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Waste management is the term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, aesthetics or amenity. Waste management is also carried out to reduce the materials' effect on the environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial, producers. Management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

Municipal pollution is a continual global environmental issue. Study indicated that on the whole, Malaysian population generates 16,000 tones garbage/day (Utusan Malaysia, 24 th January 2004)- WP & Selangor 6,000 tones/day (Berita Harian 19th January 2004) The total amount of solid waste/rubbish collected from the rivers alone totaled 50 tones daily. Public not properly educated on waste disposal system NO 3R Concept; REUSE, REDUCE & RECYCLE. These 3R activities will reduce the volume of waste but cannot eliminate it.

survey on solid waste management in five metro cities

City Area (sq km) Population (projected for 1999, in millions) MSW generation (tonnes/day) MSW per capita (kg/day) Garbage pressure (tonnes/sq km)
C o n t a n t P a g e

Banga lore 226.1 6 5.31 2200 0.414 9.728 1400 12600

Calcut ta 187.3 3 6.00 3100 0.517 16.54 8 2500 12030

Chenn ai 174.0 0 5.00 3050 0.610 17.52 9 3050 10130

Delhi 1484.4 6 12.20 6000 0.492 4.042 5000 40483

Mumb ai 437.7 1 12.50 6000 0.480 13.70 8 6000 22128

Pressure on landfill Safai Karmachari

Klang valley 2,400 tones rubbish/day; estimate can fill rubbish/day; Menara Berkembar PETRONAS /Stadium Bukit Jalil within 2 months Therefore there is a need for appropriate disposal methods for residual waste. Although several waste management sites have been allocated and operational, these are far from being sufficient. (168 in Malaysia) Furthermore, the effect to health quality and environmental problem caused by traditional waste disposal has become more and more apparent.

Malaysian public generates 16,000 ton garbage/day (Utusan Malaysia, 24 January 2004) Kelantan alone has produce garbage about 1099 ton/day
Table 1: Statistic on garbage disposal rate for tha state of Kelantan
District Bachok Kota Bharu Machang Pasir Mas Pasir Putih Tanah Merah Tumpat Gua Musang Kuala Krai Jeli Population (people)# 116,128 425,294 82,653 172,692 111,001 108,228 140,989 80,167 97,836 38,185 Disposal rate/day (kg/people/day)* 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.8 Total garbage collection per day (kg) 92,902 340,235 66,122 138,154 88,801 86,582 112,791 64,134 78,269 30,548 (Ton) 93 340 66 138 89 87 113 64 78 31





Source * S.Kathirvale et. Al., 2003 # Jabatan Perangkaan, Malaysia 1995 & 2001 & Jabatan Perangkaan, Kelantan 2001( (Nota: Anggaran berasaskan banci penduduk tahun 2000 atas kadar pertumbuhan Tahunan Purata Penduduk sebanyak 0.9% )

Data below show the sources of municipal waste in Kuala Lumpur which is categorized as residential, institutional and commercial sectors [ Sivapalan, 2003 ].




Locating disposal facility in nearby housing facility is a predominant acceptance problem (Joos, 1999) To be accepted, a MSW facility should be (Garrod & Willis, 1998);  Environmentally friendly  Economically sound  Socially acceptable To ensure & increase public acceptance of a MSW facility;  Dialog with neighbours / public involvement in the planning stage  understand public concern  understand concepts of MSW management facilities and its operation

Table: 1 Factors related to public acceptance of MSW facilities

1. Pollution & its health effect - fear of pollution occuring - fear of risk (Becker, 2001) 2. Damage to environment - influence on flora & fauna/wild life - conversion of the environment 3. Nuisance - odour - vibration - noise - dust & litter - vector insect & pest - impairment of landscape & view - decrease of property value 4. Convenience of facility - public services eg. Heat - community facility - employment 5. Information disclosure - chance of community involvement - accessibility to information 6. Reliability of institution - reliability of technology - safety of facility - good appearance of facility - disproportionate sitting - facility sitting process

Chief components of municipical solid waste (MSW) management




MSW production

MSW management



Waste to energy Methane gas







End-user (energy)

1. collection

2. transport

WASTE MANAGEMENT 3. processing

4. recycling

5. disposal

Waste management methods vary widely between areas for many reasons, including type of waste material, nearby land uses, and the area available. Disposal methods



Recycling methods

Pyrolysis (Energy recovery)

1. Landfill Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying waste to dispose of it, and this remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, landfills were often established in disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly-designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of liquid leachate. Another common byproduct of landfills is gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate such as clay or plastic lining material. Deposited waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stability, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats). Many landfills also have landfill gas extraction systems installed to extract the landfill gas. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity.

