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THE PROCESS OF BRAND DEVELOPMENT

Presented by :

RAHIM JABBAR

JAKARTA August, 2005


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POINTS OF DISCUSSION
Session -1 & 2 (09:15 to 10:30): 75 minutes

A Review of Brand Fundamentals Brand Development Process:


General Stages Consumer Insights Basis for Developing Brand Consumer Values Brand Concept

Understanding Consumers
Who are they? Major models of thinking about consumers Factors Determining Consumer Values Behavior : Over and Covert Behavior Covert Behavior: Values, Norms and Beliefs Determinants of Behavior Cultural Background of Behavior Hierarchy of Human Needs Fishbeins Theory of Consumer Choice Process
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POINTS OF DISCUSSION (2)


Session -3 & 4 (10:50 to 12:20): 90 minutes

The Linkage Between A Brand and the Consumers:


Human Needs Brand Consumer and Their Brand Types of Relationship Between A Brand and Its Consumers Brand as the Carrier of Values

Creating the Brand


Brand Concept Architecture of the Brand Brand Concept Designing the Brand Culture Based Brand Design

Developing Messages and Stories Around the Brand


Understanding the Communication Process Developing messages for the Brand Proposed Selling Idea/Unique Selling Proposition

Key Points
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Participants & Learning Objectives


As a result of this overview, participants are expected to be able to:
Explain:
The process of Brand Development The factors affecting consumer behavior

Apply insights from knowledge on brand development to develop messages and stories around the brand

A REVIEW OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS

WHAT IS THE BUSINESS ?


The Owners of Capital/ Resources

RETURN On INVESTMENT

INVEST

The Firms

INPUTS Men Money Materials Machine Moments (Time)

The Business Processes


THROUGHPUTS OUTPUTS Products Goods Services

The Transaction/ Exchanges

TARGET MARKET

THE RETURNS

Copyright Rahim Jabbar /2002

WHAT IS THE ESSENCE/NATURE OF THE TRANSACTION PROCESS?


PRODUCTS/ SERVICES THAT PROVIDES

VALUES

TO THE

CONSUMERS/ CUSTOMERS

SATISFACTION

TRANSACTION
THE FIRM THE

OFFERING S

THE MONEY

THE EXCHANGE PROCESS

INCOME/ EARNING

Marketing is tasked to manage the economic transactions with the customers/consumers


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Copyright Rahim Jabbar/1999

MAIN POINTS OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS (1)

1. Marketing is a major element of the core business processes of creating value added through inducing and stimulating transactions/exchanges 2. Business transaction can only be realized through offering product/service (=the offer) as a means of exchanging values between the consumers/customers/clients and the firms/companies. 3. Consumers/customers/clients will consider any offer (be it product or service) as bringing values to them if the offer helps them achieve their goals , satisfy their wants and fulfill their needs

MAIN POINTS OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS (2)

4. Values, therefore can be seen as special meanings attached to a particular consumption occasion of using or consuming a product or the event of receiving a particular service. (This is a pragmatic/utilitarian use of the word value) 5. At this point, marketers have two options: go with the product as a commodity wrap the values offered by the product through branding 6. Branding is a strategic option for marketing a product or service. Branding is a means of wrapping the values surrounding the product or service.

MAIN POINTS OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS (3)

7. The task of marketing function is to find and create consumers/ customers/clients by transforming individual persons or groups of people from being lay people in the streets into obtaining some added values at consuming the offers/using the product or becoming recipients of the services ( to become consumers/ customers/clients). 8. After this transformation, the task is to manage the relationship (Customer/Consumer Relationship Management). 9. Managerially, the marketing process consists of development, creation, and activation of the marketing mix for the offer (product or service) destined for a specific target in mind.

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MAIN POINTS OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS (4)

10. These days rarely do we find a single product for a single market (a single product-market category). The overwhelming majority of categories comprise of multi-products targeted at a variety of different groups of consumers/customers/clients. (Each group is conveniently called a segment of the market). 11. Due to the above reasons, the development of any offer (be it product or service) should go through the process of S.T.P. (Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning)

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MAIN POINTS OF THE MARKETING CONCEPTS (5)

12. Segmentation is the way you partition the market based on certain approach. Segmenting the market would facilitate in choosing the specific part of the market you want to target. 13. Targeting is the process matching your product/offer to specific part of the market. 14. Positioning is the way you differentiate your product/offer from same product category targeted to the same segment.

