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Knowledge Management: Overview

by Mrs. Janet Scheitle

What is Knowledge?

The Old Pyramid



knowledge  wisdom

Information that changes something or somebody becoming grounds for action by making an individual, or institution capable of different, more effective action Drucker, The New Realities

What is Knowledge Management?

More definitions than Webster


More varieties than Heinz 57


Wiig Drucker Rumizen Neilson My Take

British Petroleum Buckman Labs Ford Others

A few Foundation Principles and Building Concepts



Knowledge Influences Success Knowledge Resides in the Heads of People Two Types of Knowledge  Codified  Personalized Knowledge Sharing Requires a Conduit to Happen Systemically Technology is the conduit Knowledge Sharing Requires Trust KM embraces both the Knowledge Based organization and the Learning Organization KM has planned architectural frameworks

Knowledge Influences Success



Peter Drucker (the one factor) Toffler (Survival in Knowledge Age is not who can read or write but who can learn and unlearn quicker) Nonaka (the cutting edge) Tom Peters (sum total of valueadded) Handy, Drucker (primary factor of productivity)

Knowledge Originates and Resides in the Heads of People and the Two Types of Knowledge

Explicit knowledge that is codified, recorded, or actualized into some form outside of the head

Books, periodicals, journals, maps, photographs, audiorecordings Webpages, websites, portals

Tacit Knowledge from experience and insight, not in a recorded form, but in our heads, intuition Intellectual capital  

Doesn t mean much unless packaged in useful ways technology and global environment is redefining useful ways

Technology Enables New Knowledge Behaviors


Technology shapes how we live (radio, television, computer, biotechnology) Pushes KM, doesn t drive it Facilitates flow of knowledge  One look, one feel  Easy access  Easy dissemination (push-pull)  Different storage (from paper to digits)

Knowledge sharing and transfer requires trust


Trust is hard to build in cyberspace Trust usually requires initial face-to-face Sharing must be open and reciprocal Based upon a commonality Time to do so Social identity in cyberspace

Shift from Managing Stocks of Stuff to Managing Flows of Knowledge (Nielson)

Librarians use to managing stuff


Books Magazines Cassettes Buildings and furniture, land People Money Computers Fiber optics Bandwidth

Administrators use to managing stuff


Automators use to Managing Stuff


KM Embraces the Learning Organization and the KBO


Peter Senge, The Fifth Discipline Learning Styles (Visual, Auditory, Kinesthetic) Change Intervention Styles (Engineer, Teacher, Socializer, Commander) Adult Learning Theory (Experiential, Critical Reflection, Self-Directed) Share knowledge to learn quicker, relearn and unlearn faster What is a KBO?

Knowledge Requires Capture, Organization, Access and Leverage


Capture form is written, auditory or graphical representations Organization is via tables of content, indexes, classification systems used by publishers, libraries, etc Access when physical body goes to where the knowledge is located a library, a company, a research laboratory, a school Tacit knowledge rarely tapped Leverage is a sum game


Capture from is digits in cyberspace Organization via software programs designed upon engineering principles, mathematical equations, word associations in cyberspace 24/7/365 Access wherever the physical bodies link via computers Tacit knowledge tapped using many different technological tools Leverage is exponential, multiples upon multiples

Knowledge Work Activities

Ac qu i r e An a l yz e O r g a n i ze C o d i fy Co m m u n i c a ttei l i z e U Re sult

Knowledge Architectures: It Takes a Lot -- the Four Pillars KM

Environmental Influences
Political Social Governmental Economic

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT The Architecture of Enterprise Engineering

Business Culture Strategic Planning - Vision and Goals Climate Growth Segmentation Communications

BPR - Processes - Procedures Metrics MBO TQM/L Workflow Communications

E-mail OLAP Data Warehousing Search Engines Decision Support Process Modeling Management Tools Communications

Intuition Innovation vs. Invention Learning Community Virtual Teams Shared Results Exchange Forums Communications



Systems Management


Systems Engineering

Organization Development

Organization Behavior

Stankosky, Calabrese, Baldanza, 1999

AKM Goals & Structure









Initiatives Enterprise Portfolio Mgmt Architecture Capital Planning & Investment Mgmt Army Regulations & Policy Revisions AKM Strategic Communications Plan Elimination LandWarNet of Applications Battle Command Integrate Knowledge System Reserve Component Foxhole to Factory Enterprise Processes Directory Services Collaborative Processes Achieve eArmy Transformation NETOPS CONOPS Defense In-Depth InServer and Processing Center Consolidation National Security Personnel Sys Human Resource NCES Services Planning Key component Professionalization Of LandWarNet of Workforce Standard Army Institutionalize AKM Web Presense in Schoolhouses Common Uwer Information Operations Interface Assets Distributed AKO



KM is different from a KMS

KM is whole ball of wax (people, technology, processes, learning, business) KMS is a knowledge management system that makes it happen KMS is comprised of four components

Content management applications Expertise locator applications Collaboration Portal

All tightly integrated

KM Important Lessons Learned


KM - beyond fad a distinct management concept suggesting it s prudent to manage the intellectual assets of an enterprise, to cultivate for advantage in the marketplace KM is complex, integrative with other disciplines Old skills and abilities don t necessarily work in KM environment must be redefined, polished, updated Principles and concepts are not new- what s new is the merger with technology to do so and practical applications Librarians have many skills that apply to KM