x x x x 111 11 x x x x 111 11 x x x x 111 11 x x x x

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Fiber Attenuation Characteristics


Attenuation vs. Wavelength
2.0 dB/Km Fibre Attenuation Curve S-Band:14601530nm L-Band:15651625nm

0.5 dB/Km

0.2 dB/Km 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 C-Band:15301565nm

Wavelength in Nanometers (nm)

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Characteristics of a WDM Network

Sub-wavelength Multiplexing or MuxPonding Ability to put multiple services onto a single wavelength

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Why DWDM? The Technical Argument


DWDM provides enormous amounts of scaleable transmission capacity Unconstrained by speed of available electronics Subject to relaxed dispersion and nonlinearity tolerances Capable of graceful capacity growth

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Agenda

Introduction Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design

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DWDM Components
1 8 5 0 /1 3 1 0 15xx 2 3 1...n

Transponder Optical Multiplexer

1 2 3 1...n

1 2 3

Optical De-multiplexer Optical Add/Drop Multiplexer (OADM)


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More DWDM Components

Optical Amplifier (EDFA)

Optical Attenuator Variable Optical Attenuator

Dispersion Compensator (DCM / DCU)

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Typical DWDM Network Architecture


DWDM SYSTEM VOA EDFA DCM DWDM SYSTEM

DCM

EDFA

VOA

Service Mux (Muxponder)

Service Mux (Muxponder)

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Transponders
Converts broadband optical signals to a specific wavelength via optical to electrical to optical conversion (O-E-O) Used when Optical LTE (Line Termination Equipment) does not have tight tolerance ITU optics Performs 2R or 3R regeneration function Receive Transponders perform reverse function
1 2

OEO

From Optical OLTE

OEO n OEO

To DWDM Mux

Low Cost IR/SR Optics


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Wavelengths Converted

Performance Monitoring

Performance monitoring performed on a per wavelength basis through transponder No modification of overhead Data transparency is preserved

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Laser Characteristics
Non DWDM Laser Fabry Perot
Power c

DWDM Laser Distributed Feedback (DFB)


Power c

Spectrally broad Unstable center/peak wavelength


Mirror Partially transmitting Mirror

Dominant single laser line Tighter wavelength control

Active medium

Amplified light

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DWDM Receiver Requirements

I
Receivers Common to all Transponders Not Specific to wavelength (Broadband)

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Optical Amplifier
Pin Pout = GPin

EDFA amplifiers Separate amplifiers for C-band and L-band Source of optical noise Simple

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OA Gain and Fiber Loss


Typical Fiber Loss 25 THz 4 THz

OA Gain

OA gain is centered in 1550 window OA bandwidth is less than fiber bandwidth


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Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


Isolator Coupler Coupler Erbium-Doped Fiber (1050m) Pump Laser Pump Laser Isolator

Simple device consisting of four parts: Erbium-doped fiber An optical pump (to invert the population). A coupler An isolator to cut off backpropagating noise
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Optical Signal-to Noise Ratio (OSNR)


Signal Level

X dB

Noise Level

Depends on : Optical Amplifier Noise Figure:


(OSNR)in = (OSNR)outNF
(OSNR)in

EDFA Schematic (OSNR)out Pin

NF

Target : Large Value for X


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Loss Management: Limitations Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier


Each EDFA at the Output Cuts at Least in a Half (3dB) the OSNR Received at the Input

Noise Figure > 3 dB Typically between 4 and 6

Each amplifier adds noise, thus the optical SNR decreases gradually along the chain; we can have only have a finite number of amplifiers and spans and eventually electrical regeneration will be necessary Gain flatness is another key parameter mainly for long amplifier chains

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Optical Filter Technology

Dielectric Filter

1 , 2 , 3 ,... n 2 1 , n , 3 ,...

Well established technology, up to 200 layers

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Multiplexer / Demultiplexer

DWDM Mux

DWDM Demux

Wavelength Multiplexed Signals Wavelengths Converted via Transponders

Wavelength Multiplexed Signals Wavelengths separated into individual ITU Specific lambdas

Loss of power for each Lambda


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Optical Add/Drop Filters (OADMs)


OADMs allow flexible add/drop of channels
Drop Channel

Drop & Insert

Add Channel

Pass Through loss and Add/Drop loss


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Agenda

Introduction Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design Summary

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Transmission Errors
Errors happen! A old problem of our era (PCs, wireless) Bursty appearance rather than distributed Noisy medium (ASE, distortion, PMD) TX/RX instability (spikes, current surges) Detect is good, correct is better
Information Transmitter
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Noise Transmission Channel

Information Receiver

Error Correction
Error correcting codes both detect errors and correct them Forward Error Correction (FEC) is a system adds additional information to the data stream corrects eventual errors that are caused by the transmission system. Low BER achievable on noisy medium
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FEC Performance, Theoretical