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A REVIEW OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS

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KEY POINTS OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS


THE ORIGIN OF BRANDS Business is about creating value added through economic transactions. Marketing is tasked to manage the economic transaction between a business with its consumers/customers/clients. As far back as four millennia ago, craftsmen from Persia, China and India in marketing their products used their signatures or symbols as the marks to identify and differentiate their products. As marketing became a stronger now the strongest key driver of business, trade-marks were gradually transformed to be synonymous with brands.
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KEY POINTS OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS


(Continued-1) THE DEFINITION OF BRAND Brand is defined as a name, symbol or design, or combination of those elements used to identify and differentiate a product or service of a company and those of competitors. Brand is a competitive weaponry. THE BENEFITS OF BRANDS Brands bring benefits to both the business and the consumers: Brands facilitate consumer decision making and choice. Brands transform consumption experiences. For the business, brands can cement consumer loyalty that will generate more sales and revenues.

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KEY POINTS OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS


(Continued-2) THE COMPONENTS OF A BRAND A product or service is the basis for a brand. The second component of a brand is its name and logo that become the identifiers of the brand. The third component is its packaging that functions as its external presenter. The fourth component is the messages or stories created around the brand that play the roles of its narrator or purveyor. The fifth component is its price which is the proxy of its value. All components should be in harmony to each other. THE POSITION FOR A BRAND As a brand is the identifier and differentiator for a product, a brand should be aimed to occupy certain territory in the consumers minds. The particular/specific territory occupied by a brand in the consumers minds is called the position of the brand.
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KEY POINTS OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS (Continued-3)


POSITIONING A BRAND So, positioning a brand is what you do to the mind of the prospective consumers. Positioning is about finding the best for the product/service and the most appropriate for the target market. (It is all in the consumers mind!) The process of developing a competitive position for a brand starts with the segmentation of the market, followed by targeting ( selecting a particular segment) to whom a brand is to be positioned (positioning). In order to explore competitive values to be wrapped in the brand to be positioned, we should analyze the target consumers ( consumer insights) and the competitors brands.( competitors mapping)
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KEY POINTS OF BRAND FUNDAMENTALS


(Continued-4) POSITIONING A BRAND (Continued) Therefore, positioning a brand is about identifying the optimal place within the competitive set in the consumer minds. The positioning statement should draw on the strongest benefits offered by the brand. Positioning statement should clarify what the brand is all about. It should clearly state the brands uniqueness and point-ofdifference (P.O.D.) . The statement should also explain why the consumers should BUY and USE the brand: Who are you going to give this positioning to? Who are you going to market your product to? What do they want and need? What consumer insights is your positioning based on?
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KEY POINTS (Continued-5)


MANAGING THE BRAND Managing a brand covers : developing, rejuvenating, extending, and marketing the brand (that includes distributing and advertising it to the target market). Managing a brand also means managing the process of consumer-brand linkage form being unaware to become loyal users (maximizing switchers-in and minimizing out-switchers) The objective of brand management is to develop, create and and strengthen the equity of the brand. Brand equity is the ability of a brand to gain market share , through first having a reasonable share of mind and share of hearts.
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BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

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Brand Development Process: General Stages


Insights on Consumer Values:
Singularly focused need, desire or want

Subtantiating the Brand Design:


Giving substances to the brand components to make the brand a reality

Brand Concept:
The encapsulation of values that comprises the complex characters (i.e. attributes and benefits) that constitute the brand.

Designing the Brand:


Working out the architecture of the Brand structuring the five components of the brand
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BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: CONSUMER INSIGHTS ON THE VALUES BRAND BASIS


Competitive Advantages (based on effectiveness standard) Specific target segments
VALUES: : SPECIAL MEANINGS ATTACHED TO SPECIFIC CONSUMPTION OCCASIONS/ EVENTS. (PRAGMATIC & SUBJECTIVE APPLICATION OF VALUES)

CONSUMERS:
Need structure Values & benefits Demand dynamics

Consumer Insights

DIFFERENTIATE COMPETITIVELY!!!
(Envisaged) COMPANYS BRAND :
Key differentiated mix of values that are competitive Salient attributes required

