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# Heat Transfer Fundamentals

## Heat Exchange Equipments

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Temperature, Heat, and Expansion
What is temperature?
A measure of how warm or cold an object is with
respect to some standard
Related to the random thermal motion of the
molecules in a substance
Measure of avg. translational kinetic energy of molecules
What is heat?
The energy transferred between objects due to a
temperature difference
Energy in transit (similar to work)
How are the two concepts related?
Heat always flows from hotter to colder objects
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Heat and Internal Energy
Internal energy
Total energy contained in a substance
translation, rotational, vibrational
kinetic energies
interparticle potential energies
When an object absorbs (gives off) heat,
its internal energy increases (decreases)
Which has more internal energy?
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Specific Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat
needed to raise the
temperature of one gram
of a substance by 1
Celsius
Measures the resistance of
a substance to temp.
changes
Thermal inertia
Works both ways
Substances that take longer
to heat up also take longer
to cool
Which has a higher specific heat,
the filling or the crust?
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How is the heat transfer?
Heat can transfer between the surface of a
solid conductor and the surrounding medium
Conduction
Convection
Natural convection
Forced Convection
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Modes of heat transfer
Conduction: diffusion of heat due to temperature gradients. A
measure of the amount of conduction for a given gradient is the heat
conductivity.
Convection: when heat is carried away by moving fluid. The flow can
either be caused by external influences, forced convection; or by
buoyancy forces, natural convection. Convective heat transfer is
tightly coupled to the fluid flow solution.
Radiation: transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves between
surfaces with different temperatures, separated by a medium that is
especially important at high temperatures, e.g. during combustion
processes, but can also have a measurable effect at room
temperatures.
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Conduction
Heat transfer by successive atomic
collisions
Ex. A metal rod held in a fire
Conductors
Solids built from atoms that have
free outer electrons
collisions
Ex. Metals
Insulators
Tightly bound outer electrons
Wood, cork, styrofoam, air
Air vs. rack in an oven
Does cold flow into your finger,
or does heat flow out?
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Convection
Heat transfer due to the
actual motion of a fluid
Operates in liquids and
gases
What causes convection
currents?
Convection currents
Heated fluid expands and rises due to
buoyant force
Cooler, denser fluid descends and
takes its place
Rising fluid cools as it expands
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Natural and forced Convection
Natural convection occurs whenever heat flows
between a solid and fluid, or between fluid
layers.
As a result of heat exchange
Change in density of effective fluid layers taken
place, which causes upward flow of heated
fluid.
If this motion is associated with heat transfer
mechanism only, then it is called Natural
Convection
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Forced Convection
If this motion is associated by mechanical
means such as pumps, gravity or fans, the
movement of the fluid is enforced.
And in this case, we then speak of Forced
convection.
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Energy transmitted in
the form of
electromagnetic waves
Only mechanism that can
transmit energy across
the vacuum of space
Conduction requires
collisions in a material
object
Convection requires a
fluid
Ex. Solar energy
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Overview dimensionless numbers
Nusselt number: Ratio between total heat transfer in
a convection dominated system and the estimated conductive heat
transfer.
Grashof number: Ratio between buoyancy
forces and viscous forces.
Prandtl number: Ratio between momentum
diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. Typical values are Pr = 0.01 for
liquid metals; Pr = 0.7 for most gases; Pr = 6 for water at room
temperature.
Rayleigh number:
The Rayleigh number governs natural convection phenomena.
Reynolds number: Ratio between inertial and
viscous forces.
. /
f
k hL Nu !
w
T g L Gr V R V F
2 3
/ A !
E Q F V Q F V / /
3 2 3
T g L k T c g L Pr Gr Ra
p
A ! A ! !
. / k c Pr
p
Q !
. / Q VUL Re !
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Heat Transfer Equipment Heat Transfer Equipment
Heat Exchangers Heat Exchangers
Evaporators Evaporators
Boilers Boilers
Process Fired Heaters Process Fired Heaters
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Heat Exchangers Heat Exchangers
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Applications of Heat Exchangers
Heat Exchangers
prevent car engine
overheating and
increase efficiency
Heat exchangers are
used in Industry for
heat transfer
Heat
exchangers are
used in AC and
furnaces
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What is a Heat Exchanger?
A device built for efficient flow of thermal energy from one fluid to another at a
different temperature, whether the fluids are separated by a solid wall so that they
never mix, or the fluids are directly contacted.
Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from one stream to another. They are
used to heat streams and to cool streams. The streams can be heated or cooled by
other process streams, or they can be heated by steam and cooled by cooling water.
Widely used in refrigeration, air conditioning, electronics, space heating, power
production, and chemical processing.
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Heat Exchangers
The driving force for the operation of a heat exchanger is the
temperature difference between the fluids. The higher the
temperature difference, the smaller the heat exchanger.
However, the temperature difference is limited by boiling points
of the liquids, scaling, materials of construction, etc.
The proper design of a heat exchanger is a trade-off of price and
performance.
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Exchange heat between fluids
Latent heat and sensible heat transfer
Heat exchangers come in many different types:
1. Co-current.
2. Counter-current
3. Cross flow
4. Double pipe
5. Spiral
6. Finned
7. Compact
8. Shell and tube (most common in chemical process industries)
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Co- and Counter- current: The exchanger is constructed of concentric
tubes. One fluid occupies the outer pipe, the other the inner.
Co-current: fluids flow in same direction
Counter-current: fluids flow in opposite direction
Co-current Counter-current
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Counterflow
Heat Exchanger
Parallel Heat Exchanger
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
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Crossflow Heat Exchanger
TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGERS
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Some important concepts:
Approach
Range
Log mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
Heat flux
Overall heat transfer coefficient
Individual heat transfer coefficient
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Q hot Q cold
T
h
T
i,wall
T
o,wall
T
c
Region I : Hot Liquid-
Solid Convection
NEWTONS LAW OF
CCOLING
dq
x
! h
h
. T
h
T
iw
)
.dA
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall
FOURIERS LAW
dq
x
! k.
dT
dr
Region III: Solid
Cold Liquid
Convection
NEWTONS LAW OF
CCOLING