Incineration A disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are sometimes described as "thermal treatment". Incinerators convert waste materials into heat, gas, steam, and ash. Incineration is carried out both on a small scale by individuals, and on a large scale by industry. It is used to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste. It is recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). Incineration is a controversial method of waste disposal, due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. Incineration is common in countries such as Japan where land is more scarce, as these facilities generally do not require as much area as landfills. Waste-to-energy (WtE) or energy-from-waste (EfW) are broad terms for facilities that burn waste in a furnace or boiler to generate heat, steam and/or electricity.


Physical reprocessing Recycling methods Biological reprocessing

Recycling methods The process of extracting resources or value from waste is generally referred to as recycling, meaning to recover or reuse the material. There are a number of different methods by which waste material is recycled: the raw materials may be extracted and reprocessed, or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. New methods of recycling are being developed continuously, and are described briefly below.

Steel scrap, sorted and baled for recycling

The popular meaning of recycling in most developed countries refers to the widespread collection and reuse of everyday waste materials such as empty beverage containers. These are collected and sorted into common types so that the raw materials from which the items are made can be reprocessed into new products. Material for recycling may be collected separately from general waste using dedicated bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed waste streams. The most common consumer products recycled include aluminum beverage cans, steel food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET bottles, glass bottles and jars, paperboard cartons, newspaper, magazines, and cardboard. Other types of plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable, although these are not as commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. The recycling of complex products (such as computers and electronic equipment) is more difficult, due to the additional dismantling and separation required

Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as plant material, food scraps, and paper products, can be recycled using biological composting and digestion processes to decompose the organic matter. The resulting organic material is then recycled as mulch or compost for agricultural or landscaping purposes. In addition, waste gas from the process (such as methane) can be captured and used for generating electricity. The intention of biological processing in waste management is to control and accelerate the natural process of decomposition of organic matter.

An active compost heap

There are a large variety of composting and digestion methods and technologies varying in complexity from simple home compost heaps, to industrial-scale enclosed-vessel digestion of mixed domestic waste (see Mechanical biological treatment). Methods of biological decomposition are differentiated as being aerobic or anaerobic methods, though hybrids of the two methods also exist. An example of waste management through composting is the Green Bin Program in Toronto, Canada, where household organic waste (such as kitchen scraps and plant cuttings) are collected in a dedicated container and then composted.

Energy recovery The energy content of waste products can be harnessed directly by using them as a direct combustion fuel, or indirectly by processing them into another type of fuel. Recycling through thermal treatment ranges from using waste as a fuel source for cooking or heating, to fuel for boilers to generate steam and electricity in a turbine. Pyrolysis and gasification are two related forms of thermal treatment where waste materials are heated to high temperatures with limited oxygen availability. The process typically occurs in a sealed vessel under high pressure. Pyrolysis of solid waste converts the material into solid, liquid and gas products. The liquid and gas can be burnt to produce energy or refined into other products. The solid residue (char) can be further refined into products such as activated carbon. Gasification is used to convert organic materials directly into a synthetic gas (syngas) composed of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam.


In actual fact, rubbish is more than just papers. Therefore, we need solid waste management as certain rubbish have to be collected and properly disposed of using safe, well-implemented waste management system. In the meantime, we continue to seek a better, environmentally-friendly solution for the municipalities in Malaysia ant its population

MSW SCENARIO IN MALAYSIA Currently, the majority of the municipal household garbage is disposed via open dumping. Sanitary landfills represent a common and economically acceptable method for waste disposal [Chuah, 1999]. Drawbacks ;  Occupies an enormous amount of land,  Contaminates the environment, including the atmosphere, water and soil.  Causes underground water resource pollution  Opposition from the public- smell, stigma of bad health makes sanitary land filling a less attractive method.

