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AXEAXE-10

A Ericsson telephone system capable of serving all type of telecom networks [T-S-T Switch]
By..Mukesh Kr Kurdiya System Analyst ITPC (Chandigarh)

Subscriber Facility in AXE


y y y y y y y y

Wake-up and Reminder Service Call Transfer (Follow me or Temporary call Transfer) Abbreviated Dialling Non-dialled Connection (Hot Line) Alternation on inquiry Add-on Conference (3P Conference) Call Waiting Diversion (On busy or on no reply)

Axe as viewed by the subscriber that the portion of unsuccessful calls due to technical faults and congestion, can be far below 1 %

AXE System Architecture


y

The AXE system is an SPC(Stored Program Control) system. All operations to be performed by the exchange are stored in the controller memory.To modify a function we must consequently modify the memory.The switching equipment is controlled by two controller which are in standby mode. It has an open architecture and has modularity concept. Modularity means ease of handling, reduced operational costs and the flexibility to adapt to the changing world of voice, data, video, Internet and multimedia communications.

AXE System Architecture


y

Modularity can be expressed in terms of:


Multi-functionality Application modularity Functional modularity Software modularity Technological modularity Hardware modularity

Modularity can be expressed in terms of: AXE system can


be used in all applications, from small local nodes up to large international switching centers. Business Comm., ISDN, mobile subscribers and Intelligent Networks

Application modularity : The AXE is based on Ericssons


Application Modularity (AM) concept. AM allows existing software to be reused, while enabling practically effortless portability of functionality between the different AXE product lines.

AXE System Architecture


y

Functional modularity : Different parts of AXE are defined in terms of the


functions they perform. This means that functions can be added, deleted or modified without disturbing other parts of the system.

Software modularity : Software modules are programmed independently of each other with different modules interacting by means of standardized software interfaces. Isolated faults in one software module will not distort data belonging to other modules, ensuring a high level of software security. Technological modularity: The AXE is an open-ended system, which allows new technologies and functions to be added as required. Such technology can be introduced into one part without affecting the other parts of the AXE Hardware modularity: Hardware modularity refers to the AXE packaging system or BYB structure. The packaging system consists of hardware, which is designed, in modular units offering a high degree of flexibility for installation and/or expansion, or rearrangement.

AXE System Architecture


y

The AXE architecture is structured on a system level.

y y

This is AM base Architecture, it can be viewed as consisting of a number of different levels. System Level 1 is the highest system level at which nodes and networking configurations are defined. System Level 2 Depending on which system structure is used, subsystems are combined to form APT and APZ in non-AM based systems, and application modules, resource module platform (RMP) and existing source system (XSS) or the common name system module is used in AMbased systems

AXE System Architecture

AXE System Architecture


AM Based System Elements
y

Application Module (AM) : Applications are implemented as a set of interworking Application Modules (AMs) supported by a common platform. AMs communicate with other AMs or XSS via the communication services in the RMs. Implementation of each AM is independent of the implementation of the other AMs. The AXE software structure is open-ended in functions; it means good quality and ease of handling. Type of AM :
DASAM (Digital Access Services AM), IUSAM (ISDN User Services AM), ISOMAM (ISDN Operation & Maintenance AM) , ACAM (Analogue Access AM), BCAM (Business Communications AM), BCOMAM (Business Communications Operation &Maintenance AM), SSFAM (Service Switching Function AM), SYSOMAM (System Operation & Maintenance AM),PUBOMAM (Public Operation & Maintenance AM), FOAM (Formatting and Output AM), STAM (Statistics and Traffic Measurement AM)