dq
x
! h
c
. T
ow
T
c
)
.dA
THERMAL
BOUNDARY LAYER
Energy moves from hot fluid to
a surface by convection,
through the wall by conduction,
and then by convection from
the surface to the cold fluid.
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BulkFluid
Temperature
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
Outside
Fluid
Tube Wall
Outside Film
Outside Fouling
(Scale)
Inside Fouling (Scale)
Inside Film
Bulk Fluid
Temperature
Inside
Fluid
R
r
o
r
do
r
m
d
i
r
i
Resistance to Heat Transfer Resistance to Heat Transfer
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Principle of Heat Exchanger
First Law of Thermodynamic: Energy is conserved.
generated s
in out
out in
e w q h m h m
dt
dE
+ + +
'
+

'

.

!
out in
h m h m

.
h
h
p h h
T C m A Q A ! . . .
c
c
p c c
T C m A Q A ! . . .
0
0 0 0
Control Volume
Cross Section Area
HOT
COLD
Thermal Boundary Layer
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Region I : Hot Liquid
Solid Convection

T
h
T
iw
!
q
x
h
h
.A
i

q
x
! h
hot
. T
h
T
iw
)
.A
Region II : Conduction
Across Copper Wall

q
x
!
k
copper
.2xL
ln
r
o
r
i

T
o,wall
T
i,wall
!
q
x
.ln
r
o
r
i

'

+
'

k
copper
.2xL
Region III : Solid Cold
Liquid Convection

T
o,wall
T
c
!
q
x
h
c
.A
o

q
x
! h
c
T
o,wall
T
c
)
A
o
+

T
h
T
c
! q
x
1
h
h
.A
i
+
ln
r
o
r
i

'

+
'

k
copper
.2xL
+
1
h
c
.A
o

|

q
x
!U.A. T
h
T
c
)
1
1
.
ln .
.

'
+

'

+ !
cold i copper
i
o
o
i hot
o
h r k
r
r
r
r h
r
U
U = The Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient [W/m
2
.K]
] 3 2 1 [ R R R qx T T
c h
+ + !

U !
1
A.LR
r
o
r
i
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Q Q Q ! !
give get
m
Q KA
t
! A
m
Q
q K
t
A
! ! A
heat transfer Eq.
Basic Eq. of heat transfer
thermodynamics
where Q heat transfer rateW
A transport aream
2

## q heat transfer fluxW/m

2

t
m
mean temperature difference between
hot and cold fluids, K
K heat transfer coefficientW/m
2
.K
heat balance
or
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Double-Pipe: A heat exchanger built from concentric tubes.
These are simple to construct, but may require a lot of physical space to
achieve the desired heat transfer area. Can be used for gases and
liquids.
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Simplified Process Flow Diagram
T
hi
T
ho
T
ci
T
co
Q
out, TS
Q
in, TS
Q
in, SS
Q
out, SS
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1 no phase transformation W
1
C
p1
(T
1
- T
2
) = W
2
C
p2
(t
2
- t
1
)
single pass exchanger
Q
release
=Q
absorb
W
2,
C
p2,
t
2