In Malaysia, sanitary land fill located in Bukit Tagar, Kuala Selangor, managed by Worldwide Landfills Sdn Bhd. (Hutan Simpan Air Hitam (AHSL), Puchong-closed) International Stages of solid disposal;  Stage Zero (0) - non-systematic open dumping without any care to the environment. Results in pollution to ground water system, smell, breeding of rats and insects, etc.  Stage 1 Controlled filling with slight control of environmental pollution. Problems in surface water and ground water pollution, dusty, breeding of rats and insects, etc.

 Stage 2 - specific disposal location with daily fillingsystematic drainage and more systematic in their operation. Problems in un-controlled leachate and nonsystematic monitoring.  Stage 3 specific disposal location with leachate recycling. Categorise as a modern disposal location. Leachate is collected and recycled. Problems in that ground water pollution due to leachate cannot be avoided since there is no liner or geo-membrane.  Stage 4 - specific disposal location with leachate recycling system and liner. Most environmentally friendly system meeting all the criteria required by Dept. of Environment (DOE).

 This system employ the use of liner and geomembrane at the base to prevent ground pollution. It also include a system for Leachate collection and treatment before discharged to the environment.  It include collection and oxidation pond, and infrastructure for recycling of leachate.

Countries with limited land resources-have mainly adopted burning trash/incineration as a means of reducing the volume of waste. Examples, > 70% of municipal solid waste is burned in Switzerland, Japan, and Luxembourg. In contrast, in US and Canada, which possess vast territories, incineration of waste accounts for only 5 10%.

Advantages of incineration over landfill;  incineration has the advantage of reducing waste volume.  generates energy and supplies electricity to the city.  reduces trash volume and provides energy, But deploying incineration, nearly 25% residue of the total waste still needs to be land filled. Furthermore, without waste separation, some chemicals from the waste can form toxic gases, such as dioxins and hydrogen chloride. Pyrolysis could be considered as an option


Use excess oxygen for burning Common reaction [Garbage + Oxygen CO2 + H2O + Gas (Toxic)]

Use MINIMAL / NO oxygen. Involve CRACKING of molecules Common reaction [Garbage + HEAT small molecule/compound + Heat + Char/Ash]

Both pyrolysis and incineration have been applied in recent years for the purpose of energy recovery. Controlling emissions is easier in pyrolysis than in incineration due to reduced oxygen content, higher temperature and dramatically reduced air flow rate [Calaminus, 1998]. Therefore, developed countries, such as Germany and the US, have chosen pyrolysis technology for waste disposal. The new municipal waste pyrolysis treatment technology differs from the technology mentioned above.

Besides decomposing, it also contains: coke oxygenation, carbon dioxide, water gas reaction and so on. It overcomes the defects of high-temperature burning, (reduced to about 900 rC), without the requirement of fast cooling. The major heat comes from the waste itself, and consumes no external resource. Therefore, it is regarded as an ideal waste management equipment. Employs advanced pyrolysis to dispose of waste, produces purified combustible gas and does not discharge pollutants.

Figure1, Fragmentation of a complex structure (wood) during pyrolysis

(Extracted from BTG Biomass Technology Group BV 2002-2003)

Figure 2; Pyrolysis characterized

(Extracted from BTG Biomass Technology Group BV 2002-2003)

Avoidance and Reduction methods An important method of waste management is the prevention of waste material being created. Methods of avoidance include reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items instead of buying new, designing products to be refillable or reusable (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags), encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable products (such as disposable cutlery), and designing products that use less material to achieve the same purpose (for example, lightweighting of beverage cans). The gas is then burnt to produce electricity and steam.

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include: 1.Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

2.Extended producer responsibility Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. 3.Polluter pays principle The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the natural environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.

Produce Less Waste by Practicing the 3 Rs: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle Reduce - the amount and toxicity of trash you discard. Reuse - containers and products; repair what is broken or give it to someone who can repair it. Recycle - as much as possible, which includes buying products with recycled content. Reduce Waste prevention, or "source reduction," means consuming and throwing away less. It includes: purchasing durable, long-lasting goods; seeking products and packaging that are as free of toxics as possible; redesigning products to use less raw material in production, have a longer life, or be used again after its original use. Source reduction actually prevents the generation of waste in the first place, so it is the most preferred method of waste management and goes a long way toward protecting the environment.

