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COURSE BASICS OF SCIENCE

TEAM 1 MULHATIM UMINAH KHUSNUL KHOTIMAH

GRADUATE PROGRAM STATE UNIVERSITY OF SURABAYA

2011
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PLANT CELL

PLANT CELL
Plants including eukaryotes, organisms that have a membrane surrounding the nucleus and organelles, and can arrange food Plant cells have some special structure, namely a rigid cell wall, central vacuole, plasmodesmata, and chloroplasts.
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THE FOLLOWING IS A DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT CELL

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CELL WALL
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS Give the cell shape Protects the inside and arrange transport of substances Endorsing the tidaka woody plants
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The cell walls consist of cellulose (the majority), hemicellulose, pectin, lignin, chitin, salt, carbonate and silicate of Ca and Mg
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MEMBRANE PLASM
ORGANELLS STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS Patron of the cell so that cells do not exit Regulatory exchange out substances that enter the cell Perform within or outside the cell selection (selectively permeable) 6

Composed of carbohydrate proteins and fats

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NUCLEUS
FUNGTIONS Control of cell metabolism Place of DNA replication and transcription Regulatory cell division and the carrier of genetic information

ORGANELLS

STRUCTURE

 Chemically composed of DNA, RNA and proteins (histones) In the nucleus there is a chromosome that serves to cell division
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MITOCHONDRIA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Bacteria-like elements with inner membrane

Contains enzymes that perform the oxidation of food and energy to synthesize ATP in the cell The occurrence of cellular respiration produces energy

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ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

That is shaped structure threads which empties into the cell nucleus. There are two types of RE are: RE. Granular (Rough E.R) RE. Agranuler (Smooth E.R)
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Function R.E. are: for the transport of substances within the cell itself

GOLGI APARATUS
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

The Golgi is Modifying the composed of protein by adding stacks of oligosaccharides membrane-bound structures known Establish as cisternae lysosomes (singular: cisterna) For secretion of the mucous
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RIBOSOME
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

This structure consists of two spherical particles of large and small, there are inherent throughout the RE and some are solitary

synthesise proteins, new protein synthesis is packaged in a single membrane bounded organelles

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PLASTIDA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

1. Lekoplas 1. Lekoplas Amiloplas,proteinop (white-colored plastids serve as food las , elailoplas

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storage), 2. chloroplast 2. Kloroplas namely green klorofil, pigmen plastids. Plastids works generating karotenoid, chlorophyll and photosynthesis as the 3. Kromoplas meeting place. karotenoid (karoten 3. Kromoplas dan xantofil) ie plastids containing pigments
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VACUOLA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Contains organic salts, glycosides, tannins (tanning agent), etheric oils, alkaloids, enzymes, starch grains

As a regulator of turgor pressure Place storing food reserves, pigments, oils and residual metabolic astiri
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PEROXISOM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION Changing the fat into carbohydrate Produce to form H2O2 oxidative enzymes to break down fat Produce the enzyme catalase to convert H2O2 into H2O and O2
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Contains enzymes, especially catalase, an H2O2 overhaul mengkatalisisr dangerous on the metabolism

CYTOPLASM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION The function of the cytoplasm is to distribute oxygen and food (nutrients) to other parts of the cell and it supports all parts inside the cell. It has three main functions: storage, energy, and manufacturing.
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It is a fluid cell in the cell (cytosol) It poses a variety of cell organelles

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ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM


ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

(RER) in which the surface of the tubules contain numerous granule-like structures called ribosomes.
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The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize and exports proteins and glycoproteins.
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SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM


ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is 1. to package proteins for transport, synthesize membrane phosolipids, and releases calcium 2. transformation of bile pigments, glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), and detoxification of many drugs and chemical agents.
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The Smooth ER also contains the enzyme glucose6-phosphatase, which converts glucose-6phosphate to glucose, a step in gluconeogenesis

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NUCLEOLUS
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Containing DNA and a copy of the gene coding RNA

The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made And synthesis of RNA.

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NUCLEAR ENVELOP
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

it is the outer Function of nuclear covering of the membran is nucleus separates the cytoplasmic contents from the nuclear contents

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PLASMODESMATA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Most plasmodesmata also have the structure of the hall-like tube called desmotubul

The function of plasmodesmata are : 1. connects plant cells with each other. 2. connecting channel enables transport of materials and allows communication between the cells
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CYTOSKELETON
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Mikrofilamen Structural mikrotubulus support; cell movement filamen intermediar

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ANIMAL CELL
The structure and function of components or organelles of animal cells as follows:

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ANIMAL CELL

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MEMBRANE PLASM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNGTIONS
Patron of the cell so that cells do not exit Regulatory exchange out substances that enter the cell Perform within or outside the cell selection (selectively permeable)

