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Geometrical Tolerances

Geometrical Tolerances on drawing


Precision measurement of
geometrical tolerances
According to ‘limits and 44.98

fits’ tolerances, the shaft 45.00 φ 45.01

Ø
will be able to fit into the
hole.
1. Why GD&T
The shaft is made the same
size tolerances is slightly bow 44.98
shaped, the shaft may not fit 45.00 45.30 φ 45.01

Ø
into the hole, due to

Ø
straightness error.

Thus Geometrical Tolerance 44.98

is required in addition to the 45.00

Ø
normal dimensional
tolerances. φ 0.01 M
Geometrical Errors
a)Perfect Form

b)Deviation From Perfect Form


2. When to use Geometrical
Tolerances?
To control more precisely the FORM and SHAPE of some
features of a manufactured part.

This may arise due to:


a. functional requirement of the part.
b. relationship with other parts.
c. interchangeability of the parts.
d. ease of assembly and economical production of the parts.
e. functional gauging techniques.
3. Symbols for Toleranced
Geometric Characteristics
Type of
characteristics Symbol Tolerance Application

Straightness

Flatness For
Form individual
Circularity features

Cylindricity
No need
For datum
Profile of a line
Profile individual
Profile of a surface or related
features
Angularity

Perpendicularit Orientation
y
For
Parallelism related
features
Position including
concentricity and symmetry Location
Need
Circular runout datum
Runout
Total runout
4. Feature control frame
What geometry
to control ?

Tolerance Value & Modifier Datum


Tolerance
Symbol &
Modifier

What feature to What’s the Need


control ? shape & size of datum ?
tol. zone ?

0.075 M A B C
Single feature
(without datum) 0.1

Related feature
(with datum) 0.1 A
Other information
concerning the 8 HOLES Ø10 8 x Ø10
toleranced feature is
placed above the Ø 0.2 or Ø 0.2
frame
To specify more than
one toleranced
characterisitic for a:- Feature
0.03
0.05 A

Datum 0.2
A
0.1

Toleranced 0.3 A
Characteristics
0.1 B
Toleranced A
value Ø 0.3
B
5. Methods of Applying the Toleranced
Frame
Diagram Description
On the feature
or
Extension line
Dimension line (for axis of circular
features)

Width dimension line (for median plane


of a non-circluar feature)
Continuation..
.
Methods of Applying the Toleranced Frame

Diagram Description
on the axis or median plane when the
tolerance refers to the common axis or
median plane of all features.
6. Methods of Specifying Datum
Features
• All datum to be indicated by an equilateral triangular
symbol.
• All datum to be identified by capital letters enclosed in a
square box, connected to a datum symbol.
• A different letter should be used for each datum
identification.
• Letters E, I, O, M, P and Q should not be used for the
identification of datum.
• Tolerance frame can be directly connected with the datum
feature by a leader line. The datum letter may be omitted.
Indication of Datum and Datum Systems Within A Tolerance Frame

Diagram Description

Datum established by a
single feature.
A Datum is indicated by a
capital letter in the third
compartment.

A common datum formed


by two datum features.

A-B It is indicated in the third


compartment by two capital
letters separated by a
hyphen.
(Continuation)

Indication of Datum and Datum Systems


within a Tolerance Frame

Diagram Description
Third (Tertiary)
Second (Secondary) Three datumns in the
First (Primary) sequence of importance.

A BC
Methods of Specifying Datum Features

Diagram Description
A
0.2 A
On the feature.

Dimension line (for axis)

Width dimension line (for median plane)


Continuation..
.
Methods of Specifying Datum Features

Diagram Description
A Common axis or median plane
(two or more features.)

Axis (single feature)


Examples of Datum Reference Frame and
Sequence Interpretation

A
3 points
Primary Plane

Ø15 H7 2 points
Ø 0.1 A B
B Secondary Plane B
The theoretical exact dimensions are enclosed in a
rectangular box; e.g. 50 , EQUI-SPACED .

8 x Ø15 H7
Ø 0.1 A B
B
30
15

20 35 35 35
A
Combined Tolerances
In addition to limits of size, geometrical tolerances are
given for a closer control of the shape.
Geometrical tolerances are always finer and within the
size limits.

Geometric Tolerance Zone;


two planes 0.020 apart inside
Size Zone 0.70 the size tolerance zone
0.020

Max Limit 84.35


Min Limit 83.65
84.00 ± 0.35

Fig 9.1 Drawing Instruction Fig 9.2 Interpretation


7. Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Straightness The median planes are to lie between two parallel


(a) planes 0.02mm apart.
0.02

0.02

(b) Any position of the generator of the cylinder is to


lie between two parallel straight lines, 0.02mm
apart, lying in an axial plane 0.02

(c) The axis of the cylinder A is to lie in a cylindrical


tolerance zone of 0.02mm diameter

Ø 0.02

Back Next
Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Straightness The axis of the whole component is to lie in a


(d) cylindrical tolerance zone of 0.05mm diameter.
Ø 0.05

Perpendicularity The axis of the upright member is to lie between


the intersection of four planes, that are
(a) perpendicular to datum plane A

0.3 0.2

datum A
Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Perpendicularity The left hand end of the component is to lie


(b) between two planes 0.05mm apart, that are
perpendicular to the shaft axis, datum A.
0.05

datum A

Position The axis of each hole is to be contained within a


cylinder Ø0.05mm, whose axis is in the true
position specified by the dimensions

Ø0.05
50

50 75
Continuation..
. Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Position (concentricity) The axis of the middle section of the shaft is to lie
within a cylinder ø0.05mm, that is co-axial with the
common datum axis of the ends C and D.
ø0.05

Position (symmetry) The median plane of the tongue is to lie between


two parallel planes 0.05mm apart, which are
equally spaced about the median plane of the
datum width A.
0.05
Continuation..
. Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description


Cylindricity The cylindrical surface of the part is to lie between
2 cylindrical surface, co-axial with each other at a
radial distance of 0.03mm apart.
0.03 0.03

Profile The actual profile is to lie between two profiles


separated by a series of spheres Ø0.04mm, whose
centres lie on the theoretical profile.

Sphere Ø0.04
Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Angularity The inclined surface must be contained between


two parallel planes 0.04mm apart, at the true angle
to datum.
0.04

datum D

Parallelism The top surface must lie between two planes


0.3mm apart and parallel to the hole axis, datum A.

0.3

datum A
(hole axis)
Continuation..
. Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Circularity Any cross section of the cylinder perpendicular to


the axis is to lie between two concentric circles of
radial distance 0.02mm apart.
0.02

Runout The runout of the central portion must not exceed


0.2mm normal to the datum axis at any point along
the surface.
0.05
Continuation..
. Examples of Indication and Interpretation of Geometrical Tolerances

Symbol/Drawing Callout Interpretation/Description

Total Runout The axis of the middle section of the shaft is to lie
within a cylinder ø0.05mm, that is co-axial with the
common datum axis of the ends C and D.
ø0.05
Many geometrical
features are measured
using Coordinate
measuring machine
(CMM)
Any Questions
You have just learnt:
2. Why GD&T
3. When to apply GD&T
4. Symbols for GD&T
5. Feature control frame
6. How to apply feature control frame
7. How to apply datum feature
8. Interpretation of GD&T symbols