Source Reduction and Reuse Benefits Saves natural resources. Waste is not just created when consumers throw items away. Throughout the life cycle of a product-from extraction of raw materials to transportation to processing and manufacturing facilities to manufacture and use-waste is generated. Reusing items or making them with less material decreases waste dramatically. Ultimately, less materials will need to be recycled or sent to landfills or waste combustion facilities. Reduces toxicity of waste. Selecting nonhazardous or less hazardous items is another important component of source reduction. Using less hazardous alternatives for certain items (e.g., cleaning products and pesticides), sharing products that contain hazardous chemicals instead of throwing out leftovers, reading label directions carefully, and using the smallest amount necessary are ways to reduce waste toxicity.

Reduces costs. The benefits of preventing waste go beyond reducing reliance on other forms of waste disposal. Preventing waste also can mean economic savings for communities, businesses, schools, and individual consumers.

Communities. More than 6,000 communities have instituted "pay-asyou-throw" programs where citizens pay for each can or bag of trash they set out for disposal rather than through the tax base or a flat fee. When these households reduce waste at the source, they dispose of less trash and pay lower trash bills.

Businesses. Industry also has an economic incentive to practice source reduction. When businesses manufacture their products with less packaging, they are buying less raw material. A decrease in manufacturing costs can mean a larger profit margin, with savings that can be passed on to the consumer. Consumers. Consumers also can share in the economic benefits of source reduction. Buying products in bulk, with less packaging, or that are reusable (not single-use) frequently means a cost savings. What is good for the environment can be good for the pocketbook as well.

Recycling Process Collecting and processing secondary materials, manufacturing recycled-content products, and then purchasing recycled products creates a circle or loop that ensures the overall success and value of recycling. Step 1. Collection and Processing Collecting recyclables varies from community to community, but there are four primary methods: curbside, drop-off centers, buyback centers, and deposit/refund programs. Regardless of the method used to collect the recyclables, the next leg of their journey is usually the same. Recyclables are sent to a materials recovery facility to be sorted and prepared into marketable commodities for manufacturing. Recyclables are bought and sold just like any other commodity, and prices for the materials change and fluctuate with the market.

Step 2. Manufacturing Once cleaned and separated, the recyclables are ready to undergo the second part of the recycling loop. More and more of today's products are being manufactured with total or partial recycled content. Common household items that contain recycled materials include newspapers and paper towels; aluminum, plastic, and glass soft drink containers; steel cans; and plastic laundry detergent bottles. Recycled materials also are used in innovative applications such as recovered glass in roadway asphalt (glassphalt) or recovered plastic in carpeting, park benches, and pedestrian bridges. Step 3. Purchasing Recycled Products Purchasing recycled products completes the recycling loop. By "buying recycled," governments, as well as businesses and individual consumers, each play an important role in making the recycling process a success. As consumers demand more environmentally sound products, manufacturers will continue to meet that demand by producing high-quality recycled products..

Recycling Facts and Figures In 1999, recycling and composting activities prevented about 64 million tons of material from ending up in landfills and incinerators. Today, this country recycles 32.5 percent of its waste, a rate that has almost doubled during the past 15 years. While recycling has grown in general, recycling of specific materials has grown even more drastically: 52 percent of all paper, 31 percent of all plastic soft drink bottles, 45 percent of all aluminum beer and soft drink cans, 63 percent of all steel packaging, and 67 percent of all major appliances are now recycled. For recycling to work, everyone has to participate in each phase of the loop. From government and industry, to organizations, small businesses, and people at home, every American can make recycling a part of their daily routine

Benefits of Recycling Conserves resources for our children's future. Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants. Saves energy. Supplies valuable raw materials to industry. Creates jobs. Stimulates the development of greener technologies. Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators.

