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Pollution Control Technology

BY : Muhammad Rehan Tahir Mphil Environmental policy & Management Msc Physics rehan263@gmail.com

Wastewater Management

Source: www.oconomowocusa.com/ wastewater.gif

Clean Water Act


The Clean Water Act governs the discharge of wastewater. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972, as amended by the Clean Water Act of 1977 and the Water Quality Act of 1987, gave the EPA broad authority to establish the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES).  The NPDES program regulates the discharge of pollutants from point sources, such municipal sources, treatment plants, industries, animal feedlots, aquatic plants, animal production facilities, and mining operations.


Part-1: Characteristics and Parttreatment Systems

Engineered Water Systems

Significance of Wastewater Contaminants


      

Suspended solids can cause sludge deposits and anaerobic conditions in the environment Biodegradable organics can cause anaerobic conditions in the environment Pathogens transmit disease Nutrients can cause eutrophication Heavy metals toxicity to biota and humans Refractory organics toxicity to biota and humans Dissolved solids interfere with reuse

Characteristics of Domestic Wastewater

OnOn-Site Disposal Systems




  

In locations where sewers and a centralized wastewater treatment system are not available, on site disposal must be used Septic systems most common for individual residences Engineered systems used for unfavorable site systems conditions Larger systems required for housing clusters, rest areas, commercial and industrial facilities

Septic Systems

Septic Tank: settling, flotation and anaerobic degradation

Septic Systemscontd.

Drain field (cross-section) aerobic degradation

Septic Systemscontd.


Soil must pass percolation test


  

soil type rate of water infiltration depth to water table Tank volume and number of chambers Drain field size Drain field materials

Design specifications
  

  

Basis for design is empirical Tank must be pumped to remove solids every 1-3 years Drain field replacement may be required

Engineered Systems..Mound system

Mound systems are both treatment and disposal systems Design overcomes certain site restrictions, e.g., slowly permeable soils, low WT etc.

Engineered SystemsIntermittent sand filters


Sand filter is also an aerobic treatment system  Surface of the bed is intermittently dosed with waste water  Size of dose should not saturate sand  Water is collected in the under drain and passed on to absorption field.


Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems

Municipal Wastewater Treatment Systems


Pretreatment removes materials that can cause operational problems, equalization optional  Primary treatment remove ~60% of suspended solids and ~35% of BOD  Secondary treatment remove ~85% of BOD and suspended solids  Advanced treatment varies: 95+ % of BOD and solids, N, P


Pretreatment of Industrial Wastewaters


wastewaters must be pretreated prior to being discharged to municipal sewer system  Approach is to remove materials that will not be treated by municipal system  Local authority must monitor and regulate industrial discharges  Pretreatment requirements set by U.S. EPA
 Industrial

Prohibitions for industries


     

Pollutants that create a fire hazard or explosion Pollutants that can cause corrosive structural damage to WWTP Solid or viscous pollutants in amounts that will cause obstruction to flow Any pollutant, incl. Oxygen demanding wastes released at a flow rate that will cause interference with WWTP Heat in amount that will inhibit biological activity Petroleum oil, non-biodegradable oil or products of nonmineral oil in amounts that will cause interference or pass through untreated Pollutants that result in toxic gases, vapors or fumes gases, within WWTP in a quantity that may cause acute worker health and safety problems

Bar racks


 

Purpose: remove larger objects that would damage or foul the pumps, valves or other mechanical equipment Solid material stored in hopper and sent to landfill Mechanically or manually cleaned

Grit Chambers


  

Purpose: remove inert dense material, Purpose: such as sand, broken glass, silt and pebbles All these material combined are called grit Avoid abrasion of pumps and other mechanical devices Three basic types:


 

VelocityVelocity-controlled (also called horizontal flow grit chambers) Aerated Constant level short-term short-

VelocityVelocity-controlled only can be analyzed by Type-1 settling (Stokes Typelaw)

Grit Chambers: Velocity Controlled

Type I Settling - Stokes Law


g ( V s  V )d 2 vs ! 18Q
where s = settling velocity = density of particle (kg/m3) s = density of fluid (kg/m3) g = gravitational constant (m/s2) d = particle diameter (m) = dynamic viscosity (Pas)