AXE System Architecture


y

Resource module platform (RMP): This coordinates the system for the application modules. All hardware required by AMs is provided to them by RMP. This hardware may be physically located in RMP or in the XSS. Examples on different RMs
x COMRM Communication RM (Support the communication between RMs ) x CONRM Connection RM (Connection services, for connection through the Group Switch, GS. GS connections, Announcement machines, Conference-Call Device, CCD are handled by this RM.) x NAPRM Network Access Products RM (Exchange terminals, ET, ATM Link Interface, ALI.) x OMRM Operation and Maintenance RM (Functions for the protection of the system, for example load control, event reporting) x PDRM Pooled Devices RM (PDSPL applications, such as KRD, CSK, CSFSK) x CHARM Charging RM x CSPRM Common Signaling Protocols RM x BASRM Bearer Access Service RM

AXE System Architecture


y

Existing source system (XSS):


The main purpose of the XSS is to reuse existing and proven software. The XSS appears to other AMs as just another AM. The XSS may be modeled to provide any set of services or applications, for example PSTN, PSTN/transit, MSC etc. XSS is the name given to the telephony part of AXE (APT), which has been adapted to work in an Application Modularity based architecture. The XSS retains much of the previous APT functionality and continues to offer services to the PSTN subscribers and ISDN subscribers. However, some system-wide Operation and Maintenance (O&M) functions implemented in SYSOMAM (for example, call path tracing) or PUBOMAM (for example, equal access). Most functions implementing common resources, such as switching, are implemented in the RMs.The XSS requests these services from the RMs. Control System (APZ) : Processing in AXE is handled by the control part of AXE, the APZ. The primary function of the APZ is to provide the real time processing required by the Switching System and the applications.

AXE System Architecture


y y

Application platform service interface (APSI) The Application Platform Service Interface (APSI) is a system interface that offers client-server services to applications (the clients). APSI services are either implemented in RMP or XSS. These services are required for the coordination of the common resource that may be utilized by the different AMs. One example of a common resource is the Group Switch.
APSI services: Connection Making, Common Channel Signalling, Internal Communication Support and Coordination between AMs in use of RMs

AXE System Architecture


y

Non AM Based AXE Architecture

AXE consists two main parts:


1. 2.

APT APZ

APT
APT is a telephone part of AXE. It consist switching equipments. y APT consists of the exchange (printed board assemblies, lines, etc.)
y y

APT is divided into subsystems namely SSS, TSS, GSS,OMS, CCS,TCS, SUS etc. Each subsystem perform well defined function and has number of function blocks. Each function block have functional units. Some of the subsystems are realised in s/w and others in h/w & in s/w.

APZ
APZ is a control part of AXE y APZ is a dual processor system and brain of AXE. y It consists of hardware (Computer, memory, Input/Output devices etc) and software for administrating the work done by the computer. y APZ implemented in hardware and software and divided into subsystems namely CPS, MAS ( Maintenance Subsystem) FMS, SPS, DCS, etc. S/W (Programs & Data) of apt is stored in APZ hardware ( Program Store And Data Store)
y

Subscribers

APT
(Switching Equipment)

Trunks

APZ (Computer)

APT APZ Store Content

Type Of Processors
Two Type of Processors
y

CP ( Central Processor)
All decisions are made by the central processor. It is duplicated, CPA and CPB. CPA executing the processes and CPB is in standby mode. Both are compared continuously via an updating bus. Routine scanning of equipments like Lifting of handset by subscriber. This is done several times/sec. CP handles complex tasks.

RP (Regional Processors)
A number of RPs assist the CP in performing routine tasks and report important events occurring in the exchange to the CP. Each equipment controlled by its RP. Complex analysis and diagnostics requiring high computing capacity and large volume of data, e.g. Selection of o/g routes or traffic measurements. RP handles simple but frequent tasks.

Subscribers

APT
(Switching Equipment)
RP RP RP RP RP

Trunks

CP

APT APZ Store Content

Frequency & Simplicity

Scanning

RP
Filtering of signals X Analysis of digits

CP
X X

Fault analysis

Complexity RP Handles simple but frequent task, Whereas CP Handles Complex Tasks

Subsystem of APT
Some subsystems contain only software whereas others contain both software and hardware. HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 1. TSS (Trunk and Signaling Subsystem): The subsystem handles
the signaling over and the supervision of connections to other exchanges.
2.