Composting Another form of recycling is composting. Composting is the controlled biological decomposition of organic matter, such as food and yard wastes, into humus, a soil-like material. Composting is nature's way of recycling organic waste into new soil, which can be used in vegetable and flower gardens, landscaping, and many other applications Benefits of Composting Keeps organic wastes out of landfills. Provides nutrients to the soil. Increases beneficial soil organisms (e.g., worms and centipedes). Suppresses certain plant diseases. Reduces the need for fertilizers and pesticides. Protects soils from erosion. Assists pollution remediation.

There are a number of concepts about waste management which vary in their usage between countries or regions. Some of the most general, widely-used concepts include: Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

Extended producer responsibility Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a strategy designed to promote the integration of all costs associated with products throughout their life cycle (including end-of-life disposal costs) into the market price of the product. Extended producer responsibility is meant to impose accountability over the entire lifecycle of products and packaging introduced to the market. This means that firms which manufacture, import and/or sell products are required to be responsible for the products after their useful life as well as during manufacture. Polluter pays principle The Polluter Pays Principle is a principle where the polluting party pays for the impact caused to the natural environment. With respect to waste management, this generally refers to the requirement for a waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal of the waste.

Household Hazardous Waste Common household items such as paints, cleaners, oils, batteries, and pesticides contain hazardous components. One way to help determine if your household waste has hazardous components is to read the labels on products. Labels that read "danger," "warning," "caution," "toxic," "corrosive," "flammable," or "poison" identify products that might contain hazardous materials. Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste (HHW). These products, if mishandled, can be dangerous to your health and the environment. Although we cannot completely stop using hazardous products, we can make sure that leftovers are managed properly. The best way to handle HHW is to reduce the amount initially generated by giving leftover products to someone else to use. Although federal laws allow the disposal of HHW in the trash, many communities have collection programs for HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals.

Disposal Options Certain types of HHW have the potential to cause physical injury to sanitation workers, contaminate septic tanks or wastewater treatment systems if poured down drains or toilets, and present hazards to children and pets if left around the house. Federal law allows disposal of HHW in the trash. However, many communities have collection programs for HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals. EPA encourages participation in these HHW collection programs rather than discarding the HHW in the trash. Check your local environmental, health, or solid waste agency for the time and location of your HHW collection program. Read product labels for disposal directions to reduce the risk of products exploding, igniting, leaking, mixing with other chemicals, or posing other hazards on the way to a disposal facility. Even empty containers of HHW can pose hazards because of the residual chemicals that might remain.

HW Facts and Figures The average home can accumulate as much as 100 pounds of HHW in the basement and garage and in storage closets. During the 1980s, many communities started special collection days or permanent collection sites for handling HHW. In 1997, there were more than 3,000 HHW permanent programs and collection events throughout the United States.

Benefits of Proper HHW Management Reduction and recycling of HHW conserves resources and energy that would be expended in the production of more products. Reuse of hazardous household products can save money and reduce the need for generating hazardous substances. Proper disposal prevents pollution that could endanger human health and the environment. HHW to reduce the potential harm posed by these chemicals.

MSW Disposal There are two types of MSW Disposal: 1. Solid Waste Landfills - includes municipal solid waste, industrial waste, construction and demolition debris, and bioreactors. 2. Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration - waste volume is reduced in a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration Solid Waste Landfills Modern landfills are well-engineered facilities that are located, designed, operated, and monitored to ensure compliance with federal regulations. Solid waste landfills must be designed to protect the environment from contaminants which may be present in the solid waste stream.

The landfill sitting plan (location); prevents the sitting of landfills in environmentally sensitive areas on-site environmental monitoring systems;which monitor for any sign of groundwater contamination and for landfill gas provide additional safeguards. In addition, many new landfills collect potentially harmful landfill gas emissions and convert the gas into energy.

There are several types of solid waste landfills: 1. municipal solid waste 2. bioreactors 3. construction and demolition debris 4. industrial waste

1. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Municipal solid waste landfills (MFWLFs) receive household waste. MSWLFs can also receive non-hazardous sludge, industrial solid waste, and construction and demolition debris. All MSWLFs must comply with the federal regulations in 40 CFR Part 258 (Subtitle D of RCRA), or equivalent state regulations. Federal MSWLF standards include: 1. Location restrictionsensure that landfills are built in suitable geological areas away from faults, wetlands, flood plains, or other restricted areas. 2. Composite liners requirementsinclude a flexible membrane (geomembrane) overlaying two feet of compacted clay soil lining the bottom and sides of the landfill, protect groundwater and the underlying soil from leachate releases. 3. Leachate collection and removal systemssit on top of the composite liner and removes leachate from the landfill for treatment and disposal. 4. Operating practicesinclude compacting and covering waste frequently with several inches of soil help reduce odor; control litter, insects, and rodents; and protect public health. 5. Groundwater monitoring requirementsrequires testing groundwater wells to determine whether waste materials have escaped from the landfill.

