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Optical Networking for Distributed Computing Environment

Hiroaki Harai (harai@nict.go.jp) National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), Japan May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005

Research Background
 Distributed computing environment via Internet (GRID)  Difficult to assure delay and bandwidth Best effort, TCP  Difficulty in tractability for application engineer  Distributed computing environment on wavelength-routed network (Optical GRID)  On request from an end host, a lightpath is established between two end hosts  Multi Gbit/s bandwidth is assured by directly connecting end host resources OXC Request may be blocked P  Focus on Optical GRID


May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)

Research Goal and Contents

 Contribute to advance in distributed computing technology and distributed computing application development by  Using optical networking technology (optical component and control system)  Developing distributed computing environment that assures data transmission bandwidth between hosts  Develop distributed computing environment over P-path networks  1st step: Dynamic establishment of optical ring (multiple paths connecting multiple computing sites) Optical networking for distributed computing environment [today s title]
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)

Remaining Contents of This Talk

 Make dynamic optical ring for distributed computing  Cooperating routing for point-to-point communications  Establishing an optical ring with minimal-cost by using a heuristic for traveling salesman problem  Mapping a ring composition to signaling  Evaluate performance  Apply ring composition concept to CEF network  Conclusion and future direction

May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)

Making Dynamic Optical Ring for Distributed Computing Environment

Optical GRID <Image>

 Develop distributed computing environment over WDM networks  Multi-site communications  High-speed channel (path)  guaranteed bandwidth

P1 Initial data
Wavelength-Routed Network

P3 Final computation result


Temporal Computational data

Optical GRID environment May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 6

Optical Ring for Multi-Site Communications Multi Establishing a set of fully-meshed lightpaths is difficult  Tree or ring?  Light tree (bi-directional multicast tree)  Optimization: Find the least-cost tree by solving minimum Steiner tree problem  Required: Multicast capability at internal node  Optical ring (set of unidirectional lightpaths)  Optimization: Find the least-cost set of lightpaths by solving traveling salesman problem  Required: Data duplication at hosts  Making optical rings  Can reduce number of required wavelengths (channels)  Can use wavelength resources effectively
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 7

Making Optical Ring Dynamically

 Make multiple lightpaths dynamically  Hosts establish an optical ring with  Hosts receive routing information from network 1. Considering routing constraint (routing for point-topoint communication)  Each host decides a host closest to the host as a destination of a lightpath 2. Solving traveling salesman problem under limited route information of hosts P1  Each host establish a lightpath to the destination host P3 OXC 3. Map optical ring composition P2 to wavelength reservation signaling
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 8

Considering Routing Constraint

 It is practically difficult for nodes (routers) to have all the optimal routes for the unidirectional rings  For number of hosts N, the optimal number of routes for  Optical lightpaths (1to1) is N (N -1) 5 a 4 a 4 5 b N 6 6 b  Optical rings (k-to-k) is N C k 5 e 5 2 e 2 k !2
1d 3 c 1d 3 c

 Optimal route for optical ring is different depending on number of hosts and set of hosts  Network does not exist only for multi-site communication  Nodes have point-to-point routing information only  Nodes advertise routing information to hosts  Each host has routing information from itself and does not have routing information that is not related to itself
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 9

Optical Ring Composition (TSP Heuristic)

1. [Parent] For set of hosts S={hs, h1, h2, , hG-1}, Generate list of hosts assigned lightpath (L={ }), list of hosts not assigned lightpath (U= {hs,h1, h2, , hG-1}) 2. [Parent] Remove hs from U, add it to L (L={hs}, U = {h1, h2, , hG-1}). Establish a lightpath from hs to host h that is included in U and is the least-cost 3. [Child] Remove destination host h from list U and add it to list L (e.g., L={hs, hG-1}, U = {h1, h2, , hG-2} if h=hG-1 ). If not U={ }, establish a lightpath from h to host that is included in U and is the least cost. Repeat this until U={ }. 4. [Child] Establish a lightpath from host that is included in list L most recently to host hs
4 5 a b c 3 5 a b c 3 a b e 1d 3 c e 5 5 e 1d May 17, 2005 5 e 1d 1 5 a 6 4 b 5 e 2 1d 3 c 2 5 e d 3 a 6 c 4 b

a e d

4 b 2 c

a 6 b 2

d 3 c

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Ring Composition to Wavelength Reservation Signaling (FORWARD direction)

 If a lightpath is reserved  Destination host sends ACK to the source host  Destination starts reservation to the next lightpath  Source host sends P-ACK to the parent host  Otherwise, destination sends NACK to the source host  The parent host regards receiving all P-ACKs as success of ring establishment
Host (b) a; L={a} Parent host (a)U={b,c} Host (c) Parent host (a) a; L={a,b,c} U={ }

a; L={a,b} U={c}

Data transfer


May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Evaluating Performance

Performance Evaluation (Number of Used Wavelengths)

     Evaluate number of links required for communication in a group 16-node (4x4 mesh) network Tree: setting up bi-directional lightpaths from parent hosts to other hosts Ring Non-Shortest : setting up unidirectional lightpaths in random order Ring Shortest : setting up unidirectional lightpaths for optimal resource usage

Calculate average of total hop count for each number of hosts in a group
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 13

Performance Evaluation (FORWARD)

 Ring request: Poisson, holding time: exponential (mean 1)  G hosts in a group is selected randomly  At each source host, a wavelength is randomly selected for reservation
100,000 requests, p_delay=0.01, W=8 1
Blocking Probability



NonShort, G=10 NonShort, G=5 Shortest, G=10 Shortest, G=5 0.01 0.1 Arrival Rate 1 10

0.001 0.001

 Larger G (G=10) slightly increases performance difference  Sustaining the number of links required gives good influences to the performance
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT) 14

Applying Ring Composition Concept to Customer-Empowered-Fiber Network Customer-Empowered-

Peer Model, Overlay Model

 Peer model is assumed in previous discussion  End host is a unit of a network  Collect routing information from the network  Request a wavelength path  Overlay model is possible in previous discussion  End host estimates network topology in logical level  End host estimates available wavelengths
Estimate routing (virtual link cost)

Signaling Routing
- Lightpath request - Estimate virtual topology and available wavelengths

Peer model

Overlay model

May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Customer-EmpoweredCustomer-Empowered-Fiber Network Model

 End host can  Send control packets to the network (=peer model)  Obtain routing information (=peer model)  Set up internal connection of internal node ( { peer model)  Communication between customer to every node  May consume time
Switch Connection Control

Signaling Routing

CEF Network

May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Conclusion and Future Direction Future

 Optical networking for distributed computing environment  Dynamic ring composition method for effective wavelength utilization  TSP heuristic  Signaling (FORWARD reservation)  Cooperation between nodes and hosts for lightpath establishment  Nodes only do routing for point-to-point communications and advertise the routing information to neighbor hosts  Hosts collect routing information and decide destination for lightpath establishment  Future direction  BACKWARD reservation (compatibility to GMPLS RSVP-TE)  Implementation  Deployment to Peer/CEF network
May 17, 2005 CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Future Direction (On Planning)

 JGN2 (R&D testbed by NICT, http://www.jgn.nict.go.jp/e/) has 1/10Gbps L2/L3 lines, and dark fibers (G.655 NZDSF, G.652 SMF)




May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


 Professor M. Murata (Osaka University) for valuable comments for optical networking  Dr. F. Kubota, and Dr. T. Miyazaki (NICT) for experiment planning discussion

May 17, 2005

CEF Workshop 2005 (H. Harai, NICT)


Thank You for Your Attention