Composed of carbohydrates, proteins and fats

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NUCLEUS
ORGANELLS STRUCTURE  Chemically composed of DNA, RNA and proteins (histones) In the nucleus there is a chromosome that serves to cell division
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FUNGTIONS Control of cell metabolism Place of DNA replication and transcription Regulatory cell division and the carrier of genetic information
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MITOCHONDRIA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Bacteria-like elements with inner membrane

Contains enzymes that perform the oxidation of food and energy to synthesize ATP in the cell The occurrence of cellular respiration produces energy

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RETICULUM ENDOPLASMA
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

That is shaped structure threads which empties into the cell nucleus. There are two types of RE are: RE. Granular (Rough E.R) RE. Agranuler (Smooth E.R)

Function R.E. are: for the transport of substance s within the cell itself
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GOLGI APARATUS
ORGANEL STRUCTURE The Golgi is composed of stacks of membranebound structures known as cisternae (singular: cisterna)
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FUNCTION Modifying the protein by adding oligosaccharides Establish lysosomes For secretion of the mucous
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RIBOSOM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

This structure consists of two spherical particles of large and small, there are inherent throughout the RE and some are solitary

synthesise proteins, new protein synthesis is packaged in a single membrane bounded organelles

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LYSOSOM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE Having the hydrolytic enzymes for the digestion of polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids & proteins One enzyme that is Lisozym FUNCTION
Plays an important role in cell death Digesting macromolecules intracellularly As a producer of digestive enzymes and cellular storage Digesting the material taken up by endocytosis Destroying other cell organelles that are not working Destroying the cell itself (autolysis)
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CENTROSOME
ORGANEL STRUCTURE
There is in the cytoplasm to the outer surface of the nucleus, which consists of a row of cylinders as much as 9 mikrotubuli Before a cell divides, centrioles will berduplikasi to form basal bodies, cilia and flagella star-shaped structure that functions in cell division (mitosis and meiosis)

FUNCTION Set cell division and chromosome separation during cell division in animals Synthesize microtubule cilia and flagella Generate a spindle in animal cells As an object poles in mitosis and meiosis
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CYTOPLASM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION The function of the cytoplasm is to distribute oxygen and food (nutrients) to other parts of the cell and it supports all parts inside the cell. It has three main functions: storage, energy, and manufacturing.
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It is a fluid cell in the cell (cytosol) It poses a variety of cell organelles

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PEROCSISOM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION Changing the fat into carbohydrate Produce to form H2O2 oxidative enzymes to break down fat Produce the enzyme catalase to convert H2O2 into H2O and O2

Contains enzymes, especially catalase, an H2O2 overhaul mengkatalisisr dangerous on the metabolism

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NUCLEOLUS
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

Containing DNA and a copy of the gene coding RNAs

The nucleolus is where ribosomes are made And synthesis of RNA.

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SMOOTH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM


ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION The function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum is 1. to package proteins for transport, synthesize membrane phosolipids, and releases calcium 2. transformation of bile pigments, glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), and detoxification of many drugs and chemical agents.
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The Smooth ER also contains the enzyme glucose6-phosphatase, which converts glucose-6phosphate to glucose, a step in gluconeogenesis

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ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM


ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

(RER) in which the surface of the tubules contain numerous granule-like structures called ribosomes.
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The function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum is to synthesize and exports proteins and glycoproteins.
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CYTOPLASM
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION The function of the cytoplasm is to distribute oxygen and food (nutrients) to other parts of the cell and it supports all parts inside the cell. It has three main functions: storage, energy, and manufacturing.
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It is a fluid cell in the cell (cytosol) It poses a variety of cell organelles

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NUCLEAR ENVELOP
ORGANEL STRUCTURE FUNCTION

it is the outer covering of the nucleus

Function of nuclear membran is separates the cytoplasmic contents from the nuclear contents

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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANIMAL AND PLANT CELLS ANIMAL CELL


DO NOT HAVE A CELL WALL DO NOT HAVE PLASTIDS HAVE LYSOSOMES HAVE THE CENTROSOME DEPOSITS OF FATTY SUBSTANCES AND GLYCOGEN FORM IS NOT FIXED IN CERTAIN PLANT HAVE VACUOLES, SMALL SIZE, LITTLE
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PLANT CELL
HAVE CELL WALLS AND CELL MEMBRANES GENERALLY HAVE PLASTIDS DO NOT HAVE LYSOSOMES NO CENTROSOME SUBSTANCE DEPOSITS IN THE FORM OF STARCH FIXED FORM HAS A LARGE VACUOLE, MANY
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DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS IN FUTURE

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THE END

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