6. Closure and postclosure care requirementsinclude covering landfills and providing long-term care of closed landfills. 7. Corrective action provisionscontrol and clean up landfill releases and achieves groundwater protection standards. 8. Financial assuranceprovides funding for environmental protection during and after landfill closure (i.e., closure and postclosure care). Some materials may be banned from disposal in municipal solid waste landfills including common household items such as paints, cleaners/chemicals, motor oil, batteries, and pesticides. Leftover portions of these products are called household hazardous waste. These products, if mishandled, can be dangerous to your health and the environment. Many municipal landfills have a household hazardous waste drop-off station for these materials.

2. Bioreactor Landfills Bioreactors are municipal solid waste landfills that are designed to quickly transform and degrade organic waste. The increase in waste degradation and stabilization is accomplished through the addition of liquid and, in some cases, air to enhance microbial processes. Bioreactors are a new approach to landfill design and operation that differ from the traditional "dry tomb" municipal landfill approach. 3. Construction and Demolition (C&D) Debris Landfills These landfills accept only C&D debris such as concrete, asphalt, brick, wood, drywall, asphalt roofing shingles, metals, and some types of plastics generated during the construction and demolition of homes, commercial buildings, and other structures. C&D landfills are subject to less stringent standards than municipal solid waste landfills due to the relatively inert nature of C&D debris materials. 4. Industrial Waste Landfills These landfills are designed for the management of non-hazardous industrial process wastes. Industrial waste consists of a wide variety of non-hazardous materials that result from the production of various goods and products. Industrial waste landfills are subject to the federal requirements in 40 CFR Part 257, Subparts A and B, as well as any state-specific regulations.

Solid Waste Combustion/Incineration Burning MSW can generate energy while reducing the amount of waste by up to 90 percent in volume and 75 percent in weight. To reduce waste volume, local governments or private operators can implement a controlled burning process called combustion or incineration. In addition to reducing volume, combustors, when properly equipped, can convert water into steam to fuel heating systems or generate electricity. Incineration facilities can also remove materials for recycling. Over one-fifth of the U.S. municipal solid waste incinerators use refuse derived fuel (RDF). In contrast to mass burningwhere the municipal solid waste is introduced "as is" into the combustion chamberRDF facilities are equipped to recover recyclables (e.g., metals, cans, glass) first, then shred the combustible fraction into fluff for incineration.

A variety of pollution control technologies significantly reduce the gases emitted into the air, including:  Scrubbersdevices that use a liquid spray to neutralize acid gases  Filtersremove tiny ash particles Burning waste at extremely high temperatures also destroys chemical compounds and disease-causing bacteria. Regular testing ensures that residual ash is non-hazardous before being landfilled. About ten percent of the total ash formed in the combustion process is used for beneficial use such as daily cover in landfills and road construction.

Name : Environmental Quality (Dioxin and Furan) Regulations 2004 Date of regulations were gazetted : 25 March 2004 Date of regulations come into force : 1 May 2004 These regulations apply to the 4 facilities; 1) Municipal solid wastes incinerator 2) Scheduled waste incinerator 3) Pulp or paper industry sludge incinerator 4) Sewage sludge incinerator Concentration limit for air emission of Dioxin and Furan : 0.1 nanogram/Nm3 TEQ

Fig. 4. (a) Dibenzo-para-dioxin; (b) dibenzofuran.

Homologues and congeners of PCDDs and PCDFs

The homolog groups are often abbreviated for convenience, for example, tetrachloro CDDs and CDFs (PCDD/Fs with four substituted chlorine atoms) are abbreviated as TCDDs and TCDFs, respectively, while the fully chlorinated octachloro congeners are abbreviated as OCDDs and OCDFs, correspondingly. The toxicity varies substantially among different PCDDs and PCDFs. It is generally accepted that only 17 out of the 210 dioxin and dibenzofuran congeners are toxic. The congener with greatest toxicity is 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which has been intensively investigated.