Example: Grit Chamber Design




Design a grit chamber to remove sand particles (Vs = 2650 kg/m3) with a mean (V diameter of 0.21 mm. Assume the sand is spherical and the temperature of the wastewater is 20 oC. The wastewater flow is 10,000 m3/d. A velocity of 0.3 m/s will be automatically maintained, and the depth must be 1.5 times the width at maximum flow. Note: Note: Design means the size (length, width and height)

Solution
Calculate the settling velocity:
2 m kg kg 2650 3  998 3 2.1 v 10-4 m g ( Vs  V )d 2 m s2 m m ! ! 0.039 vs ! kg 18Q s 18 1.00 v 103 ms Calculate the cross-sectional area:

9.8

Q m3 s d min 2 As ! ! 10, 000 ! 0.39 m v d 0.3 m 1440 min 60 s Calculate depth and width A As ! W v 1.5W ! 1.5W W ! s 1.5 D ! W v 1.5 ! 0.51 v 1.5 ! 0.76 m
2 0.5

0.39 ! 1.5

0.5

! 0.51 m

Determine the detention time required for a particle to fall the entire tank depth td ! 0.76 m D ! ! 19.4 s vs 0.039 m/s

Determine the length to achieve this detention time L ! td v v ! 19.4 s v 0.3 m/s ! 5.8 m Thus, the tank must have dimensions W = 0.51 m, D = 0.76 m, L = 5.8 m

Equalization Basin
   

Flow equalization is not a treatment process Technique to improve the effectiveness of primary and secondary treatment Accounts for diurnal variations in wastewater flow Usually achieved by large basins to collect wastewater and pumped to treatment plant at a constant rate Adequate aeration and mixing need to be provided to prevent odors and deposition of solids

Primary Treatment
Separates suspended solids and grease from wastewater.  Wastewater is held in a tank for several hours allowing the particles to settle to the bottom and the greases to float to the top.  The solids drawn off the bottom and skimmed off the top receive further treatment as sludge. sludge.  The clarified wastewater flows on to the next stage of wastewater treatment.


Primary Settling Basins

Primary Settling Tank Design


  

Characterized by Type-II settling, therefore no Type- settling, mathematical relationship is used for design Design data are developed from lab tests with settling columns Size
 

rectangular: 3-24 m wide x 15-100 m long 315circular: 3-90 m diameter 3-

  

Detention time: 1.5 -2.5 hours Overflow rate: 25-60 m3/m2day 25Typical removal efficiencies
 

Suspended solids: 50-60% 50BOD5: 30-35% 30-

Secondary Treatment
 Provide

BOD and suspended solids removal beyond what is achieved in primary treatment  Basic approach is to use aerobic aerobic biological degradation: degradation: organic carbon + O2
 Objective

CO2

is achieved by allowing the BOD to be exerted in the treatment plant rather than in the stream

How is this accomplished?




  

Create a very rich environment for growth of a diverse microbial community by keeping a high density of microorganisms in the system Maintain good contact between organisms and wastes (provide (provide mixing) mixing) Provide high levels of oxygen aeration) (aeration) Favorable temperature, pH, nutrients (design and operation) No toxic chemicals present inputs) (control industrial inputs)

Unit Processes of Secondary Treatment


 Dispersed/suspended


Growth

Activated sludge  Oxidation ditches/ponds  Aerated lagoons, stabilization ponds  Fixed/attached Growth  Trickling filters  Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs)

Activated Sludge
Process in which a mixture of wastewater and microorganisms (biological sludge) is agitated and aerated  Leads to oxidation of dissolved organics  After oxidation, sludge is separated from wastewater  To induce microbial growth, we need:

 

Food, oxygen Mixed Liquor Suspended Solids (MLSS) of 3,000 to 6,000 mg/L

East Lansing WWTP

Activated Sludge
w/w Return Sludge

Mixed Liquor

Air

Waste Activated Sludge (WAS)

