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UMTS and Beyond

Prof. Hamid Aghvami Centre for Telecommunications Research - King s College London Wireless Multimedia Communications Ltd

Mobile System Generations




First Generation (1G) mobile systems were designed to offer a single service, i.e., speech. Second Generation (2G) mobile systems were also designed primarily to offer speech with a limited capability to offer data at low rates. Third Generation (3G) mobile systems are expected to offer high-quality multi-media services and operate in different environments. 3G systems are referred to as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe and International Mobile Telecommunications 2000 (IMT2000) worldwide.

UMTS
UMTS will be a mobile communications system that can offer significant user benefits including high-quality wireless multimedia services to a convergent network of fixed, cellular and satellite components. It will deliver information directly to users and provide them with access to new and innovative services and applications. It will offer mobile personalised communications to the mass market regardless of location, network and terminal used. UMTS Forum 1997

UMTS Main Requirements (3 Ms)


  

Multi-media Multi-environment Multi-operator Virtual operators

Mobile Multimedia Services


Mobile Multimedia
2M 384K Video Conference (High quality) Video Conference (Low quality)

Broadcast
Information Distribution Services News Weather forecast

Internet Access

Remote medical service (Medical image)

Database Access Video Catalog shopping Video on demand -Sports -News -Movies ISDN Karaoke Mobile TV

WWW e-mail
Electronic Newspaper Voice Mail Electronic Publishing

64K

32K 16K
Telephone Conference

ftp IP telephony etc

Traffic information

Mobile Radio

pager

Sports information Leisure Information

9.6K
Telephone

2.4K 1.2K

Electronic Mail

FAX

Image Data Voice

Symmetric

Asymmetric

Multicast

Point to Point

Multi Point

Different Environments for UMTS

Global

Suburban

Urban In- Building Home-Cell Pico-Cell

Micro-Cell

Macro-Cell

First phase of UMTS




Europe has decided to adopt an evolutionary approach for the UMTS core network based on migration from the GSM/GPRS infrastructure. For the actual air interface, a revolutionary approach has been chosen. That is a new radio air interface for UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access (UTRA). There is another parallel activity concerning the UMTS air interface using an evolutionary approach (an intermediate approach).

Radio Access
Dual-mode Evolved GSM Radio Access (GERAN)

GSM Infrastructure

Public Network

NSS And

New Radio Access (UTRAN) Dual-mode

GSN s

PSTN N-ISDN B-ISDN IP-based Networks

Evolution approach based on GSM Infrastructure

Evolution Approach

Evolutionary approach for the GSM Air Interface




In this approach the GSM air interface has evolved within GSM phase 2+ to support higher rate data services. The most important developments in this approach are: 1. General Packet Radio Services (GPRS ) 2. High Speed Circuit Switched Data (HSCSD ) 3. Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE )

It is referred to GSM/EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)

UMTS Phase I PSTN


C

PDN HLR
Gc Gr D Gs

Internet GGSN
Gn

GMSC

SMSC/ VLR
Iu,cs Iu,cs

SGSN
Iu,ps Iu,ps

RNC . Node B Node B

RNC . Node B Node B

...

Packet Switched (GPRS)

Applications & Services

Legacy mobile signalling network SGW


Ms

Mh HSS (HLR) Gr TE R MT Um GERAN Iu-PS UTRAN Uu Gn Gc

Mm

Multimedia IP networks

Cx

CSCF
Gi Mr MRF Gi

Mg Gi

MGCF
Mc

SGSN
Gp Gn

GGSN
Gi

TE R

MT

MGW

PSTN/ legacy/external

EIR
Gf

GGSN Other PLMN

SGSN

Signalling interface Signalling and data transfer interface

Simplified architecture for the support of IP-based multimedia services in 3GPP release 5

New Functional Entities for the All IP Architecture


Call State Control Function (CSCF) executes the call control. It is based on the IETF Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). Media GateWay (MGW) provides an inter-connection from GGSN to legacy circuit-switched networks such as PSTN. Media Gateway Control Function (MGCF) controls the MGW. Media Resource Function (MRF) performs multiparty call and multimedia conferencing functions. Signalling GateWay (SGW) performs signalling conversion to/from legacy mobile signalling network. Home Subscriber Server (HSS) is an evolved HLR.