COST COMPARISON

(Current) COMPETITORS BRANDS :


Key differentiated value dimensions Salient attributes

Comparative Advantages (based on efficiency standard)

Source: Adapted from Kenichi Ohmae , The Mind of the Strategist (1982)

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BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: CONSUMER INSIGHTS ON THE VALUES BRAND BASIS


*)For organization (B-to-B) the group includes economic, technical and expertise benefits

PRODUCT

Physical

SERVICES Sensorial (Visual/Tactile /Taste)

IDEAS

EVENT S ENTITIES

Process

Effects

A T T R I B U T E S

BENEFITS Social/Cultural* ) THAT BRING BENEFITS AND SATISFY WANTS, ETC.

GOALS
To be achieved

Psychological

NEEDS
To be fulfilled

CONSUMERS/ CUSTOMERS/ CLIENTS VALUES

Physiological / Biological

WANTS
To be satisfied

BENEFITS

Consumer Insights

BRAND
COPYRIGHT Rahim Jabbar 2002

WRAPPE R

& CAR R IE R

OF

VALUES : SPECIAL MEANINGS ATTACHED TO SPECIFIC USAGE/CONSUMPTION OCCASIONS/EVENTS BY CONSUMERS/CUSTOMERS/ CLIENTS WHEN: Their goals are achieved Their needs are fulfilled Their wants are satisfied

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BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: CONSUMER VALUES BRAND CONCEPT

BRAND CONCEPT: Developing a brand should start from core values that uniquely define the essence of your offer (product or service). The consumers/customers/clients (market segment) will happily buy and consume product or brand that is believed to help them achieve their goals, fulfill their needs and satisfy their wants. In other words, they will surely consider anything that brings values to them.(Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder).

COPYRIGHT Rahim Jabbar 2002

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BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: CONSUMER VALUES BRAND CONCEPT BRAND CONCEPT (2): For example, people use furniture to give comfort and convenience to their life (i.e. not having to always stand neither sit nor lay their body on the floor). Furniture is the provider of values to the users, through giving the benefits of comfort (physiological need) and convenience (psychological needs). The maker arranges the properties of certain materials and design that give the attributes which deliver the required benefits. (KALAU DUDUK LUPA BERDIRI WHEN SITTING ON THIS, YOU WILL FORGET TO STAND UP) )
COPYRIGHT Rahim Jabbar 2002

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
WHO ARE THEY?

They are human beings (like us)

Individual specificity A particular Socio-cultural millieu The universal human nature

HUMAN BEINGS

Buying and using a product/ service (BRAND)

Individual specificity A particular Socio-cultural millieu The universal human nature

CONSUMERS

Copyrights: Rahim Jabbar (2003)

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
MAJOR MODELS OF THINKING ABOUT CONSUMERS

The marginalized consumers


Consumers are passive recipients of other peoples decision on what to consume. They are in sellers market. They are given the answer to what.

The statistical consumers ( numbers in quantitative reports)


They are dehumanized people losing their individuality, since they are observed objectively from a distance. They are the answers to the question of how many

The secretive consumers with a bundle of motivations


They are described through the lenses of psychoanalysis, sociology, semiotics, cultural anthropology, ethnography, etc. They are the answers to the questions of why. ( Consumer insights)

Source: Valentine V., Gordon, W, 21st Century Consumers (2000)

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
MAJOR MODELS OF THINKING ABOUT CONSUMERS (2)

The sophisticated consumers


They are the people that consume advertising commercials. As such they also consume experiences. (An example: Young people patronize Starbucks not just for drinking coffee. They consume experiences from the ambience and related associations and imagery)

The satellite consumers (held in orbit by the brand)


They are the results of marketers modeling brand in human terms with personalities, values and characteristics. Like a planet in the sky, the gravitational pull of the brand can be controlled (through wellcrafted messages) so that the consumers remain in orbit.

