Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 24

Tests of Hypotheses:

Small Samples
Tests of Hypotheses:
Small Samples
Chapter
The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not have enough memory to open the image, or the image may have been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, you may have to delete the image and then insert it again.
Rejection
region
CHAPTER GOALS CHAPTER GOALS
TO DESCRIBE THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF
STUDENTS t-DISTRIBUTION.
TO UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE t -
DISTRIBUTION AND THE z -DISTRIBUTION.
TO DESCRIBE THE MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF
STUDENTS t-DISTRIBUTION.
TO UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE t -
DISTRIBUTION AND THE z -DISTRIBUTION.
CHAPTER GOALS CHAPTER GOALS
TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS INVOLVING ONE POPULATION
MEAN.
TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS INVOLVING THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN TWO POPULATION MEANS.
TO CONDUCT A TEST OF HYPOTHESIS FOR THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SET OF PAIRED OBSERVATIONS.
TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS INVOLVING ONE POPULATION
MEAN.
TO TEST A HYPOTHESIS INVOLVING THE DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN TWO POPULATION MEANS.
TO CONDUCT A TEST OF HYPOTHESIS FOR THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SET OF PAIRED OBSERVATIONS.
CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS
t-DISTRIBUTION
CHARACTERISTICS OF STUDENTS
t-DISTRIBUTION
The t-distribution has the following properties:
It is continuous, bell shaped and symmetrical about zero like
the z-distribution.
There is a family of t-distributions with mean of zero but one
for each sample size.
The t-distribution is more spread out and flatter at the center
than the z-distribution, but approaches the z-distribution as
the sample size gets larger.
The t-distribution has the following properties:
It is continuous, bell shaped and symmetrical about zero like
the z-distribution.
There is a family of t-distributions with mean of zero but one
for each sample size.
The t-distribution is more spread out and flatter at the center
than the z-distribution, but approaches the z-distribution as
the sample size gets larger.
z-distribution
t-distribution
The degrees of
freedom for
the t-distribution
is df = n - 1.
A TEST FOR A POPULATION MEAN:
SMALL SAMPLE, POPULATION
STANDARD DEVIATION UNKNOWN
A TEST FOR A POPULATION MEAN:
SMALL SAMPLE, POPULATION
STANDARD DEVIATION UNKNOWN
The test statistic for a one sample case is given by equation
(9-1) below
(9-1)
The test statistic for a one sample case is given by equation
(9-1) below
(9-1)
t
X
n S
=

/
EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 1
The current rate for producing 5 amp fuses at Monarch
Electric Company is 250 per hour. A new machine has been
purchased and installed that, according to the supplier, will
increase the production rate. A sample of 10 randomly
selected hours from last month revealed the mean hourly
production on the new machine was 256, with a sample
standard deviation of 6 per hour. At the 0.05 significance
level can Monarch conclude that the new machine is faster?
The current rate for producing 5 amp fuses at Monarch
Electric Company is 250 per hour. A new machine has been
purchased and installed that, according to the supplier, will
increase the production rate. A sample of 10 randomly
selected hours from last month revealed the mean hourly
production on the new machine was 256, with a sample
standard deviation of 6 per hour. At the 0.05 significance
level can Monarch conclude that the new machine is faster?
EXAMPLE 1 (continued) EXAMPLE 1 (continued)
Step 1: State the null and the alternative hypotheses.
H
0
: 250 H
1
: > 250
Step 2: State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t > 1.833, df = 9 (Appendix F).
Step 3: Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = [256 - 250]/[6/10] = 3.16.
Step 4: What is the decision on H
0
?
H
0
is rejected. The new machine is faster.
Step 1: State the null and the alternative hypotheses.
H
0
: 250 H
1
: > 250
Step 2: State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t > 1.833, df = 9 (Appendix F).
Step 3: Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = [256 - 250]/[6/10] = 3.16.
Step 4: What is the decision on H
0
?
H
0
is rejected. The new machine is faster.
STUDENT t DISTRIBUTION
Level of significance for one-tailed test
df .10 .05 .025 .01 .005 .0005
Level of significance for two-tailed test
.20 .10 .05 .02 .01 .001
1 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 1 .886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31 .599
3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
22 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
26 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
27 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
60 1 .296 1 .671 2.000 2.390 2.660 3.460
120 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617 3.373
1 .282 1 .645 1 .960 2.326 2.576 3.291
Display of the Rejection Region, Critical
Value, and the computed Test Statistic
Display of the Rejection Region, Critical
Value, and the computed Test Statistic
Region of
rejection
t
Critical
value
1.833
0.05
df = 9
COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS MEANS COMPARING TWO POPULATIONS MEANS
To conduct this test, three assumptions are required:
1. The populations must be normally or approximately
normally distributed.
2. The populations must be independent.
3. The population variances must be equal.
Let subscript 1 and 2 be associated with population 1 and 2
respectively.
To conduct this test, three assumptions are required:
1. The populations must be normally or approximately
normally distributed.
2. The populations must be independent.
3. The population variances must be equal.
Let subscript 1 and 2 be associated with population 1 and 2
respectively.
POOLED SAMPLE VARIANCE AND TEST
STATISTIC
POOLED SAMPLE VARIANCE AND TEST
STATISTIC
Pooled Sample Variance
s
n s n s
n n
Test Statistic
t
X X
s
n n
p
p



