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Six box model( Marvin weisboard)

7 s framework

Hard Elements Strategy Structure Systems

Soft Elements Shared Values Skills Style Staff

7 s frame work
Hard" elements are easier to define or identify and management can directly influence them: These are strategy statements; organization charts and reporting lines; and formal processes and IT systems

"Soft" elements, on the other hand, can be more

difficult to describe, and are less tangible and more influenced by culture. soft elements are as important.

Star Model

Jay Galbraith developed his "Star Model" framework for analyzing organizations in the 1960s. The framework consists of a series of design policies that are controllable by management and can influence employee behavior. . Implications of the Star Model: Organization design is more than just structure Different strategies lead to different organizations For an organization to be effective, all the policies must be aligned with one another

Star Model (cont)

In the Star Model, design policies fall into five categories. The first is strategy, which determines direction. The second is structure, which determines the location of decision-making power. Processes have to do with the flow of information; they are the means of responding to information technologies Rewards provide motivation and incentives for desired behavior. And finally, the selection and development of the right people in alignment with the other policies allow the organization to operate at maximum efficiency.

Star model effect of misalignment




Reward system

People practice



Grid lock

Internal competition


Star model (cont)

The preferred design process is composed in the following order: a - strategy; b - structure; c - key processes; d - key people; e - roles and responsibilities; f - information systems; g - performance measures and rewards; h - training and development; i - career paths.

Task: the theory

Tasks, well, its just work. More formally, tasks are:
 Activities conducted in an organization  What people do to advance the formal organizations strategy

Eight steps of Nadler Tushmans congruence model

The congruence model outlines eight steps while analyzing organisational problems. 1. Identification of symptoms of problem existence 2. Specification of the key elements of the organisation environment, resources and strategy 3. Identification of outputs the desired and the actual 4. Classification of the problems, that is, the gap between the desired and the actual outputs 5. Describe the organisational components by collecting data on the four components 6 Evaluation of the congruence between the various components 7 Identify the key factors requiring attention by linking the congruence analysis to the problem identified 8 Identification of action steps that might remove or reduce the problem

Burke-Litwin model

The Burke-Litwin model has been developed to examine organisational change and performance. It provides a link between an assessment of the wider institutional context and the nature and process of change within an organisation. It makes the following key points: The external environment is the most powerful driver for organisational change Changes in the external environment lead to significant changes within an organisation its mission and strategy, its organisational culture and its leadership.

Burke Litwin model (Cont)

Changes in these key factors lead to other changes within an organisation changes to structure, systems and management practices. These are more operational factors and changes in them may or may not have an organisation-wide impact Together these changes affect motivation, which in turn impacts on individual and organisational performance The model describes 12 organisational variables (incorporating the 7 variables of the 7-S model) and the relationships between them. Each of the variables interact and a change in any one of them can eventually impact on the others. This is useful in explaining not only how organisations perform, but also how they can be changed.

Burke Litwin model (Cont)

Outline of the Approach: The model revolves around 10 organizational dimensions: External environment Mission and strategy Leadership Culture Structure Management practices Systems Climate Task-person Individual needs and values The model also distinguishes between transformational and transactional organizational dynamics in organizations.

Burke Litwin model

Structural Framework - Social architect whose leadership style is analysis and design - focus on structure, strategy, environment, implementation, experimentation, and adaptation. Human Resource Framework - Catalyst and servant whose leadership style is support, advocate, and empowerment visible and accessible; they empower, increase participation, support, share information, and move decision making down into the organization. Political Framework - Advocate, whose leadership style is coalition and building - clarify what they want and what they can get; they assess the distribution of power and interests; they build linkages to other stakeholders; use persuasion first, then use negotiation and coercion only if necessary. Symbolic Framework - Prophet, whose leadership style is inspiration, view organizations as a stage or theater to play certain roles and give impressions; these leaders use symbols to capture attention; they try to frame experience by providing plausible interpretations of experiences; they discover and communicate a vision.