The multi-headed consumers with a set of need states


They are people who make different choices among different occasions. These people choose brands to fit particular context (can be environment - human, social, physical-, and individual physiological or emotional needs)
Source: Valentine V., Gordon, W, 21st Century Consumers (2000)
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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
MAJOR MODELS OF THINKING ABOUT CONSUMERS (3)

The foregoing six models


The marginalized consumers The statistical consumers The secretive consumers The sophisticated consumers The satellite consumers The multi-headed consumers HELP US TO UNDERSTAND THE CONSUMERS TO UNDERSTAND BRANDS

Source: Valentine V., Gordon, W, 21st Century Consumers (2000)

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS: FACTORS DETERMINING CONSUMER VALUES


Internal Influences Learning Memory Perception Personality - Emotions - Attitudes

Utilitarian Needs

Hedonic Needs

Pleasure Needs

Aesthetic Needs

NEEDS, WANTS, GOALS External Influences Culture Sub-Culture Demographic Social Status Reference Group Family

FULFILLMENT

VALUES

Desired State Arousal Actual State Drive

To find, acquire, consume, use

Benefits

Attributes

Product/ Services

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS: OVER AND COVERT BEHAVIOUR

OVERT BEHAVIOUR: External/observable/visible acts/actions/behavior

COVERT BEHAVIOUR: Internal dispositions: 1. Values & Norms 2. Beliefs 3. Attitudes


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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS Covert Behaviour : Values

Values are general central principles concerning the patterns of behavior within a particular culture or society which its members hold in high regards. Values are related to being good or bad. Around those values, individual and social goals can be integrated. Values are transmitted and adopted through socialization process.
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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS Covert Behaviour : Norms

Norms are standard patterns of behavior that are considered normal within a particular culture or society. Norms are related to right or wrong. Norms and values are transmitted and adopted through socialization process.
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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS Covert Behaviour : Beliefs

Beliefs are emotional acceptance of some proposition, statement, or doctrines. Beliefs are learned expectations about the values of people, events and objects in the environment and the roles they play with respect to ones behavior.

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS Determinants of Behaviour

Actions
Conative component (disposition for action)
Evaluative component (positive or negative)

Attitudes
Cognitive component (Consciously held beliefs)

The Self

Beliefs
Emotional acceptance Of values & norms

Affective component (Emotional Tone or feeling)

Values & Norms

Emotion

Instigating stimuli

Physiological correlates

Cognitive appraisal

Motivational properties

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS: Cultural Background of Behaviour


S H A R E D

The Society/ Community

The Individual/ Person


Actions

Perspectives & World Views Social Practices Values & Norms

Attitudes Beliefs

CULTURE

BEHAVIOR

Socialization process

Internalization process

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
HIERARCHY OF HUMAN NEEDS (MASLOW PYRAMID)

Self-actualization

Growth, Accomplishment Personal Development Self Respect, Status Achievement Recognition Belonging , Acceptance,

Esteem

Social needs

Social Life, Friendship and Love

Safety & security

Security, Protection from danger

Physiological needs

Hunger

Thirst

Sleep

Sex

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UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS:
FISHBEINS THEORY OF CONSUMER CHOICE
Drinking COCA COLA gives me the feeling of pride/belonging to my peers/ gives me a tasty thirst quenching

Direct Brand Experience Indirect Social/ Cultural Psychological/ Emotional Physiological


I would say that my peers/family would approve of my drinking COKE

Belief about the Act


Feeling of pride/belonging to my peers/a tasty thirst quenching is rewarding/ beneficial to me

Drinking COCA COLA is good/ rewarding/beneficial to me

Attitude to the Act

Needs and Motives

Evaluation of the Belief

I always want to drink COCA COLA

Intention to do the Act

COCA COLA is my main thirst quencher

Peer

My peers/family are important to me

The Real/ Actual Act


I strongly feel that personally I should always drink COCA COLA

Family

Salient Relevant Others

Social Normative Belief


I always wish to fit in with what my peers/family might think I should do

Enabling Condition

Authority

Subjective Norm

Personality Tendency

Motivation to Comply

Source : Adapted from Martin Fishbein,

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LINKING CONSUMERS AND THE BRAND

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LINKING CONSUMERS AND BRAND:


HUMAN NEEDS
Human needs
SelfActualization Esteem

BRAND
Requirements Provided by the brand

SOCIAL APPRECIATION

BRAND IMAGE

Social needs CONVENIENCE Safety & security SAFETY/ CONSISTENCY PERFORMANCE DESIGN QUALITY PRODUCT QUALITY FUNCTIONAL PERFORMANCE

