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# Newton s Laws of Motion - first law

## Newton s First Law of Motion

I ve just had a thought

An object at rest, or moving in a straight line with constant velocity, will continue like that unless acted upon by a force

## Momentum and Force

Recall: momentum is a measure of the wumpf/ impact an object has It is defined as the object s velocity multiplied by its mass

## momentum = velocity x mass

Force changes the momentum of an object (by increasing velocity) Momentum can also be measured as: the amount of force exerted in a given time

## momentum produced (kg ms-1) = force (newtons) x time (seconds)

1 Newton is defined as :the force that produces 1 kg ms-1 of momentum in 1 second

## Momentum and Force - Example 1

A body is initially at rest. It is pushed for 10 seconds with a force of 8 newtons. A) What is the momentum produced?

## Momentum and Force - Example 2a

A 5 kg body is moving with velocity 3 ms-1. A 4 newton force acts on it for 2 seconds. A) What is the final speed if the force is in the same direction?

## Momentum and Force - Example 2b

A 5 kg body is moving with velocity 3 ms-1. A 4 newton force acts on it for 2 seconds. B) What is the final speed if the force is in the opposite direction?

exercise A
1,3

## Force, Mass and Acceleration

momentum produced [change in momentum] = force x time
For an object, mass

## momentum produced = force x time = F t Ft = mv - mu Ft = m(v - u)

F = ma
force equals mass times acceleration

F = m(v - u) t

=v-u
t

## Newton s Second Law of Motion

I ve just had another thought

If a force of F newtons, acting on an object of m kg, causes an acceleration a ms-2, then F = ma. The acceleration continues for as long as the force is acting, and if the force is constant, so is its acceleration.

## Newton s Second Law (N2L) - Example 1

An object of 5kg is pulled and it accelerates at 6 ms-2. What is the magnitude of the force acting on it? 6 ms-2
5 kg

FN

## Newton s Second Law (N2L) - Example 2

An object of 3kg is pulled by a force of 21 N. What is its acceleration? a ms-2
3 kg

21 N

## Forces - terms that come up in questions

Tension - in strings etc. Thrust - from a push

## Newton s Second Law (N2L) - Example 3

A car of mass 1200kg, travelling on a straight horizontal road, is accelerating at 0.4 ms-2. The driving force from the engine is 1520 N. Find the resistance. Step 1 : A Force diagram

0.4 ms-2
1520 N

RN

1200 kg

exercise B
1,3

and N2L : F = ma

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: Example 1a

A boat of mass 400kg has an outboard motor with propulsive force 350 N. The boat start from rest. The motor runs for 6 seconds. During this time a constant force of resistance acts on the boat. After the 6 seconds the velocity of the boat is 4.2 ms-1. A) What is the acceleration of the boat?

a ms-2 RN
400 kg 350 N What do I know? What do I want to know? v - final velocity a - acceleration u - initial velocity t time Which equation involves these 4 ? v =

u + at

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: Example 1b

A boat of mass 400kg has an outboard motor with propulsive force 350 N. The boat start from rest. The motor runs for 6 seconds. During this time a constant force of resistance acts on the boat. After the 6 seconds the velocity of the boat is 4.2 ms-1. B) Find the resistance force acting on the boat?

0.7 ms-2 RN
400 kg 350 N

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: Example 1c

A boat of mass 400kg has an outboard motor with propulsive force 350 N. The boat start from rest. The motor runs for 6 seconds. During this time a constant force of resistance acts on the boat. After the 6 seconds the velocity of the boat is 4.2 ms-1. C) The motor is switched off. Find the deceleration of the boat?

a ms-2 70 N
400 kg

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: Example 1d

A boat of mass 400kg has an outboard motor with propulsive force 350 N. The boat start from rest. The motor runs for 6 seconds. During this time a constant force of resistance acts on the boat. After the 6 seconds the velocity of the boat is 4.2 ms-1. d) The motor is switched off. How long for the boat to come to rest?