GSS (Group Switching Subsystem): The subsystem sets up


connections, supervises and clears it. Selection of path through the switch takes place in the software.

3.

OMS (Operation and Maintenance Subsystem ): The software


contains various functions related to statistics and supervision. OMS is one of the largest subsystem in APT.

4. 5.

SSS (Subscriber Switching Subsystem): The subsystem handles traffic to


and from subscribers connected to the exchange.

CCS (Common Channel Signaling subsystem):

6.

Two variants exist: one for CCITT No.6 and one for CCITT No.7. CCS contains function for signaling, routing, supervision and correction of messages sent in accordance with CCITT NO.6 or No.7. MTS (Mobile Telephony Subsystem): The subsystem handles traffic to and from mobile subscribers.

SOFTWARE 7. TCS (Traffic Control Subsystem): It is a central part of APT and can be
said to replace the operator of a manual system. Examples are: Set-up, supervision and clearing of calls. Selection of outgoing roots. Analysis of incoming digits. Storage of subscriber categories. CHS (Charging Subsystem): The subsystem handles call metering (Call charging) functions. Two call metering methods are available i.e. pulse metering and toll ticketing.

8.

9. 10.

SUS (Subscriber Service Subsystem): Subscriber facilities (services),


such as abbreviated dialing, are implemented in SUS.

OPS (Operator Subsystem): The system handles the connection


and disconnection of operators. OPS cooperates with OTS (Operator Terminal System), which includes the operator positions.

11.

MNS (Network Management Subsystem): The subsystem contains


functions for supervising the traffic flow through the exchange, and for introducing temporary changes in that flow.

Hardware
TSS GSS OMS SSS

Circuit Board
CCS MTS

Regional Software at RP

TSS

GSS

OMS

SSS

CCS

MTS

Central Software at CP

TSS

GSS

OMS

SSS

CCS

MTS

TCS

CHS

SUS

OPS

MNS

The Structure of Subsystem in APT

Subsystem of APT
Four different type of processors are used in the AXE system. These are APZ 210,APZ 211,APZ 212 and APZ 213.
Processor APZ 210 APZ 211 APZ 212 APZ 213 BHCA 144,000 150,000 800,000 11,000 Capacity 40,000 subs 200,000 subs 2,000 subs

APT control part is implemented in hardware and software . The subsystems are as follows. APZ Subsystem.. HARDWARE & SOFTWARE 1. CPS(Central Processor Subsystem): This subsystem contains both software and hardware, performs functions such as job administration, store handling loading and changing of programs.

2.

MAS(Maintenance Subsystem): The MAS is in APZ211


consists only of software where its counterpart in APZ 212 contains both software and hardware. The primary task of the subsystem is to locate hardware faults and software errors, and to minimize the effects of such faults/errors.

RPS (Regional processor Subsystem): This subsystem contains both software and hardware. The hardware is in the form of regional processors, while the software consists of administrative programs located in regional processors. IOS (Input output subsystem) 1. MCS (Man-machine communication system) 2. SPS (Support Processor Subsystem) 3. DCS (Data Communication Subsystem) 4. FMS (File Management Subsystem) HDD=2.4GB/Node, 1 FDD,600 MB tape drive.
3.

Call Processing
A subscriber lifts hand set, the EMRP scans all device in LIC at regular intervals and inform to LI2 (Digital Line Circuit). LI2 send a signal to CJ block (Combined Junctor). Which coordinate activities performed with SSS subsystem and reserve channel.

LIC EMTS
EMRP
SSS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
TSS GSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing

( Connecting a KRC)

The information of Subscriber facility or categories received from SC block (subs. category block). If the subscriber has a keyset phone, a KRC (keyset code receiver) must be connected. CJ then order KR2(Digital keyset code receiver) to select free KRC and KR2 has found such a device it orders the time switch (TS) to setup a connection between the subscribers LIC and selected KRC.