Physiological needs

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LINKING CONSUMERS AND BRAND:


CONSUMER
Layers of Consumer Consciousness
Socio-cultural link Socio-cultural layer: Values Functional link Symbols: Meanings

THEIR BRAND
Layers of the Brand

Rational layer

Identity/Character

Emotional Core Psychological bonding

Personality

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LINKING CONSUMERS AND BRAND:


TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN A BRAND AND ITS CONSUMERS
Love Intimacy Nostalgic attachment Rebellion Promiscuity Incompatibility

The relationship is dynamic


LOYAL CONSUMERS THE BRAND

The relationship is dynamic


NONCONSUMERS THE BRAND

Self-concept communication Brand-partner quality Behavioral interdependency

Alienation Distrust Feeling abandoned


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LINKING CONSUMERS AND BRAND:


BRAND AS THE CARRIER OF VALUES
Symbol: indirect representation of something intended to signify ideas or principles beyond that specific action, event, device, or utterance. The ideas or principles represented as such are meanings of the symbol.

Presentation & communications: Design Color Shape Tone Style Ambience

Symbols

Meanings

BRAND

Touch-points

VALUES

Goals achieved Objectives reached Demands fulfilled Requirements satisfied

Product/ service functionality

Interaction Between Product/ Service and the Consumers

Delivery of Functional benefits

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CREATING THE BRAND

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CREATING THE BRAND: Brand Concept and Architecture of The Brand

Exploring, describing, defining

PRODUCTS Specific Translated into Specific Translated into

VALUES
sought by the target market

In the forms of

GOALS/ NEEDS/ WANTS

BENEFITS
required

ATTRIBUTES
that bring BENEFITS

That support

PROPERTIES/ CHARACTERISTICS
that represent VALUES

SERVICES

To be achieved, realized, satisfied

IDEAS

EVENTS

BRAND CONCEPT Positioning Opportunities Ideas & Innovations


THE PROCESS OF SELECTING AN EFFECTIVE & POWERFUL BRAND

ANATOMY OF THE BRAND: A PARTICULAR ARRANGEMENT OF BRAND COMPONENTS TO PRODUCE A UNIQUE MIX OF VALUES

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CREATING THE BRAND: Brand Concept Designing the Brand


BRAND DEVELOPMENT PROCESS: If you have a product already, start with the core values that constitute the essence of your offer. Then match this with the consumer segment that seek those essential values. The segment is your target. If you do not have a product yet, find what core values are sought by your target market. then develop and create a product/brand that possess properties and characteristics that bring benefits of offering the values they look for. The brand concept is the statement of encapsulation of essential values that your product offer to the target. The brand concept should be able to fill in the best position in the mind of the target, in order to create a powerful brand. As such, you need to combine and arrange the brand components (product/service characteristics, name, packaging, core messages , and price) within a harmonious, balanced and coherent architecture.

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CREATING THE BRAND: Culture based Brand Design


*) Meanings may include gender, status, age, lifestyle, etc. **) Symbolic elements may include objects, persons, contexts and motifs

3)
Creative selection & Development: (the way, the feel, the mood, etc)

2)

Symbolic elements **) to communicate the meanings (e.g. something exclusive, only for a happy few)

4) 1)
Cultural meanings*) available in the society (e.g. Respectability is a valid goal in life) Product, Packaging & Campaign communication (color coding, verbal/visual cues, etc) at a Price

6)

Secondary meaning transfer****) The product become the locus of selected meanings, and the consumers use the product to create notions of self and the world

Primary meaning transfer***): (e.g. BMW is the status symbol a successful Yuppie)

5)
***)Transfer of meanings from to total stimuli to the product/brand through repeated associative process ****) Transfer of meanings from the product to the users/consumers.

