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yIntroduction to power

system protection:- An Overview

Housekeeping and Climate setting

Components of power System


Generators Transformers Transmission Lines Distribution Networks Loads

Generation
y At power generating station (generating voltage)

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20kV and frequency of 50 Hz y Transform to higher voltage (transmission voltage) 132kV, 275kV 330kV and 500kV y Transform to lower voltage (distribution voltage) 33kV or 11kV

Transmission
y To ensure the adequacy and reliability of supply

that are fundamental needs of modern society. y Provides the link between electricity suppliers and electricity consumers. y Helps reduce energy prices since generation in other regions which are cheaper can be channeled to customers. y Transmission connects regional systems via interconnectors to encourage cooperation for mutual benefits.

Transmission System
y Lines/transformers operating at voltages above 100 kV

are usually called the transmission system. y Consists of Transmission Line and Sub-stations y Transmission network of 500kV, 330kV, 275kV and 132kV known as National Grid.

Transmission Line Components y Transmission Line


y Overhead Lines y Cable
y y

Underground Cables Submarine Cables

y Sub-stations

Transmission Line
y Components y Tower support structure y Cross-arms y Conductors y Insulators y Earth-wires

Sub-station
y Size of substation y Depends on transformer size y Typical sizes
y y

132kV; 2 x 30MVA, 3 x 45MVA, 2 x 90MVA 275kV; 2 x 180MVA, 3 x 180MVA, 2 x 240MVA

y Types of Sub-station y Conventional outdoor


y

Require bigger space

y GIS (gas insulated switchgear) y Less space y Outdoor or indoor

Sub-station Components y Transformer y Circuit Breaker / Switch Gear y Isolator Switches y Busbar y Protection Relay & Control Equipment

Power Transformer

Circuit Breaker
Spark gap. In event of a lightning strike on the line, the current can jump the gap between that ball and the protrusion on the tank, and make a path to earth. This prevents overloading the breaker.

Circuit Breaker

Distribution
y Lines/transformers operating at voltages below 100 kV

are usually called the distribution system. y Part of the electric utility system between the bulk power source and the customer service entrances (loads). y 33kV, 22kV, 11kV, 6.6kV, 415V and 240V

Distribution Sub-station
y Distribution Intakes (33kV, 22kV) y Distribution Substations (22kV, 11kV, 6.6kV)
y Indoor substation y Outdoor substation y Pole mounted substation y Compact substation y Underground substation

y Transformer capacity
y 100kVA, 300kVA, 500kVA, 750kVA and 1000kVA

Distribution Transformer

Elements of a Protection System


1

The function of transducers (usually CT and VT) is to provide current and voltage signals to the relays, to detect deviations of the parameters watched over.

Elements of a Protection System


1

2.1 2


A 2.2 2.4 F.A. 3

Relays are the logic elements which initiate the tripping and closing operations.

QP 2.3

Elements of a Protection System


1 4

Circuit breakers isolate the fault by interrupting the current.

Elements of a Protection System




Tripping power, as well as power required 1 by the relays, is usually provided by the station battery because is safer than the ac faulted system.
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2.1 2 A 2.2 2.4 F.A. 3 QP 2.3 D

System Protection Flow


voltage or current rise from normal condition voltage/current is reduced to match with relay rating activate circuit breaker circuit isolation

Fault Occur

Instr.Transfx.

Relay

Circuit Breaker

Fault Clear

Classification of relays


Relays can be divided into six functional categories:




Protective relays. Detect defective lines, defective apparatus, or other dangerous or intolerable conditions. These relays generally trip one or more circuit breakers, but may also be used to sound an alarm. Monitoring relays. Verify conditions on the power system or in the protection system. These relays include fault detectors, alarm units, channel-monitoring relays, synchronism verification, and network phasing. Power system conditions that do not involve opening circuit breakers during faults can be monitored by verification relays. Reclosing relays. Establish a closing sequence for a circuit breaker following tripping by protective relays.

Classification of relays


Relays can be divided into six functional categories:




Regulating relays. Are activated when an operating parameter deviates from predetermined limits. Regulating relays function through supplementary equipment to restore the quantity to the prescribed limits. Auxiliary relays. Operate in response to the opening or closing of the operating circuit to supplement another relay or device. These include timers, contact-multiplier relays, sealing units, isolating relays, lock-out relays, closing relays, and trip relays. Synchronizing (or synchronism check) relays. Assure that proper conditions exist for interconnecting two sections of a power system.