Secondary clarifier

Treated w/w Discharge to River or Land Application

Activated Sludge Design


 td

= approximately 6 - 8 hr  8 m3 of air per m3 of wastewater treated  Long rectangular aeration basins  Air is injected near bottom of aeration tanks through system of diffusers  Aeration system used to provide mixing  MLVSS and F/M controlled by wasting a portion of microorganisms

F/M ratio- Major design parameter ratio

Low F/M (low rate of wasting)


  

F QS0 ! where: M VX Q ! flow rate S0 ! initial soluble BOD V ! volume X ! mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS)


 

starved organisms more complete degradation larger, more costly aeration tanks more O2 required higher power costs (to supply O2 ) less sludge to handle organisms saturated with food low treatment efficiency

High F/M (high rate of wasting)


 

Trickling Filters
    

Not a true filtering or sieving process. The filter media (fist size rocks) only provides surface for bacteria to grow. Rotating distribution arm sprays primary effluent over circular bed of rock or other coarse media Air circulates in pores between rocks Biofilm develops on rocks and micro-organisms degrades waste Biofilm micromaterials as they flow past Organisms slough off in clumps when film gets too thick

Trickling Filters
 Can


use plastic media

 

lighter - can get deeper beds (up to 12 m) reduced space requirement larger surface area for growth greater void ratios (better air flow) less prone to plugging by accumulating slime

Trickling Filter Plant Layout

Rotating Biological Contactors (RBCs)




 

Consists of series of closely spaced discs mounted on a horizontal shaft and rotated while ~40% of each disc is submerged in wastewater Discs: light-weight plastic lightSlime is 1-3 mm in thickness on disc 1-

RBCscontd.
Aeration Shearing of excess microorganisms

Film mixes with wastewater

Attached microorganisms pick up organics

Primary Settling

Sludge Treatment

Secondary Settling

Sludge Treatment

LowLow-Tech solutions Oxidation Ponds/Ditches


Treatment ponds used for many years Oxidation Pond was used to indicate a pond with partially treated waste water whereas the term lagoon was used to indicate a pond that received raw wastewater Waste stabilization pond has been used as an all-inclusive term that refers to a pond or a lagoon used to treat organic waste by physical and biological processes Mainly three divisions i.e., aerobic, facultative and anaerobic

Aerobic/Facultative/Anaerobic Ponds
Facultative Ponds Anaerobic Ponds - Shallow (<1 m deep) - Ponds 1 - 2.5 m deep - Primarily used as a
- Light penetrates to bottom - Active algal photosynthesis - OM is converted to CO2, NO3-, HSO4-, HPO42-, etc. - td = 30 - 180 d - not easily subject to upsets due to fluctuations in Q, loading - low capital and O&M costs

Aerobic Ponds

Aerobic

pretreatment process for high strength, high temperature wastes - Can handle much high loadings - 2 stage: stage:  Acid fermentation: fermentation: Organics p Org. acids  Methane fermentation Org. Acids p CH4 and CO2

Facultative Anaerobic

Secondary Clarifier

East Lansing WWTP

Land Applications
irrigation and infiltration  Overland flow  Wetlands
 Spray

Source: Environmental Science, 4th ed., B.J. Nebel and R.T. Wright, Prentice- Hall, N.J., c. 1981

Spray irrigation
Secondary Treatment


Flooding, channeling spray irrigation

Usually follows oxidation ponds, aerated lagoons Source: Environmental Science, 4th ed., B.J. Nebel and R.T. Wright, Prentice-Hall, N.J., c. 1981  Application leads to filtering, biological degradation, ion exchange, sorption, photophotodegradation  Need about 1 acre/100 people  Problems  climate  pathogens  need buffer zone

Overland flow
Secondary Treatment Application to land slopped at 2-8%

Water irrigated onto long narrow fields  Use grasses that take up large amounts of nitrogen  Underlying soil should be fairly impervious  Example: Emmitsburg, MD Example:  Treats 1 MGD on 200 acres  Fields planted with reed canary grass  Below ~1 ft topsoil is compacted clay  W/W applied to one side of field, percolates through topsoil to a collecting gutter  Water in gutter (clear and nutrient-free) nutrient Collected in another reservoir and spray-irrigated onto sprayforage crops


Overland Flowcontd.