4G Concept

Towards 4G
User centric, user controlled services and context-aware applications

4G Concept

What does user controlled services mean?

The user has freedom and flexibility to select any desired service with reasonable QoS and affordable price, anytime, anywhere using any device in a secure manner

4G Concept

What does context-aware applications mean? context A context-aware application means the behaviour of the application adapts itself to user context changes. User context includes: -user profile and preferences. -user device and access network capabilities. -user environment and mobility.

Technologies

Challenges
Convergence/integration/inter-working of all existing and emerging fixed and mobile (wired and wireless) networks including broadcast

IP Technology

Simple to select and easy to use desired services

Agent Technology Reconfigurable Technology

Universal and low cost terminals

Network Level Concepts

Inter-working Concept Integration Concept

Interworking/Integration
For the design of next generation wireless networks two different approaches are currently being considered. They are: - Interworking with next generation Internet (tight coupling) - Integration within next generation Internet (very tight coupling) In the first approach, the access network and the core network use different IP protocols and mechanisms and only the core network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet. In the second approach, both the core and access networks use common IP based protocols and mechanisms and the access network is considered as a sub-network of the Internet.

Inter-Working
Billing SIP Proxy Server Signalling WAP Gateway Accounting

VHE

ISP

The Internet Satellite FES IP backbone Broadcast Networks (DAB, DVB-T) GSM / GPRS UMTS
IP-based micro-mobility Context-aware information Centre

Wireless LANs

Integration
Applications
AP1 AP2 AP3 APn

Middleware Service support sub-layer Location Accounting/billing Media conversion Distribution

Basic network management sub-layer RRM MM C/SM


Security

QoS

ISDN/ PSTN

IP-based transport NW IP Radio

IP

IP IP IP Radio Internet

IP Radio

IP

General architecture of the IP-based IMT network platform

Hierarchical coverage layers for 4G

IP-based backbone

Global coverage Regional coverage


DAB and DVB-T, DVB-S

Satellite

National coverage

2G, 3G and 4G Cellular

Local area coverage Personal area coverage

Wireless LANs

Wireless PANs Vertical Handover

Horizontal Handover

The complexity of the problem: user prospective


From a user prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators part of Multiple user environments accessed using Multiple heterogeneous devices owned by heterogeneous users

The complexity of the problem: network prospective


From a network prospective Multiple Heterogeneous network operators providing Multiple services through multiple access networks to users with heterogeneous devices
Service B 1 Service C Service
Downward Vertical Handover 1 2 (i.e. GPRS WLAN)

Operators Operator D
Upward Vertical Handover 2 3 (i.e. WLAN Bluetooth)

Operator C 2 Operator B 3
Bluetooth GPRS WLAN

Operator A

Access technology

Service A

A Heterogeneous Network Architecture

Future Internet

Core Network

UTRAN

WLAN

4G RAN

Wireless Access Network

PAN Intra-Cell PAN Ad-hoc Network PAN PAN PAN

Inter-working between two radio access networks Open coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks Loose coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks Tight coupling

Inter-working between two radio access networks Very tight coupling

Inter-working examples - caching

IP network
SGSN HSS

Query (2)

Response (3)

Inter-working examples user centric


Delivery options

Content Delivery Notification Content: video clip(15MB) Service: Music Clips Company: MTV Please select delivery options Send to PDA (5 eur) 15min Send to office PC (10 eur) 7min Send to STB (20 eur)-2min

Network provides device delivery options including cost and delivery times

User selects desired destination

Slide:30Slide:30-40

Inter-working examples network centric


Load balancing i.e. Using DVB to multicast or broadcast to large number of
users

Handovers i.e. Users in train moving outside the coverage of a network

Slide:31Slide:31-40

Network Selection

Most Appropriate Network Selection Criteria

Service Type
- Data rate - QoS

Available Resources User Context


- Environment (When and Where) - Mobility - User preferences

Convergence
Convergence of Cellular Mobile Networks and WLANs Benefits
For cellular mobile operators  Higher bandwidths.  Lower cost of networks and equipment.  The use of licence-exempt spectrum.  Higher capacity and QoS enhancement.  Higher revenue. For users  Access to broadband multimedia services with lower cost and where mostly needed (e.g. in Central Business Districts and Business Customer Premises).  Inter-network roaming.

