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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE

Individual camouflage Individual camouflage is personal concealment that a soldier use in the field to achieve surprise and deceive the enemy. A soldier modifies his dress and weapons to blend with his surroundings. Must select positions and routes which afford him the maximum concealment and he must avoid activity which is liable to give him as a consequence , his comrades, away. Individual camouflage is the very basis of tall camouflage efforts. The principles given below must become second nature to him. The various aspects of individual camouflage are outlined as under: Toning Down of Skin The skin on the face and hands of a man shows of again natural background due to shine and difference in tone. The areas which shine are the forehead, nose ,cheek-bones, chin and these should be toned down using burnt cork, charcoal, Blanco mud applied in uneven smudges. Shadow areas under the eyes, nose and chin should be given a light colour. Camouflage cream, camouflage sticks can also be used for the purpose.

Equipment
Helmet One of the most striking characteristics of a soil equipment is his steel helmet with its typical curved shape and metallic shine. Camouflage of a helmet, the involves breaking its outline and removing is shine. 1 Some of methods of achieving this are discussed.

SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Disruptive painting of the helmet, using 2 or 3 colours, which predominate in the terrain and provide an effective distortion must be taken to continue the patterns across and under the helmet Foliage. One of the most effective methods of camouflage helmet is the use f natural foliage. This can be stuck either in camouflage net for the helmet or in a rubber band or cloth round the base of the helmet. This foliage of course must be of variety found locally and must be replaced before it starts withering Garnishing Bows of garnishing tied or knotted to the camouflage net worn on a helmet break its outline and shine Hessian cover A very convenient field expedient is an improvised cover made of a circular piece of Hessian about 50 cm in diameter. A piece of string; woven round the rim edge and puffed tight under the rim, keeps the cover in position. Smudges of mud or paint break up the continuous tone and foliage or pieces of cloth stuck in holes cut into the cover break the outline of the helmet Paint. Web Equipment. web equipment properly shaped , using card board boxes uniformly blancoed and sparklingly brass polished is a must for barrack inspections and inter-unit weapon training place . In the field however this is a much out of place as drill movements . The straight lines and the saline of the all equipment must be properly fitted to avoid the give away during silent movements like those at night and in the jungles.
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INDIVIDUAL CAMOUFALGE

Camouflage of weapons

Aerial photographs

Camouflage nets

SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Clothing. At present the colors of uniform being used in the Army are olive green as the standard item, white for snow warfare troops khaki for desert areas. Till such time the newly approved are issued, the existing clothing must continue to be used necessary local modifications as possible. Even in non- desert terrain some modification will always be necessary to blend better with surroundings. Dust which tends to settle on the clothing and boots especially in desert must be welcomed. Suitable dyes can be procured and used for giving colored smudges to the uniforms. Position A position must always be selected that will afford maximum concealment without changing natural surroundings. A soldier must, at all times keep in mind two factors while selecting a position-silhouette and shadow. All his efforts at blending with the background, all the time on making up his helmet, face and equipment will come to light if he does not keep these factors in mind. A silhouette is formed when a man is seen against background of the sky or some other light background. This can be avoided by: Avoiding skyline If skyline cannot be altogether avoided then by exposing self on it for the shortest possible time An object standing under the sun throws on the ground or near by wall a shadow, which is distinctive and attracts attention more quickly than object itself. To avoid disclosure one of the following methods are recommended: - Stand completely in the shadow of another object. - Stand in such a way that your shadow falls on irregular object like a bush and is thus distorted
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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Activity All activity at times of day and night should carefully avoid detection. The precautions given in the following paragraphs must strictly enforced. During Day Disturb natural surroundings as little as possible Avoid walking on skyline or along a water edge. Run across a gap in hedge or up or down an exposed slope to permit movement being observed for the shortest possible time Stick to the tracks earmarked beforehand Lie flat and be still when a hostile aircraft approaches When using cover look round through or under it and over it. Follow the lines of either the natural ground formation man made boundaries such as walls, hedges and crop division During Night Eliminate all avoidable sounds form equipment while walking in a dark night, it is better to walk in open than in a forest. Do not smoke in an exposed position as the light will be visible from a long distance Avoid skyline If the pop of a flare is heard before the illuminating burst, lie on the ground instantly and remain 8 motionless if you are shown by the light freeze in situ with face down.

SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


INFANTRY WEAPONS The care and thoroughness exercised in individual camouflage must be repeated in the job of concealing weapons and equipment. This is closely linked with the correct selection of positions. Badly sited weapon pits can be easily detected. While selecting position, therefore its inherent camouflage capability borne in mind side by side with its tactical capability. Otherwise excellent position which by virtue of its location is capable of good concealment may have to be given up for a second choice. A field fortification cannot be concealed solely by siting. A properly selected position saves much time and camouflage in making it inconspicuous. Camouflage of infantry weapons The concealment of infantry weapons present three problems - Concealing these weapons so that they cannot be observed or associated with any particular arm. This includes camouflage of weapon emplacement - Disguising the special characteristics power - Concealing the movement associated with the replenishment of ammunition Starting any excavation, all natural material like turf, sod etc, which may later be useful for camouflage should be removed and kept aside. After completion of the concealment these should be replaced on the spoil. Excess earth and spoil which is not required on site should be carried away and concealed under bushes or low tress. Unless natural overhead cover is available a horizontal screen should be erected to conceal the fortification under construction to avoid detection under construction stage. This screen will be removed only after the fortification has been satisfactorily camouflaged. As far as possible fortification should be located under trees or bushes or in dark . While opting for natural cover, isolated land marks like lone trees, hay stacks and track junctions should be avoided. Weapon pits dug with no regard for ground pattern or the track rings draw attention to the trench. The piled spoil add to the shine
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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Personal Weapons Rifle with bayonet, pistol and carbine are the basic weapons of the infantry soldier Revealing Signs. Personal weapons can be recognized by virtue of their typical outline and the shine from their wooden and metallic parts Camouflage measures. Outline of a weapon can be changed by tying scrim garnish or hessian around it by pattern painting or by sticking foliage on it. The last method is little cumbersome as it interferes with efficient use of the weapon. These methods help in breaking the outline as well as eliminate the shine. Another practical and inexpensive method of reducing the shine is to coat the shiny portions with mud or blanco. Light machine Gun Light machine gun is the main fire power of an infantry section Revealing Signs. The revealing signs of an LMG post are the automatic fire and the dust kicked up from the firing position. Camouflage measures. The following points should be remembered Keep a low profile, firing from the side of a cover rather than over feature with improper background behind and on the side of the gun Ensure that there is no loose earth near the flash eliminator, gas down wash. Eliminate dust nuisance by watering.
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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Medium Machine Gun The main characteristic of MMG is sustained fire. Revealing signs. The revealing signs of a medium machine gun a) The shape of the pit and the existence of the twin gun b) The cloud of the dust in front of the gun. c) Litter consisting of empty cases, packing material and paper d) Thick overhead cover. e) The embrasure seen as an enclosed shadow Camouflage Measures. When sited in open , as during reorganization to repel an enemy counter-attack , use should be made of available shadows of tress or bushes or debris. Background must selected so that it contrast as little as possible with the gun or gunner. A low profile should be attempted. When sited in prepared position, the overhead cover must be properly concealed by blending it with the surrounding area . The embrasures should be so adjusted that the gunner, who has to sit or stand behind the gun exposing head and shoulders, does not become a bull s eye in the background of another opening, like open window etc. The gunner should make full use contained shadow by staying in it and at no time leaning out. At the same time the contained shadow of vehicle should be concealed by placing a bush or foliage in covering it in front with a piece of hessian or net camouflage. Litter should be collected periodically and either buried or sent back in retuning transport. The position should be carefully checked for dust nuisance.
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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Mortar Because of its high angle of fire, which makes provision of overhead cover difficult, it is not easy to conceal a mortar. Revealing signs. The revealing signs of mortar positions a) Shape of the pit and in case of 81 mm mortars, ground other similar pits connected with trenches and tracks b) The onion shaped flash, which appears after firing and even higher and more pronounced for heavier motors c) The smoke which accumulates in still air especially in cover and vegetation. d) Dust raised from the ground as a result of mortars recoil e) The litter consisting of bomb carriers and straps. Camouflage measures. As far as possible, mortars positioned in dead ground, on reverse slopes and ravines. Where it is not possible a light coloured background chosen would be would at least partially, absorb the flash and smoke of firing. Litter of bombs to be kept in ammunition bays or disposed of at first opportunity back loading to the rear or or burying or dumping near gun position. Cover the pit when not in use by garnished camouflage or removable foliage

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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


RCL ( recoilless)guns Identification /Revealing signs Back blast extending to considerable distance Charring of the area behind because of back blast The long and shinny barrel Height , when mounted on jeep Jeep tracks leading to gun position Camouflage measures Site the gun in defiladed ground to conceal the blast from the enemy Avoid premature firing Gun position well dug down for a low profile even for a jeep mount Tracks ahead of gun position Alternative positions in case of vulnerability Cover the gun by garnished camo nets Char other near by areas also for deception

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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Camouflage of Obstacles Encountering an unexpected obstacle, the enemy need to reduce speed to surmount it or bypass it without benefit of prior planning. He may have to call for specialist men and material. The defender may be able to take advantage of confusion and deliver a hard blow. A good siting of the obstacles solves the problem of concealment against ground observation. The obstacles located in the folds of the ground, around the curves of the road and just over the crests of a hill are easy to conceal. To counter aerial observation construct obstacles in night or during poor visibility along the existing features of the terrain and avoid geometrical patterns Concealment of various types of obstacles Wire obstacles, Mine fields & Road blocks Wire obstacles: Revealing signs Sharp contrasts in color of pickets & back ground Wire impeding normal movements leads to difference between the texture of fenced and non fenced raga around Tracks originally through the area altered to go around In deserts and windswept areas deposits of dust and rubbish takes place at the base of wire obstacles Tracks made by erection parties can be distinguished immediately after erection and for few more days Camouflage measures Select wire obstacle to suit the vegetation in the are Paint the pickets with the back ground color or use trees & bushes instead to tie the wire Lay the obstacle along the existing terrain pattern ex a hedge, bank or road side etc Plan detours around the obstacle to fit existing tracks and covered routes 14 Maintain periodically the rubbish deposits at the base of the obstacle

SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Minefields: Revealing signs Tracks left by reccee and laying parties and vehicles carrying mine stores Wire fencing round the minefield Spoil from mine holes not concealed or laid on top of the mines showing as small mounds of regular pattern Empty crates Camouflage measures Conceal the process of mine laying & related tracks Use existing paths or tracks. If not obliterate by sweeping or dusting immediately after laying Unloading sites must be under cover or garnished camouflage. Empty cases return in transport to salvage or to the site of dummy minefield Camouflage individual mines by the sod removed from the mine hole. Surplus can be carried and concealed under bushes away from the site Avoid enemy6 observation by working in the nights or poor visibility. All activities to be completed before first light in case of night working

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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Road blocks Ex: Dragon teeth, concrete posts & anti tank ditches Revealing signs Conceal true nature of the block behind the screen with aim to Conceal the true nature Preventing enemy fire being directed at the most vulnerable part Confusing tank crew and lowering the morale Camouflage measures Use natural screens like road bends and crests are best, if not use vertical screens Place screen not more than 3 meters in front of the obstacles, not providing enough space for enemy to stop before he hits the obstacle. Two screens ( 1 meter & 2 meters ) better Camouflage of vehicles The improved surveillance techniques threaten to expose vehicles throughout the logistic system to the high definition photography, radar & heat sensors. A high standard of concealment is required both on the move and at static location. Since, movement is difficult to conceal deliberate deception needs to be planned and practiced to mislead enemy with regard to own administrative plans, intentions and locations.

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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Revealing signs Large angular shape, heat emission and requirement to use roads Off the road and on frost or snow persistent characteristics of tracks Both in static and mobile roles vehicles tend to form unnatural patterns revealing their presence Both white & IR light from vehicles expose them in night Noise of the vehicle, loading / unloading and operating activities etc The shape is rectangular block for an aerial observation, which can blend well in built up areas and not in open Wind screen and head lights reflect shine The body of a canopied vehicle area under chassis appears very dark contained shadow Camouflage measures Prepare vehicles for concealment and carry camouflage equipment Dim and mask all lights Screen exhaust systems Remove colored signs Use camouflage nets and natural materials properly blending with surroundings and not reflecting profile of the vehicle Apply mud or wrap hessian cloth on shining surfaces Use existing tracks, continue past real installation to logical destination Enforce strict track discipline Convoy density should be 10 vehicles per km Park vehicle under tree, close to a bush hedge or wall. If not park side of the road with shadow falling on to road side ditch. Face the vehicle away from sun Do not park more than three vehicles together under a cover 17

SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Armour The size and shape of the armored vehicles make them difficult to conceal, especially in mobile operations. Hence normally dispersed to troop positions and can be hidden from ground and air observation by adequate preparations Revealing signs Tracks leave distinct marks. Move along existing roads or tracks or on the edges of fields with shadows Tracks made are almost impossible to hide. Make turn sunder cover to avoid distinct air observation Reduce dust by low speeds and wider spacing between vehicles. Move in dark. Prefer hard ground, dead ground Conceal smoke to the possible extent Minimize noise of engine, crew conversation, radio and loading/unloading operations Plan alternate fire positions and conduct move to detect chances of detection Shape of turret, circular openings, skirting plates etc Camouflage measures Proper scrimming of camo nets and provision of poles and hessian for each and every vehicle Clear directives on expected stay and the camo required Large scale movement requires concealment, deception and dummy built up with due logistic projections Camouflage discipline essential at all times Due care needs to be exercised that camouflage accessories do not interfere with vehicle systems, vision devices, traversing systems etc

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SPECIAL ASPECTS OF CAMOUFLAGE


Artillery To be considered under Field artillery ( Close support units, location units, Air observation posts) & Air defence Field artillery They may be deployed as concentrated brigades , regiments or batteries Revealing signs Shape, shine & shadow reveal the position Battery deployed with six guns for a frontage of 120 to 150 meters with regular spacing Blast marks of firing at muzzle Fresh tracks by logistic support vehicle Freshly dug soil, dumped ammunition, Empty shells & litter Flash & Noise pick up by flash spotting & sound ranging techniques Trajectory a fixed one : Weapon locating radars Camouflage measures Proper siting for each gun with reduction in regular intervals and also elimination of blast marks Break shape, shadow and reduce shine by natural and artificial camo material Raised ground in front without interference to trajectory, muzzle brakes, flash less propellants and lower charges reduce /hide flash Proper disposal & concealing of dumped and fired ammunition Lower charges, temporary gun positions, firing number of guns simultaneously use of explosive from dummy positions reduce chances of detection by sound ranging radar Use of low trajectory weapon to avoid detection by weapon locating radar Use umbrella camouflage to fire guns without removing them 19 Adhere to discipline in movement, disposal of litter & track discipline