FEC gain 6.3 dB @ 10-15 BER
Bit Error Rate

BER without FEC


10 -10

Coding Gain
10 -20

BER floor

BER with FEC


10 -30 -46 -44 -42 -40 -38 -36 -34 -32

Received Optical power (dBm)

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FEC in DWDM Systems


9.58 G IP SDH FEC FEC . . ATM 2.48 G FEC 2.66 G 2.66 G 10.66 G 10.66 G FEC FEC . . FEC ATM 2.48 G 9.58 G IP SDH

FEC implemented on transponders (TX, RX, 3R) No change on the rest of the system
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Agenda

Introduction Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design Summary

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DWDM Design Topics

DWDM Challenges Unidirectional vs. Bidirectional Protection Capacity Distance

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Transmission Effects
Attenuation:
Reduces power level with distance

Dispersion and nonlinear effects:


Erodes clarity with distance and speed

Noise and Jitter:


Leading to a blurred image
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Solution for Attenuation

Loss

Optical Amplification

OA

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Solution For Chromatic Dispersion

Dispersion
Dispersion
DCU

Saw Tooth Compensation


Fiber spool

Fiber spool

DCU

Total dispersion averages to ~ zero


+D -D

Length
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Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM


DWDM systems can be implemented in two different ways

Uni-directional:
wavelengths for one direction travel within one fiber two fibers needed for full-duplex system

1 3 5 7

2 4 6 8

Fiber

2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7

Fiber

Uni -directional

Bi-directional:
a group of wavelengths for each direction single fiber operation for fullduplex system
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5 6 7 8

Fiber
1 2 3 4

Bi -directional

Uni Versus Bi-directional DWDM (cont.)


Uni-directional 32 channels system
Full band

32 ch full duplex

1 1 1 1 Channel Spacing 11 1 GHz

Full band

Bi-directional 32 channels system


Blue-band

16 ch full duplex

1 1 1 1 1 1

1 1 Channel Spacing 11 1 GHz

Red-band
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DWDM Protection Review


Unprotected Client Protected

Splitter Protected

Y-Cable and Line Card Protected

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Unprotected
1 Transponder 1 Client Interface

1 client & 1 trunk laser (one transponder) needed, only 1 path available No protection in case of fiber cut, transponder failure, client failure, etc..
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Client Protected Mode


2 Transponders 2 Client interfaces

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed, two optically unprotected paths Protection via higher layer protocol
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Optical Splitter Protection


Optical Splitter Working lambda Switch

protected lambda

Only 1 client & 1 trunk laser (single transponder) needed Protects against Fiber Breaks
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Line Card / Y- Cable Protection


2 Transponders working lambda Only one TX active

Y cable

protected lambda

2 client & 2 trunk lasers (two transponders) needed Increased cost & availability
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Designing for Capacity


Bit Rate Distance

Solution Space
Wavelengths

Goal is to maximize transmission capacity and system reach


Figure of merit is Gbps Km Long-haul systems push the envelope Metro systems are considerably simpler
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Designing for Distance


Pin

L = Fiber Loss in a Span


Pout Pnoise

G = Gain of Amplifier
Amplifier Spacing

D = Link Distance

Link distance (D) is limited by the minimum acceptable electrical SNR at the receiver
Dispersion, Jitter, or optical SNR can be limit

Amplifier spacing (S) is set by span loss (L)


Closer spacing maximizes link distance (D) Economics dictates maximum hut spacing
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Link Distance vs. OA Spacing


Wavelength Capacity (Gb/s) 20 60 km

Amp Spacing

10 100 km 120 km 2.5 0 140 km 2000

80 km

4000

6000

8000

Total System Length (km)

System cost and and link distance both depend strongly on OA spacing
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OEO Regeneration in DWDM Networks

aul Long H

OA noise and fiber dispersion limit total distance before regeneration


Optical-Electrical-Optical conversion Full 3R functionality: Reamplify, Reshape, Retime

Longer spans can be supported using back to back systems


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3R with Optical Multiplexor and OADM


Back-to-back DWDM
Express channels must be regenerated Two complete DWDM terminals needed
1 2 3 4 N 7 1 2 3 4 N 7

Optical add/drop multiplexer


Provides drop-and- continue functionality Express channels only amplified, not regenerated Reduces size, power and cost
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1 2 3 4 N 7

OADM

1 2 3 4 N 7

Agenda

Introduction Components Forward Error Correction DWDM Design Summary

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DWDM Benefits

DWDM provides hundreds of Gbps of scalable transmission capacity today Provides capacity beyond TDMs capability Supports incremental, modular growth Transport foundation for next generation networks
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Metro DWDM

Metro DWDM is an emerging market for next generation DWDM equipment The value proposition is very different from the long haul
Rapid-service provisioning Protocol/bitrate transparency Carrier Class Optical Protection

Metro DWDM is not yet as widely deployed

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