Convergence
Convergence of Mobile Communications and Broadcasting Drivers
From broadcaster point of view


Introducing interactivity to their unidirectional point-to-multipoint broadcasting systems. That is, a broadband downlink based on DAB/DVB-T and a narrowband uplink based on 2G/3G cellular systems.

From the cellular mobile operator point of view




Providing a complementary broadband downlink in vehicular environments to support IP-based multi-media traffic which is inherently asymmetrical.

Convergence
Benefits


Broadcasters will benefit from the use of cellular mobile systems to adapt the content of their multi-media services more rapidly in response to the feedback from customers. operators will benefit from offering their customers a range of new broadband multi-media services in vehicular environments.

Cellular

Users will benefit from faster access to a range of broadband multimedia services with reasonable QoS and lower cost.

IP Layer Model

Steve Deering - Cisco : Fifty-first IETF; London, England, August 5-10, 2001

IP Layer Model for WLANs


Higher Layers Additional IP Functions  Mobility Management  Quality of Service  AAA  IP Sec  Ad-Hoc Routing  etc.

Native IP Functions:  Routing  Addressing  Packet Formatting and Handling Data Interface  Error Control  Buffer Management  QoS Support  Segmentation/Reassembly  Header Compression  Multicast Support Control Interface  Configuration Management  Address Management  QoS Control  Handover Control  Idle Mode Support  Security Management

IP Network Layer

IP Convergence Layer

Lower Layers

IP Layer Model


The functionalities and structure of the IP layer model are not sufficient and/or efficient to achieve the requirements of future inter-worked or integrated networks. No fundamental changes have been made in the design of IPV6. The question is: Are some radical changes needed to the IP layer model in order to offer better solutions to the convergence issue? If yes, what are the consequences and implications?

Agent Definition
An agent is a software component (object) that is situated within an execution environment (e.g. computers) and acts autonomously on behalf of a user or process and has specific goal.

AP AP

AP AP

2G, 3G WLAN
Service Centre

AP: Agent Platform

Agent Technology
Mandatory features Reactive: senses changes in the environment and reacts in accordance. Autonomous: has control over its own actions Goal-driven: is pro-active Optional features Collaborative: communicates/negotiates with other agents Mobile: travels from one host to another Learning: adapts in accordance with previous experience
Believable: appears believable to the end-user.

Mobile vs. Static Agents


request respond

Client

Server
request respond

Client

Server

Software components that can migrate under their own control from host to host in a network or between networks

Mobile Agents
Mobile agents have already been used for network monitoring and service delivery including education at a distance. In an ever-increasing world of service providers and service packages, a user demands a simple approach to the selection of the desired service and its delivery mechanism in real-time with least effort. This can be achieved through the use of mobile agents. The use of mobile agents can also overcome the constraints imposed on applications by the limited processing power and speed of mobile terminals.

Agent Technology

An open question:

Static or mobile agents for wireless networks? What are the pros and cons?

Re-configurable Technology What does Reconfiguration mean? Reconfiguration refers to the software re-definition and/or adaptation of every element within each layer of the communication chain.

RF Front End

A/D Converter D/A Converter

Baseband Processing

User Data

Re-configurable Technology
Benefits

Users
- Select network depending on service requirements and cost. - Connect to any network Worldwide roaming. -Access to new services.

Operators
- Respond to variations in traffic demand (load balancing). - Incorporate service enhancements and improvements. - Correction of software bugs and upgrade of terminals. - Rapid development of new personalised and customised services

Manufacturers
- Single platform for all markets. - Increased flexible and efficient production.

Re-configuration Procedures

Reconfiguration Trigger

Initiated by network operator or user

Mode Monitoring

Mode Identification

What networks are available? What is the most suitable network (based on QoS, user preferences etc.)?

Mode Negotiation

Mode Switch Decision Download software modules that are required for the target mode

Decision on preferred mode

Software Download

Reconfigure Terminal

Re-configurable Technology CHALLENGES


Regulatory and Standardisation issues. Business models. User preference profiles. Inter-system handover mechanisms and criteria. Software download mechanisms. Flexible spectrum allocation and sharing between operators. Enabling Technologies (RF and antenna elements, ADC/DAC etc.)

Conclusion

Reconfigurable Technology

IP Technology

4G Vision

Agent Technology