W
2,
C
p2,
t
1

W
1,
C
p1,
T
1 W
1,
C
p1,
T
2
2 hot fluid condense, cold fluid heating W
1

1
= W
2
C
p2
(t
2
- t
1
)
3 cold fluid evaporation, hot fluid cooling W
1
C
p1
(T
1
- T
2
)= W
2

2
4 two fluids phase transformation W
1

1
= W
2

2
W
2,
C
p2,
t
2

W
2,
C
p2,
t
1

W
1,
r
1,
T
W
1,
r
1,
T W
1,
C
p1,
T
1 W
1,
C
p1,
T
2
W
2,
r
2,
t

W
2,
r
2,
t

W
1,
r
1,
T
W
1,
r
1,
T
W
2,
r
2,
t

W
2,
r
2,
t

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Shell&Tube Heat Exchangers
Shell and Tube: Most common in chemical process industries. This
type provides a large heat transfer surface in a small space, can operate
at high pressures, are easy to clean and can be made of a wide variety
of materials.
1-1 Counter Current Exchanger (1-shell, 1 tube pass)
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Heat Exchangers - Types
1-2 Heat Exchanger: 1 shell pass, 2 tube passes.
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Heat Exchangers - Types
2-4 Heat Exchanger: 2 shell passes, 4 tube passes.
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cold fluid
t
1
cold fluid
t
2
hot fluid T
1
hot fluid T
2
Hot and cold fluids do not contact
directly. Heat is exchanged through
solid wall conduction .
Heat exchanger
space inside tubetube pass
space outside tubeshell pass
fluid flows mtimes in tubes
mtube pass
fluid flows mtimes in shell
mshell pass
Q
Q
tubular exchanger
singel pass shell-tube exchanger
double pass shell-tube exchanger
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Heat Exchangers - Temperatures
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Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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Parts of S&T Exchangers
Tubes & Tube sheet
Shell
Inlet& outlet nozzles
Baffles
Guide rods
Longitudinal baffles
Stuffing box
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Important things related to S&T Exchanger
Tube pitch (triangular or square)
Cleaning
Shell side pressure drop
Heat transfer area
Tube length (BWG 8,12,16,20)
Shell diameter (up to 23)
Baffle spacing (should not be less than one fifth of
shell dia or more than the inside diameter of the
shell)
Clearance (center to center distance between
tubes)
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Shellside Shellside Flow Flow
Out Out
Tubeside Tubeside Flow Flow
In In
Tubeside Tubeside Flow Flow
Out Out
Shell Shell
Tube Bundle Tube Bundle
Shellside Shellside Flow Flow
In In
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
Details Details
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Shell inlet Shell inlet
Channel Inlet Channel Inlet
Channel Channel
Outlet Outlet
Shell Outlet Shell Outlet
SINGLE SEGMENTAL TRANVERSE BAFFLES SINGLE SEGMENTAL TRANVERSE BAFFLES
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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Doughnut and Disc Type Baffles
Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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Heat Exchangers Problems with Calculations
Temperature of fluid changes (possibly on shell and tube side).
Baffles and leakage around baffles.
Easy part is tube side use existing correlations to determine heat transfer
coefficient.
Difficult side is shell side as fluid flows across the tubes.
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Fouling
Fouling is when a fluid goes through the heat exchanger and the
impurities precipitate onto the surface of the tubes. Precipitation
of these impurities are cause by not cleaning the heat exchanger
on a regular basis, using the heat exchanger often, reducing the
velocity of the fluids that are moving through the heat exchanger,
over sizing the heat exchanger. The effects of fouling are more
obvious in the cold tubes than the hot tubes because the impurities
are not likely to be dissolved in cold fluid. This is because the
solubility increases as the temperature increases. Fouling has the
effect of reducing the cross sectional area for the heat to be
transferred and causes an increase in the resistance to heat transfer
across the heat exchanger. This leads to less efficiency in the heat
exchanger which causes an increase in pumping and maintenance
costs.
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Tube Bending Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube Bending Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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Tube Failure Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Tube Failure Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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FACTORS FOR U
THE BOUNDARY LAYER
SCALE/CHEMICAL DEPOSITS
SOOT/DIRT BUILDUP
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Fouling in Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger Fouling in Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
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common heating agents and their applied temperature
heating agent hot water
saturated
steam
mineral oil
biphenyl
mixture
*
melt salts
*
flue gas
T / 40 100 100 180
180
250
255 380 142 530
500
1000
*melt saltsKNO
3
53%NaNO
2
40% NaNO
3
7%
common cooling agents and their applied temperature
cooling
agent
water & air
aqueous salt
solution*
liquid
ammonia
liquid ethane liquid ethene
T / 20 30 -4-20 -33.4 -88.6 -103.7
*salt of NaCl and CaCl
3
, etc.
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Spiral: Constructed from sheets of metal wound in a circular fashion.
The fluids flow in adjacent chambers between the sheets of metal.
This design is based
on the ease of
fabrication.
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Plate Heat Exchangers