=


1
2 1 1
2
2 2
2
1 2
2
2
1 2
1 1
2
1 1
=
+
+

'

+
'

( ) ( )
(9 -3)
(9 -2)
EXAMPLE 2 EXAMPLE 2
A recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study
compared the highway fuel economy of domestic and
imported passengers cars. A sample of 15 domestic cars
revealed a mean of 33.7 mpg with a standard deviation of 2.4
mpg. A sample of 12 imported cars revealed a mean of 35.7
mpg with a standard deviation of 3.9. At the 0.05 significance
level can the EPA conclude that the miles per gallon is higher
on the imported cars? (Let subscript 1 be associated with the
domestic cars).
A recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) study
compared the highway fuel economy of domestic and
imported passengers cars. A sample of 15 domestic cars
revealed a mean of 33.7 mpg with a standard deviation of 2.4
mpg. A sample of 12 imported cars revealed a mean of 35.7
mpg with a standard deviation of 3.9. At the 0.05 significance
level can the EPA conclude that the miles per gallon is higher
on the imported cars? (Let subscript 1 be associated with the
domestic cars).
Step 1: State the null and the alternative hypotheses.
H
0
:
2

l
H
1
:
2
>
l
Step 2: State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t > 1.708, df = 25.
Step 3: Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = 1.64 (Verify).
Step 4: What is the decision on H
0
?
H
0
is not rejected. Insufficient sample evidence to claim a
higher mpg on the imported cars.
Step 1: State the null and the alternative hypotheses.
H
0
:
2