Advantages
  

Disadvantages


  

free water free nutrients plants can be fed to animals lowlow-cost lowlow-maintenance water meets discharge regulations (NPDES)

 

will not work in cold climates pathogen dispersion in air need buffer zones need large amount of land

Wetlands
 Use

of natural or artificial wetlands  Floating plants act as filters and support bacterial growth

(From: Environmental Science, 4th ed., B.J. Nebeland R.T. Wright, Prentice-Hall, N.J., 1981)

Disinfection and Sludge Management

Objectives
 Part


I: Advanced Wastewater Treatment

to understand the most common types of advanced wastewater treatment used to understand the contaminants removed by each

 Part
 

II: Sludge Treatment and Disposal

to understand the origins of sludge to understand the issues dealing with the disposal of sludge

Part I: Advanced Wastewater Treatment


 Numerous

pollutants are present (or can be present) in untreated wastewater  Some are not removed by conventional secondary wastewater treatment.  There may be a need, or pressure, to remove these pollutants based on the uses of the receiving water

Secondary W/W Treatment




High treatment efficiency


 

Problems
Presence of small particles that are too small to be removed by settling.  Attached to these particles can be organic chemicals and metals.  Particles may eventually settle in river or stream (longer detention time).  Particles can also be bacteria, protozoa, etc.


BOD to ~ 20 - 50 mg/L SS to ~ 20 mg/L

Low treatment efficiency


   

 

Nitrogen Phosphorus Heavy Metals PoorlyPoorly-biodegradable organic chemicals Small particles Resistant organisms

Filtration
Process similar to that used in water treatment  Commonly uses dual- or multimedia filters dualbecause single media filters (sand filters) clog too easily  Removes:

 

residual suspended solids microorganisms 80% reduction in suspended solids for activated sludge (~ 10 - 25 mg/L SS) 70% reduction in suspended solids for trickling filter sludge soluble BOD or COD soluble phosphate, nitrate, heavy metals, etc.

Achieves:


No removal of:
 

Activated Carbon Adsorption


 Refractory

(non(non-biodegradable) organic chemicals are present as soluble COD  Secondary effluent COD values of ~ 30 to 60 mg/L  The same process as pollutant retardation is soils (from groundwater hydrology)  More efficient than process on soils

Activated Carbon Adsorption


Carbon is heated to about 1500 oC to activate surfaces activate  High surface area of particles with vast pore spaces

 

Capable of absorbing high quantity of organics Surface area > 1,000 m2/g

Wastewater effluent is passed through filter (under pressure)  Carbon becomes exhausted



Indications

removal of material ceases effluent pollutant level too high


 

Replace carbon in system Regenerate carbon on-site or off-site onoff-

Membrane Processes


A phase that acts as a barrier to the flow of molecular or ionic species between other phases Driven by pressures

 

Should achieve 100% removal based on molecular weight cutoff  Actual removal observed less may be short-circuiting short-

Phosphorus Removal
  

By now, we know the problems associated with excess phosphorous Most phosphate in the form of (HPO42-) Usually accomplished with chemical precipitation (salts)
Ferric chloride: FeCl3 y  Alum: Al2(SO4)3 14H2O  Lime: CaO or Ca(OH)2 FeCl3 + HPO42- = FePO4 (s) + HCl Al2(SO4)314H2O + 2 HPO42- = 2AlPO4 (s) + 2H+ + 3SO42

 

Effective pH range for alum or ferric chloride is 5.5 to 7.0 If insufficient alkalinity - must add lime to neutralize H+

Phosphorus Removal
FeCl3 Secondary Effluent Rapid Mix Reaction Basin Settling Basin

Activated Sludge Primary Effluent FeCl3 Secondary Clarifier

Nitrogen Removal
 Problem:

nitrogenous BOD  Anaerobic conditions in stream  Forms: NH3, NH4+, NO2-, NO3 Nitrification/ De-nitrification De

Occurs
in activated sludge process - by increasing the detention time in activated sludge basin in separate reactor

Nitrification: NH4+ + 2O2 = NO3- + H2O + 2H+ (2 steps) DeDe-nitrification: 2NO3- + organic matter = N2+ CO2 + H2O

Nitrogen Removal..contd.