consist of a number of very thin corrugated stainless steel heat
transfer plates clamped together in a frame. Every second
channel is open to the same fluid. Between each pair of plates
there is a rubber gasket, which prevents the fluids from mixing
and from leaking to the surroundings. Heat is thus transferred
from the warm fluid to the colder fluid via the thin stainless
steel plate. The corrugations support the plates against
differential pressure and create a turbulent flow in the
channels. In turn, the turbulent flow provides high heat transfer
efficiency, making the plate heat exchanger very compact
compared with the traditional shell-and-tube heat exchanger. In
most cases the plate type heat exchanger is the most efficient
heat exchanger.
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Plate flow offers superior heat transfer
coefficients compared to shell and tube
heat exchangers.
Plate flow offers true countercurrent
flow. This maximizes the mean
temperature difference between the
fluids.
of plate heat exchangers are their initial
expense, they don't work well under
high pressure rates and they are not well
suited for processing pulpy products or
product with particulates.
The main weakness of the plate and
frame heat exchanger is the necessity for
the long gaskets which holds the plates
together
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The plates are clamped together, separated by spacing
gaskets, and the heating and cooling fluids are arranged so that they flow between
alternate plates.
Suitable gaskets and channels control the flow and allow parallel or counter current flow
in any desired number of passes.
A substantial advantage of this type of heat exchanger is that it offers a large transfer
surface that is readily accessible for cleaning. The banks of plates are arranged so that they
may be taken apart easily. Overall heat transfer coefficients are of the order of 2400-6000 J
m
-2
s
-1
C
-1
.
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Plate Type Heat Exchanger
A popular heat exchanger for fluids of low viscosity, such as milk, is the plate heat
exchanger, where heating and cooling fluids flow through alternate tortuous
passages between vertical plates as illustrated in Figure
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10
9
5
8
4
3
2
6
1 7
1
Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger Plate and Frame Heat Exchanger
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Finned: contain fins on one heat exchange surface to increase the heat
exchange surface.
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Heat Exchangers - Types
Compact heat exchangers: constructed from round or square channels.
Car radiator is an example of this type.
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Serrated
Fins
Solid Fins
Studs
Extended Surface Area Extended Surface Area
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PLAIN
A sheet of metal with corrugated fins at
right angles to the plates
PERFORATED
A plain fin constructed from perforated
material
HERRINGBONE
Made by displacing the fins sideways at
regular intervals to produce a zig-zag
effect.
SERRATED
Made by simultaneously folding and cutting
alternative sections of fins. These fins are
also known as the lanced or multi-entry
pattern.
Fin Types in Plate-Fin Exchangers
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Finned Tubes
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Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger
One type of heat exchanger, that finds considerable use in the
food processing industry particularly for products of higher
viscosity.
consists of a jacketed cylinder with an internal cylinder
concentric to the first and fitted with scraper blades, as
illustrated in Figure.
The blades rotate, causing the fluid to flow through the annular
space between the cylinders with the outer heat transfer
surface constantly scraped.
Coefficients of heat transfer vary with speeds of rotation but
they are of the order of 900-4000 J m
-2
s
-1
C
-1
.
These machines are used in the freezing of ice cream and in
the cooling of fats during margarine manufacture.
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Scraped Surface Heat Exchanger
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Jacketed Pan
In a jacketed pan, the liquid to be heated is contained in
a vessel, which may also be provided with an agitator to keep the
liquid on the move across the heat-transfer surface.
The source of heat is commonly steam condensing in the vessel
jacket. Practical considerations of importance are:
1. There is the minimum of air with the steam in the jacket.
2. The steam is not superheated .
3. Steam trapping to remove condensate and air is adequate.
The action of the agitator and its ability to keep the fluid moved
across the heat transfer surface are important. Some overall heat
transfer coefficients are shown in Table .
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Condensing
fluid
Heated fluid Pan material
Heat transfer
coefficients
J m
-2
s
-1
C
-1
Steam Thin liquid Cast-iron 1800
Steam Thick liquid Cast-iron 900
Steam Paste Stainless steel 300
Steam Water, boiling Copper 1600
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Heating Coils Immersed in Liquids
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Problem:
Water flows at 50C
0
inside a 2.5cm inside diameter
tube such that hi= 3500/C
0
m
2
.the tube has a wall
thickness of 0.8mm with a thermal conductivity of 16
W/mC
0
.the outside of the tube looses heat by free
convection with h0=7.6/m
2
C
0
.calculate the overall
heat transfer coefficient and heat loss per unit length
to surrounding air at 20C
0
.
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