l
H
1
:
2
>
l
Step 2: State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t > 1.708, df = 25.
Step 3: Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = 1.64 (Verify).
Step 4: What is the decision on H
0
?
H
0
is not rejected. Insufficient sample evidence to claim a
higher mpg on the imported cars.
EXAMPLE 2 (continued) EXAMPLE 2 (continued)
STUDENT t DISTRIBUTION
Level of significance for one-tailed test
df .10 .05 .025 .01 .005 .0005
Level of significance for two-tailed test
.20 .10 .05 .02 .01 .001
1 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 1 .886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31 .599
3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
22 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
26 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
27 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
60 1 .296 1 .671 2.000 2.390 2.660 3.460
120 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617 3.373
1 .282 1 .645 1 .960 2.326 2.576 3.291
Sampling Distribution for the Statistic t for a
Two-Tailed Test, 0.05 Level of Significance
Sampling Distribution for the Statistic t for a
Two-Tailed Test, 0.05 Level of Significance
Critical
value
2.06
Critical
value
-2.06
0.95
Do not
reject H
0
Region of
rejection
Region of
rejection
0.025
0.025
t
-2.06 2.06
df = 25
0
HYPOTHESIS TESTING INVOLVING PAIRED
OBSERVATIONS
HYPOTHESIS TESTING INVOLVING PAIRED
OBSERVATIONS
Use the following test when the samples are dependent.
For example, suppose you were collecting data on the price
charged by two different body shops because you suspect
that one is charging more than the other.
In this case, the same wrecked vehicle will be assessed by the
two shops.
Because of this, the samples will be dependent.
Here we will take the difference of the two estimates and
perform a test on the differences.
Use the following test when the samples are dependent.
For example, suppose you were collecting data on the price
charged by two different body shops because you suspect
that one is charging more than the other.
In this case, the same wrecked vehicle will be assessed by the
two shops.
Because of this, the samples will be dependent.
Here we will take the difference of the two estimates and
perform a test on the differences.
TEST STATISTIC TEST STATISTIC
(9 - 4) (9 - 4)
d-bar is the average of the differences
s
d
is the standard deviation of the differences
n is the number of pairs (differences)
t
d
s n
d
=
/
EXAMPLE 3 EXAMPLE 3
An independent testing agency is comparing the daily rental
cost for renting a compact car from Hertz and Avis. A
random sample of eight cities is obtained and the following
rental information obtained. At the 0.05 significance level
can the testing agency conclude that there is a difference in
the rental charged?
NOTE: These samples are dependent since the same type of car
(compact) is being rented from the two companies in the
same cities.
An independent testing agency is comparing the daily rental
cost for renting a compact car from Hertz and Avis. A
random sample of eight cities is obtained and the following
rental information obtained. At the 0.05 significance level
can the testing agency conclude that there is a difference in
the rental charged?
NOTE: These samples are dependent since the same type of car
(compact) is being rented from the two companies in the
same cities.
EXAMPLE 3 (continued) EXAMPLE 3 (continued)
EXAMPLE 3 (continued) EXAMPLE 3 (continued)
State the null and the alternative hypotheses:
H
0
:
d
= 0 H
1
:
d
= 0
State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t < -2.365 or t > 2.365.
Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = (1.00)/[3.162/] = 0.89, (verify).
What is the decision on the null hypothesis?
H
0
is not rejected. There is no difference in the charge.
State the null and the alternative hypotheses:
H
0
:
d
= 0 H
1
:
d
= 0
State the decision rule.
H
0
is rejected if t < -2.365 or t > 2.365.
Compute the value of the test statistic.
t = (1.00)/[3.162/] = 0.89, (verify).
What is the decision on the null hypothesis?
H
0
is not rejected. There is no difference in the charge.
STUDENT t DISTRIBUTION
Level of significance for one-tailed test
df .10 .05 .025 .01 .005 .0005
Level of significance for two-tailed test
.20 .10 .05 .02 .01 .001
1 3.078 6.314 12.706 31.821 63.657 636.619
2 1 .886 2.920 4.303 6.965 9.925 31 .599
3 1.638 2.353 3.182 4.541 5.841 12.924
4 1.533 2.132 2.776 3.747 4.604 8.610
5 1.476 2.015 2.571 3.365 4.032 6.869
6 1.440 1.943 2.447 3.143 3.707 5.959
7 1.415 1.895 2.365 2.998 3.499 5.408
8 1.397 1.860 2.306 2.896 3.355 5.041
9 1.383 1.833 2.262 2.821 3.250 4.781
10 1.372 1.812 2.228 2.764 3.169 4.587
11 1.363 1.796 2.201 2.718 3.106 4.437
12 1.356 1.782 2.179 2.681 3.055 4.318
13 1.350 1.771 2.160 2.650 3.012 4.221
14 1.345 1.761 2.145 2.624 2.977 4.140
15 1.341 1.753 2.131 2.602 2.947 4.073
16 1.337 1.746 2.120 2.583 2.921 4.015
17 1.333 1.740 2.110 2.567 2.898 3.965
18 1.330 1.734 2.101 2.552 2.878 3.922
19 1.328 1.729 2.093 2.539 2.861 3.883
20 1.325 1.725 2.086 2.528 2.845 3.850
21 1.323 1.721 2.080 2.518 2.831 3.819
22 1.321 1.717 2.074 2.508 2.819 3.792
23 1.319 1.714 2.069 2.500 2.807 3.768
24 1.318 1.711 2.064 2.492 2.797 3.745
25 1.316 1.708 2.060 2.485 2.787 3.725
26 1.315 1.706 2.056 2.479 2.779 3.707
27 1.314 1.703 2.052 2.473 2.771 3.690
28 1.313 1.701 2.048 2.467 2.763 3.674
29 1.311 1.699 2.045 2.462 2.756 3.659
30 1.310 1.697 2.042 2.457 2.750 3.646
40 1.303 1.684 2.021 2.423 2.704 3.551
60 1 .296 1 .671 2.000 2.390 2.660 3.460
120 1.289 1.658 1.980 2.358 2.617 3.373
1 .282 1 .645 1 .960 2.326 2.576 3.291
2.365 0
Computed
t = 0.89
Rejection
region
-2.365
Rejection
region
0.89
df = 7
t
Homework for Chapter 11,12,13 Homework for Chapter 11,12,13
Chapter 11 : CD-ROM
Chapter 12 : CD-ROM
Chapter 13 : CD-ROM
Chapter 11 : CD-ROM
Chapter 12 : CD-ROM
Chapter 13 : CD-ROM