Ammonia stripping


Raise pH to convert ammonium ions to ammonia NH4+ + OH- = NH3 + H2O Ammonia purged from water in process similar to aeration

Packed Column Air Stripper

TrayTray-type Air Stripper

(From: http://www.mittelhauser.com/airstrip.html)

(From: http://www.carbonair.com/OS.htm)

Part II: Sludge Treatment

Sludge Types
Bar screens drained easily and is relatively stable, it  Grit chambers can be disposed of directly in a municipal  Primary sludge landfill.

 

Not true sludge, not a fluid. Since it can be

3 to 8% solids About 70% organic material Consists of wasted microorganisms and inert materials About 90% organic material WAS: 0.5 to 2% solids Trickling filter sludge: 2-5% solids 2If secondary clarifier is used to remove phosphate, this sludge will also contain chemical precipitates (more difficult to treat) Denitrification sludges - similar to WAS sludge

Secondary sludge
   

Tertiary sludge


Sludge Treatment
Reduction Ash

Sludge

Thicken

Condition

Dewater

Sanitary Landfill

Stabilize

Condition

Dewater

Soil Incorporation

Sludge Treatment: Thickening




Gravity thickening


Flotation


Best with primary sludge Increases solids content from 1-3% to 110%

Especially effective on activated sludge Increases solids content from 0.5 - 1% to 3-6% 3-

Primary Sludge Secondary Sludge

Gravity Thickening Further processing Flotation

Thickening

Gravity Thickener
(From: http://www.thomasregister.com/ olc/dorroliver/sedi.htm)

Flotation

Sludge Treatment: Stabilization




Aerobic Digestion
 

Anaerobic Digestion


Extension of activated sludge Accomplished by aeration of sludge then followed by sedimentation Supernatant goes back to head of plant (high in BOD, TKN, total-P) totalTreated sludge is 3% solids

2 stage: acid fermentation followed by methane production Advantages: produce methane do not add oxygen As with aerobic digestion, supernatant goes to headworks

Sludge Treatment: Conditioning




Chemical Conditioning  Add lime, ferric chloride, or alum  Can also add polymers  Chemicals are added just prior to de-watering destage

Heat Treatment


High temperatures (175-230 (175oC) High pressures (10 to 20 atmospheres) Advantages


bound water is released and sludge is easily dewatered

Disadvantages
complex process highly concentrated liquid stream

Sludge Treatment: De-watering De

Sludge Drying Beds  Most popular method  Simple  Low maintenance  Effected by climate

Filtration  Apply vacuum to pull out water  Force out water by essentially squeezing water between two moving filter belts

Vacuum Filtration Sludge Drying Beds


(From: http://www.infilcodegremont.com/) (From: http://www.thomasregister.com/ olc/dorroliver)

DeDe-watering: Belt Filter Press

Fairhaven, MA
(From: http://www.environline.com/fhwpcf.htm)

East Lansing, MI

Sludge Treatment: Volume Reduction




Incineration


Wet Oxidation
   

  

Complete evaporation of water from sludge Requires fuel Solid material is inert Exhaust air must be treated prior to discharge

High Temperature Fluidized Bed Incineration

Treated sludge is wet Requires energy Solid material is inert Exhaust air must be treated prior to discharge

(From: http://www. infilcodegremont.com/)

(From: http://www.unep.or.jp/CTT_DATA/WATER/ WATER_4/html/Water-173.html

Sludge Disposal Regulations




The regulations that govern the use or disposal of sewage sludge are codified as 40 CFR part 503 and have become known as 503 regulations The regulations apply to sewage sludge that is:
  

Land applied Placed on a surface disposal site Incinerated in an incinerator that accepts only sewage sludge

Facility Options


Considerations for wastewater treatment facility options include:




costs
capital operation and maintenance (including energy)

    

availability of space degree of treatment required by NPDES permit municipal or municipal plus industrial Flow rate distance from residential properties
problems with: odors, flies, other nuisances

  

agricultural usage or land application options presence of pathogens experience of design engineers