(e.g.: With my BMW, I belong to the Yuppie Club My BM is my status. It is me )

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES/ STORIES AROUND THE BRAND

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UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION
The Major Principles of Communications: 1. Communication is a symbolic process Symbols are arbitrary People give meanings to symbols convention Symbols will vary and may change 2. Perception is the key to communication. 3. Communication has got content and relationship dimension. The communication content is aimed to help shape certain perception. 4. Communication takes place at different levels of intensity 5. Communication takes place within space and time contexts 6. Communication involves prediction and expectation of the communication participants. The ultimate aim of communication is to help achieve communicators objective of informing and influencing the other (s).
Sources: Collected from a number of textbooks on Communications

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UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION
The Major Principles of Communications: 7. Communication is systemic in its nature: Internal system Frame of reference Field of experience Cognitive structure Thinking pattern Internal moods External system Choice of words Tones etc 8. Similarity of social and cultural background will facilitate communication 9. Communication is going through a series of internal and external processes; it is dynamic and transactional.
Sources: Collected from a number of textbooks on Communications

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND WHAT (THE MESSAGES) WHOSE (COMMUNICATION TARGET)
MINDS AND HEARTS

WHAT ENDS (EXPECTED OUTCOMES)


TO BELIEVE IN AND TO DO

FACTS, IDEAS, PERCEPTION

TO BE PUT INTO

FOR THEM

GOALS

VALUES

OFFERED TO

TARGET CONSUMERS

WHO REQUIRE

TO SATISFY

WANTS

NEEDS BRAND (PRODUCT/ SERVICE) 52


Copyright Rahim Jabbar/1999

DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND BASIC QUESTIONS IN DEVELOPING BRAND MESSAGES (WHAT TO SAY) COPY STRATEGY WHO ARE YOU? (YOUR COMPANY)? WHAT DO YOU STAND FOR? WHAT DOES YOUR BRAND STAND FOR? WHOM ARE YOU SPEAKING TO? WHAT DO YOU WANT TO HELP THEM TO UNDERSTAND? WHAT DO YOU MANT THEM TO BELIEVE IN? WHAT DO YOU WANT THEM TO DO?

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Proposed Selling Idea

DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND COPY STRATEGY CREATIVE STRATEGY ADVERTISING ATTEMPTS

WHAT

BENEFITS

ADVANTAGES

VALUES
COPY STRATEGY CREATIVE STRATEGY

TARGET CONSUMERS

PROPOSED SELLING IDEAS

CONVERSION INTO

THEIR OWN SELF-INTEREST


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Copyright Rahim Jabbar/1999

DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND Proposed Selling Idea/Unique Selling Proposition It is a clear and simple statement that tells the target consumers why your product is different to make it stand out of the crowd. In a crowded market place you must be either BETTER or CHEAPER (or GIVING MORE VALUE) than your competitors. An example: OLYMPUS Camera: All the features of a professional camera without the fuss.

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND Proposed Selling Idea/Unique Selling Proposition Find, develop and ascertain that your product/service has something unique to offer. What can you offer that is different? only one: being the only one of its kind better than the others: superior to all others unusual: different from others in a way that makes something worthy of note limited to somebody or something: limited to a specific place, situation, group, person, or thing

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND Proposed Selling Idea/Unique Selling Proposition Before developing a USP, it helps to know: The features of the product/service How and why the customers uses the product services Features of competitive products

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND: Proposed Selling Idea/Unique Selling Proposition (2)
Steps to develop a USP List all main features of the product. (Features describe what the product/ service does). Features can be: quality, type and level of service, price, functional or technical characteristics. Convert each feature into benefit. (A benefit describes what customer need it fulfils). Customer buy benefit, therefore obtaining value from that. An example: Feature of an industrial machine : reliability, which means available for more hours of the working day ( benefit for the buyer). Rank the benefits according to their relative importance to the customer Group the benefits into standard ones, i.e. available to all competitive products or the different and special (unique) to your product/service) If no anything special or different, you have to develop at least one unique benefit ( it is all in the mind/perception)

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DEVELOPING MESSAGES FOR THE BRAND:


THE BIG PICTURE
What ? (THE PROMISE) Creativity (Big Idea) How ? (The Way) To Whom? (THE TARGET)

Why ? (THE SUPPORTING FACT

Communication Psychology (Symbology, tone, pitch,etc)

Consumer Psychology

SELECTED POSITIONING

COPY STRATEGY

ADVERTISING AND COMMUNICATION MATERIALS (AUDIO/VISUALS, MUSICS,ARTS)