LIC EMTS
EMRP
SSS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
TSS GSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing ( Selection of Register and sending dial tone)


An RE(Register Functions) individual is now reserved to handle the set-up of call, for this CJ send s a signal to RE via SC to fetch categories. When an RE individual has been selected, the exchange is ready to receive digits. RE informs CJ to that effect and CJ passes the information on KR2, which activates the function for sending of dial tone to subscriber.

Dial Tone

LIC EMTS
EMRP
SSS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
TSS GSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing

(Analysing the first digit)

The subscriber dial first digit is detected by the KRC. The KR2 block sends the digit to CJ, which sends it on to RE. RE stores the digit and sends it to DA (Digit Analysis). DA has some information tables. The result sent reverse to RE for different kind of action. Analysis results could have Number Length or Charging case for CA(Charging Analysis).

Number Dial

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing (Analysis of chargng case and outgoing route)


RE (register function) receive a route case as analysis result from DA and send it direct to the RA block (Route Analysis) for further analysis. RA responds by indicating the O/G route to be used indicated by DA as analysis result in the same manner, but send it to CA (Charging Analysis) instead.

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing ( Select of an O/G Line)


The information about the rout to be send by RE to BT block (Bothway trunk) to select O/G trunk. If route is busy then RE will ask the RA about alternate route. BT answers RE by telling it which line has been selected and RE can now ask the GS block (Group Switch) to reserve a path from JT/RT channel to the BT channel

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing ( The digit are sent to the next exchange)


The information received from RA tells RE how many digits are to be sent. The digit sent to BT, which forward them together with information about destination to C7DR block ( CCITT 7, Distribution and routing) After examining the destination data C7DR selects the proper signaling terminal for sending the message.The signaling administered by C7ST block (Signaling terminal)

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing

( End of selection)

Order selection of a PD(Pulse distribution) individual for charging of the call. Order GS (Group Switch) to set-up the path reserved. Order CJ to setup the call through the subscriber stage. CJ order KR2 to disconnect the KRC and TS to setup a connection between the subs. LIC and the reserved JT/RT channel.

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Call Processing

( Clearing the call)

The clearing operation is to start when the A-subs. Replace his handset. The LI2 block (Line Interface) detect the replacement event and forwards information about this to CL via CJ. CL decides whether clearing is to be started. If so, CL order the BT, CJ and PD block to clear the connection.The subsequent call clearing within the SSS subsystem is coordinated by the CJ block.

LIC EMTS

KRC GS

ETC ST -7

Hardware
SSS

TSS

LI2
JT/RT

TS CJ

KR2

GSS

BT
C7LABT

Software

GS

CCS TCS CHS

C7DR

CL RE DA SC RA
C7ST

CA PD

Subsystem Functions
y

The switching functions in AXE are performed by the following subsystems


Subscriber Switching Subsystem (SSS) Group Switching Subsystem (GSS) Extended Switching Subsystem (ESS)

y y y

SSS functions are used in the access network to connect subscribers to the local exchange GSS functions are used for selecting, connecting and disconnecting paths through the group switch. ESS functions are used for announcement of recorded messages and for simultaneous connection of more than two subscribers.

Subsystem Functions
SSS (Subscriber switching subsystem)
Analog signal from subscriber is converted into digital form using LIC(line interface card). Other functions are as follows. y Feed current to the subscriber line. y Concentrate the traffic towards the group switch. y Receive digits from dial telephones (pulses). y Receive digits from keyset telephone (tones). y Send ring signals and different tones to subscriber. y Carry out measurements on the subscriber line.
Single board consists 8 LIC (line interface circuit). LIC connected with EMTS (Extension module time switch) and KRC is other hardware for receive digital tone from phone of subscriber. Regional software:- LIR( regional software of block LI), TSR (regional software of block TS), KRR (regional software of block KR) Central software:- LIU( central software of block LI), TSU (central software of block TS), KRU (central software of block KR)