Factor Could include: 1. Economic 2. Political 3. Social 4. Technological 5. Environmental

6. Legal

1. e.g1 EU enlargement, the euro, international trade, taxation policy 2. e.g2 interest rates, exchange rates, national income, inflation, unemployment, Stock Market 3. e.g. 3ageing population, attitudes to work, income distribution 4. e.g4. innovation, new product development, rate of technological obsolescence 5. e.g5. global warming, environmental issues e.g. competition law, health and safety, employment law

Scenario analysis
Brainstorming 5 key drivers-scenarios are constructed
1. exchange rate 2. Tech innovation 3. Entry by new comp 4. Mergers 5. Competition for new staff

Most likely, optimistic, pessimistic

Gap analysis
Where we are? Where we want to go? How can we get there? Change strategy 1. Arenas-pdt, mkt segment, geo area, core tech, value creation 2. Vehicle-int dev ,JV, licensing, franchising, acquisition 3. Differentiator-image ,customization, price, style ,pdt reliability 4. Staging-speed of expansion, sequence of initiative 5. Low cost through scale adv-low cost/premium price

Cultural Web

The Cultural Web identifies six interrelated elements that help to make up what Johnson and Scholes call the "paradigm" - the pattern or model - of the work environment. By analyzing the factors in each, you can begin to see the bigger picture of your culture: what is working, what isn't working, and what needs to be changed. The six elements are: Stories - The past events and people talked about inside and outside the company. Who and what the company chooses to immortalize says a great deal about what it values, and perceives as great behavior. Rituals and Routines - The daily behavior and actions of people that signal acceptable behavior. This determines what is expected to happen in given situations, and what

Culture web (Cont)

Symbols - The visual representations of the company including logos, how plush the offices are, and the formal or informal dress codes. Organizational Structure - This includes both the structure defined by the organization chart, and the unwritten lines of power and influence that indicate whose contributions are most valued. Control Systems - The ways that the organization is controlled. These include financial systems, quality systems, and rewards (including the way they are measured and distributed within the organization.) Power Structures - The pockets of real power in the company. This may involve one or two key senior executives, a whole group of executives, or even a department. The key is that these people have the greatest amount of influence on decisions, operations, and strategic direction

Culture web

Culture Mapping

Artefacts - Physical evidence left in the wake of human interaction that can help to indicate a particular cultural bias. This can include rituals, behavioural norms, shared language, reward systems, logos and office design. Beliefs - What does the organisation value and regard as being important? This is seen in the moral and ethical codes offered by the business. The difficulty is that beliefs are deeply personal things, so in trying to define them at a global level, averaging or levelling will occur and some degree of compromise can take place. Control - Is power based around the structure of the organisation or capability of the individual? To what extent does this leverage negative or positive political action within the organisation?

Discourse - What is the balance between the open and hidden elements within the business? To what extent will people open up and talk about issues in a shared environment and to what extent are issues held for debate in private, closed and secure groups? This gap between the open and hidden levels of discourse can be used to understand the difference between the espoused and actual cultural factors. Energy - Where is the energy expended? Is it on issues that are concerned with internal processes or is it externally orientated, where the primary focus is on the customers, suppliers and stakeholders? Flow - How do people move in, out and within the organisation? What is the accepted churn rate, what is the balance between formal and informal recruitment processes and why do people leave the business? Generative - To what extent does the organisation understand and drive its capability to innovate and learn? Do individuals feel that they are empowered to develop themselves? To what extent is knowledge shared between individuals and what infrastructure exists to facilitate the sharing of knowledge?

Force field analysis

Force field analysis is a management technique developed by Kurt Lewin, a pioneer in the field of social sciences, for diagnosing situations. It will be useful when looking at the variables involved in planning and implementing a change program and will undoubtedly be of use in team building projects,when attempting to overcome resistance to change. Lewin assumes that in any situation there are both driving and restraining forces that influence any change that may occur. Driving Forces Driving forces are those forces affecting a situation that are pushing in a particular direction; they tend to initiate a change and keep it going. In terms of improving productivity in a work group, pressure from a supervisor, incentive earnings, and competition may be examples of driving forces. Restraining Forces Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. Apathy, hostility, and poor maintenance of equipment may be examples of restraining forces against increased production. Equilibrium is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces. In our example, equilibrium represents the present level of productivity, as shown below.

Force field analysis

Boundaryless org
Speed Flexibility Integration Innovation

Types of org boundary

Vertical boundary Horizontal boundary External boundary Geographic boundary

Readiness to change
Sponsorship Leadership Motivation Direction Measurement Org context Process/function Competitor benchmarking Customer focus Rewards Org structure Communication Org hierarchy Prior exp with change Morale Innovation Decision making

Stakeholder analysis

Stakeholder Management is an important discipline that successful people use to win support from others. It helps them ensure that their projects succeed where others fail.

1.Identifying Your Stakeholders

Your boss


Government Trades association s The press

Senior executives

Alliance partners

Your coworkers


Your team


Interest groups



The public

Prospective customers

Future recruits

The community

Your family

2. Prioritize Your Stakeholders:

Understanding your key stakeholders Assess each stakeholder