Since 2,3,7,8-TCDD is the most toxic congener, it is assigned by convention a toxicity rating of 1.0 (called a toxic equivalent factor or TEF). The TEFs for the other 2,3,7,8-positional congeners are determined by the ratio of the toxicity of each individual congeners to that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The toxicity of any mixture of PCDDs and PCDFs can then be expressed by multiplying the concentration percentage of each individual 2,3,7,8-positional congener present in the mixture by its respective TEF. The result for each congener is called the toxic equivalent (TEQ)

Groundwater Monitoring Requirements for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills (MSWFs) Nearly all municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) are required to monitor the underlying groundwater for contamination during their active life and post-closure care period. The exceptions to this requirement are small landfills that receive less than 20 tons of solid waste per day, and facilities that can demonstrate that there is no potential for the migration of hazardous constituents from the unit into the groundwater. To monitor groundwater, facility owners and operators must install a groundwater monitoring system that can collect samples from the uppermost aquifer (defined as the geological formation nearest the natural surface that is capable of yielding significant quantities of groundwater to wells or springs).

The groundwater monitoring system consists of a series of wells placed upgradient and downgradient of the MSWLF. The samples from the upgradient wells show the background concentrations of constituents in the groundwater, while the downgradient wells show the extent of groundwater contamination caused by the MSWLF. The required number of wells, spacing, and depth of wells is determined on a site-specific basis based on the aquifer thickness, groundwater flow rate and direction, and the other geologic and hydrogeologic characteristics of the site. All groundwater monitoring systems must be certified by a qualified groundwater scientist and must comply with the sampling and analytical procedures outlined in the regulations.

There are three phases of the groundwater monitoring requirements: 1. Detection monitoring 2. Assessment monitoring 3. Corrective action

Detection Monitoring This consists of sampling at least semi-annually throughout the facilitys active life and post-closure care period. The frequency of sampling is determined on a site-specific basis by the state regulatory agency. If at any time during the detection monitoring phase, one of the 62 constituents is detected at a statistically significant higher level than the established background level, the MSWLF owner/operators must notify the state regulatory agency. The facility must establish an assessment monitoring program within 90 days unless the owner/operators can prove that the detection of the constituent(s) was the result of a sampling, analysis, or statistical evaluation error (i.e., a false positive result); a natural fluctuation in groundwater quality; or caused by another source.

Assessment Monitoring Within 90 days of detecting a statistically significant increase in the constituents listed in Appendix I constituents, a MSWLF must begin an assessment monitoring program. As a first step, samples must be taken from all wells and analyzed for the presence of all 214 constituents listed in Appendix II of 40 CFR Part 258 . If any of the constituents listed in Appendix II are detected, the owner/operators must then establish the background levels for these constituents and establish a groundwater protection standard (GWPS) for each. The GWPS represents the maximum allowable constituent level in the groundwater, and is based either on the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) for that constituent, or the background level of the groundwater at the site if no MCL exists..

In cases where the site-specific background level is higher than the MCL, the background level is used for the GWPS Within 90 days of establishing the background levels and the GWPS, the owner/operators must then resample for all constituents listed in Appendix I and Appendix II previously detected. Resampling then must be repeated at least semiannually. If none of the Appendix II constituents are found to exceed the GWPS for two consecutive sampling events, the facility may return to the detection monitoring phase. If, however, any of the constituents are detected at a statistically significant level higher than the GWPS, the owner/operators of the MSWLF must characterize the nature of the release, determine if the contamination has migrated beyond the facility boundary, and begin assessing corrective measures.

Corrective Action Based upon the assessment of corrective measures, a remedy is selected and corrective action begins. Any corrective measure selected must be protective of human health and the environment, meet the GWPS, control the source(s) of the release to prevent further releases, and manage any solid waste generated in accordance with all applicable RCRA regulations. The facility must continue these remedial actions until it has complied with the GWPS for three consecutive years and can demonstrate that all required actions have been completed.