Should be CORRECT

Should be CLEAR

Should be COMPETITIVE

Should be CREDIBLE

For the PRODUCT

For the MARKET

Should consider LONG-TERM HEALTH OF THE BRAND

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Copyright Rahim Jabbar/1999

KEY POINTS

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KEY POINTS
THE STARTING POINT Developing a brand starts from deep consumer insights. Consumer insights pertain to penetrating understanding of the underlying dynamics of consumer perceptions, attitudes and behavior. Deep consumer insights will result in workable solutions to consumers problems/challenges (related to the product/service in hands) through configurational learning about consumer values. Configurational learning is gestalt learning. Gestalt = a set regarded as a whole: a set of elements such as a persons thoughts and experiences considered as a whole and regarded as amounting to more than the sum of its parts.
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KEY POINTS (Continued-1)


THE STARTING POINT (Continued) Consumer values are special meanings attached to specific usage/consumption occasion/event by consumers/customers/ clients when their goals are achieved, their needs are fulfilled and their wants are satisfied. THE BRAND CONCEPT From deep and holistic understanding of consumer values, we then proceed to develop a concept for the brand (brand concept). A brand concept pertains to the complex characters (namely attributes and benefits) that constitute the brand.
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KEY POINTS (Continued-2)


UNDERSTANDING THE CONSUMERS Understanding the consumers is the basis for gaining deep insights on the consumers and their values. Consumers needs, wants and goals are influenced by both internal and external factors. As such, consumers display both overt behavior (namely, external, observable, and visible acts and actions) as well as covert behavior ( namely internal dispositions comprising of values, norms, beliefs and attitudes) Consumers overt behavior is driven by his/her attitudes (or disposition to do certain kinds of acts). In its turn, attitudes are based on beliefs. Beliefs are emotional acceptance of values and norms.
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KEY POINTS (Continued-3)


UNDERSTANDING THE CONSUMERS (Continued) Values (i.e. the principles of good or bad) and norms (the principles of right or wrong) are the principles shared by the people of the same culture. (Hence, the cultural basis of behavior) A brand (of a product or service) is aimed at satisfying consumer needs. Maslow proposed a theory on the pyramid of human needs which are arranged as below (from the base to the top or bottom up hierarchy): Physiological needs Safety and security needs Social needs The need for esteem The need for self-actualization
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KEY POINTS (Continued-4)


LINKING THE BRAND WITH THE CONSUMERS Human needs for physiological satisfaction is fulfilled by the brand through functional performance of the product or service. The needs for safety and security drive the consumers to look for safety/consistency and convenience. The derived need for convenience is fulfilled by the brand through the attractiveness and quality of the product design. Whereas the derived need for safety and consistency is satisfied by the brand through product quality. The needs for social acceptance, esteem and self actualization makes men/women to seek social appreciation. These needs are provided by the brand through the images portrayed.
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KEY POINTS (Continued-5)


DEVELOPING MESSAGES AND STORIES AROUNG THE BRAND Communication is a symbolic process in which perception is the key. The communication content is aimed to help shape certain perception of the communicating participants. The ultimate goal of communication is to help achieve the communicating participants objectives of informing and influencing the others. The key elements to be considered in developing messages for the brand are as below: What to say ( copy strategy) Whom the messages are aimed at (=the target consumers) How to say it ( creative strategy) What ends are expected (= communication objective)

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KEY POINTS (Continued-6)


DEVELOPING MESSAGES AND STORIES AROUNG THE BRAND (Continued) Copy strategy should be based on the Proposed Selling Idea (PSI) or the Unique Selling Proposition (USP). The PSI/USP = what benefits and advantages (or specific values from the consumers viewpoints) the advertising attempts to communicate to the target consumers. The PSI/USP is a clear and simple statement that tells the target market on the reasons why your product or service is different or unique. It can be because of being: The only one Better than the others Unusual Limited to something or somebody whilst the others are not
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KEY POINTS (Continued-7)


DEVELOPING MESSAGES AND STORIES AROUNG THE BRAND (Continued) Steps to develop an IPS/USP: List all main features of the product or service Convert each feature into benefit (s) Rank the benefits according to their relative importance to the customers. Groups the benefits into The standard ones (available to all competing companies) The different and special ones or the unique one If you do not find anything special or different, you have to develop at least one unique benefit ( It is all in the mind It is a game of perception It is a mind game).
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References (1)
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