SSS consist two type of switch: LSS and RSS


LSS: Local Subscriber Switches, also commonly known as Local EMG (Extension Module Group ). RSS: Remote Subscriber switch and remote EMG. SSS has following magazines. LSM-A,LSM-BA(2B+D),LSM-PRA(30B+D) for analog, BRI, PRI type service, SEPRM (private meter card) one card can provide 8 metered subscriber. SSS consist LSS and RSS each can equipped with 16 LSM and can connect 2048 analog subscriber. LSS connected to GSS via 2 to 32 number of PCM(2Mbps) link. Maximum 1024 RPS in AXE-10 are working in load sharing mode. 2 to 16 LSS/RSS system are connected. SULTACCS : subscriber line testing card by howler tone.

LSM A LSM BA LSM PRA


y

128 ANALOG SUBS. ( 32 LI PCBs x 4 SUBS/ PER LI Card) 64 x (2B + D ) SUBS. (8 LIBA PCBs x 8 (2B +D ) SUBS.PER LIBA ) 4x. (30 B + D ) SUBS.( 4 LIPA PCBs x 1 ( 30B + D ) SUBS .

ONE FULLY EQUIPPED EMG(Extension module group) OCCUPIES 3 CABINET SPACE. ONE FULLY EQUIPPED EMG CAN ACCOMMODATE UPTO 2048 ANALOG SUBS. EACH EMG CAN HAVE MINIMUM 2 PCM LINES AND MAXIMUM 32 PCM LINES TOWARDS SWITCHING NETWORK CALLED GROUP SWITCH. WE CAN PROVIDE THE REQUIRED NO. OF PCM LINES DEPENDING UPON TRAFFIC REQUIREMENTS SO AS TO FULLY UTILISE 2048 EQUIPMENTS, IF PROVIDED.

CONCENTRATION RATIO ACHIEVED : WITH 8 PCMs 16 PCMs 32 PCMs : : : 2048 : 240 i.e. 8:1 2048 : 480 i.e.4:1 2048 : 960 i. e. 2:1

Subsystem Functions
GSS (Group Switching Subsystem)
y y y y y

Selection, connection and disconnection of speech or signal paths passing through the Group Switch. Supervision of hardware in the subsystem by continuous, periodic and traffic-dependent supervision, for example through-connection tests. Supervision of DL, Digital Link, interfaces connected to the switch. To maintain a stable and accurate clock frequency for network synchronization

It consist two module TSM (Time Switch), SPM (Space Switch) in TST fashion. One fully equipped GSS have 128 TSM and 16 SPM so total ports are =128*16*32=65536 O/P of each TSM is a 16 PCM multiplexing and it connected with SPM in horizontal. Horizontal accumulation =512 timeslot each of 244 nano second. Each time slot carries 10bit(8 bit speech ,1bit parity and 1 for selection bit)

Subsystem Functions
GSS (Group Switching Subsystem)
A fully equipped SPM have 32 horizontal and 32 vertical time slot. 32*32*16= 16384 = 16K group switch
y

1 SPM s

for upto 16k positions (X points )

y y y

4 SPMs 9 SPMs 16 SPMs

for upto 32k for upto 48k for upto 64k (Optimum size)

Traffic handling capacity= 64k at optimum condition = 26000Earlang. Blocking Factor = .00001 at 0.8 Erlang. BHCA =8,00,000

TSS (trunk signaling subsystem) one TSS cabinet has 12 ETC magazine. Each ETC magazine has 8 cards so total 12*8=96 Cards or 96 PCM (1pcm per card) are connected with one TSS. TSS includes tone sender and receiver.

Subsystem Functions
ESS (Extended Switching Subsystem)
y

y y y

The extended switching functions can be implemented in subsystem ESS in an ordinary existing source system environment (XSS) or in the subsystem ESS-R in the resource module platform (RMP). Broadcast messages to several subscribers at the same time Conference calls Interactive voice services

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