Classification of relays


In addition to these functional categories, relays may be classified by input, operating principle or structure, and performance characteristic. The following are some of the classifications and definitions described in ANSI/ IEEE Standard C37.90 (see also ANSI/IEEE C37.100 Definitions for Power Switchgear ):  Operating Principle or Inputs Structures
    

Current, Voltage, Power Pressure, Frequency Temperature Flow Vibration

       

Current balance Percentage Multirestraint Product Electromechanical Thermal Solid state Static Microprocessor

Classification of relays


Performance Characteristics
  

Differential Distance Directional over current


 

Inverse time Definite time

    

Under voltage Overvoltage Ground or phase High or low speed Pilot


  

Phase comparison Directional comparison Current differential

Analog/Digital/Numerical

Analog relays are those in which the measured quantities are converted into lower voltage but similar signals, which are then combined or compared directly to reference values in level detectors to produce the desired output. Digital relays are those in which the measured ac quantities are manipulated in analog form and subsequently converted into square-wave (binary) voltages. Logic circuits or microprocessors compare the phase relation-ships of the square waves to make a trip decision. Numerical relays are those in which the measured ac quantities are sequentially sampled and converted into numeric data form. A microprocessor performs mathematical and/or logical operations on the data to make trip decisions.

Zones of Protection

    

To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault occurs, protection is arranged in zones Zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power system is left unprotected Location of the CT connection to the protection usually defines the zone Unit type protections have clear zones reach e.g Diff. Relay, REF relay Zone reach depends on measurement of the system quantities e.g OC , EF, distance relays . The start will be defined but the extent (or reach ) is subject to variation, owing to changes in system conditions and measurement errors.

Zones of Protection
y For fault anyway within the zone, the protection

system responsible to isolate everything within the zone from the rest of the system. y Isolation done by CB y Must isolate only the faulty equipment or section

Selectivity and zones of protection




Selectivity is defined in terms of regions of a power system (zones of protection) for which a given relay is responsible.


The relay will be considered secure if it responds only to faults within its zone of protection

A zone boundary is usually defined by a CT and a CB.


 

The CT provides the ability to detect a fault inside the zone The CBs provide the ability to isolate the fault

Primary and back up protection




It is essential that provision be made to clear the fault by some alternate protection system in case of the primary protection could fail.
 

These are referred to as back up protection systems On EHV is common to use duplicate primary protection systems

Back up relaying may be installed locally, in the same substation, or remotely




Remote back up are completely independent of the relays, CT, breakers, etc. Remote back up may remove more sources that can be allowed Local back up use common elements an can thus fail to operate as the primary protection

 

Remote back up protection


REACH OF PROTECTION 21B REACH OF PROTECTION 21A

21

21

SUBSTATION B

SUBSTATION A

AC Elementary Diagram
a b c Phase sequence a-b-c CT c 52 b a 51-C 51-B 51-A 51-N AC Bus 51: Time overcurrent relay 52: AC circuit breaker Protected Line

AC Elementary Diagram
a b c Phase sequence a-b-c CT c 52 b a 51-C 51-B 51-A 51-N AC Bus 51: Time overcurrent relay 52: AC circuit breaker Protected Line

TOC phase relays 51-A, 51-B, and 51-C should send trip signal to breaker 52

AC Elementary Diagram
a b c Phase sequence a-b-c CT c 52 b a 51-C 51-B 51-A 51-N AC Bus 51: Time overcurrent relay 52: AC circuit breaker Protected Line

TOC ground relay 51-N (set sensitively) should send trip signal to breaker 52

DC Elementary Diagram
Relay operating coil Relay contacts 51-A s 51-A 52 TC 52a 51-B s 51-A 51-B s 51-B s to 51-C and 51-N

Remarks
y The elementary diagrams are drawn for

electromechanical relays

y The auxiliary relay marked with s is the seal-in or

contact switch y This is not usually needed with solid-state relays, but the relay must latch in the trip position

Conventional contact positions


y Convention: contacts are shown in the de-

energized or non-operated position


y 52a is auxiliary contact that is in same position as the

breaker y 52b is auxiliary contact that is in the opposite position as the breaker

DC Elementary Diagram
Relay operating coil Relay contacts 51-A s 51-A 52 TC 52a 51-B s 51-A 51-B s 51-B s to 51-C and 51-N

Shows the operated condition for a fault producing a trip signal to the breaker trip coil 52 TC

DC Elementary Diagram
Relay operating coil Relay contacts 51-A s 51-A 52 TC 52a 51-B s 51-A 51-B s 51-B s to 51-C and 51-N

Shows the operated condition for a fault producing a trip signal to the breaker trip coil 52 TC, with relay latched

DC Elementary Diagram
Relay operating coil Relay contacts 51-A s 51-A 52 TC 52a 51-B s 51-A 51-B s 51-B s to 51-C and 51-N

After breaker trips, 52a opens, which unlatches the circuit, when relay no longer sees the fault, 51-A and 51-B will open