-0.175 ms-2
What do I know? v - final velocity u - initial velocity a - acceleration

70 N

v = u + at

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: Example 1e

A boat of mass 400kg has an outboard motor with propulsive force 350 N. The boat start from rest. The motor runs for 6 seconds. During this time a constant force of resistance acts on the boat. After the 6 seconds the velocity of the boat is 4.2 ms-1. e) The motor is switched off. How far until the boat comes to rest?

-0.175 ms-2
What do I know? v - final velocity u - initial velocity a - acceleration t time

70 N

s = 1/2 (v+u) t

## Constant Acceleration and N2L: - problems involving vertical motion

N2L : F = ma
When an object is dropped, the acceleration on it is provided by gravity. The acceleration due to gravity is denoted by g. [Without air resistance] On Earth, all objects fall with acceleration 9.8 ms-2.

g = 9.8 ms-2

Weight
Weight (measured in Newtons) is the force of gravity acting on an object
acceleration is g ms-2
weight E.g an object of

m kg

N2L : F = ma

F = mg

## Vertical Motion: Example 1

An object of mass 5 kg falls toward the ground. If the air resistance is 4 N. What is its acceleration? Step 1 : Draw a force diagram

4N
5 kg weight

a ms-2

## Vertical Motion: Example 2 [page 90]

A bucket of mass 2.5 kg is pulled upwards by a rope. It accelerates upwards at 2.2 ms-2. Find the tension in the rope. Step 1 : Draw a force diagram

TN
2.5kg weight

2.2 ms-2

## Activity / Homework Mechanics 1 book

Exercise C [page 89]
Q 1, 3, 5

Q 1 , 3, 6

## Vertical Motion: Example 2 [page 90]

A bucket of mass 2.5 kg is pulled upwards by a rope. It accelerates upwards at 2.2 ms-2. Find the tension in the rope. Step 1 : Draw a force diagram

TN
2.5kg weight

2.2 ms-2

24.5) N upwards

## A Force Question - Reminder R

Remember the Normal reaction is always perpendicular to the slope

Tension T
30o
60o 30o

30o

In questions with slopes, it always works out easiest to resolve forces parallel and perpendicular to the slope.
Parallel to slope

weight

20 N
Perpendicular to slope

## A slope and N2L problem (1)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a smooth slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The object is accelerating at 0.5 ms-2. Find : the tension in the string and the normal reaction

0.5 ms-2

40o

0.5

ms-2

40o 27.44 N

## A slope and N2L problem (2)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a smooth slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The object is accelerating at 0.5 ms-2. Find : the tension in the string and the normal reaction Force diagram R Resolve Parallel to slope A resultant force must exist to make the object accelerate

0.5

ms-2
50o 27.44 N

40o

## A slope and N2L problem (3)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a smooth slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The object is accelerating at 0.5 ms-2. Find : the tension in the string and the normal reaction Force diagram R Resolve Perpendicular to slope No resultant force acceleration is parallel to slope

0.5

ms-2
50o 27.44 N

19 N

40o

## KEY POINT FROM THIS LESSON

If an object is accelerating in a force question then you need to used N2L to work out the resultant force providing the acceleration

## Activity Mechanics 1 book

Exercise G [page 97]
Q 1 , 2, 3

## No. 27 : a friction burn

Friction - Reminder
An object is kept in equilibrium (forces will balance) when
F = Friction; R - normal

## F e QR Reaction; Q is the coefficient of friction

(material dependant)

In

## limiting equilibrium (the body is about to move)

then

F = QR

Also [new bit], Once the object is moving the friction stays constant at

F = QR

## A friction and N2L problem (1)

A particle on a rough surface weighing 5kg is being pulled by force of 80N at 20o the the horizontal. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 (between the particle and the surface). Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration First: Draw a Force diagram R 80 N -2

a ms
F

20o 49 N

## A friction and N2L problem (2)

A particle on a rough surface weighing 5kg is being pulled by force of 80N at 20o the the horizontal. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 (between the particle and the surface). Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration First: Draw a Force diagram 21.6 N 80 N -2 Once the object is moving the friction stays constant at

a ms
F

20o 49 N

F = QR

## A friction and N2L problem (3)

A particle on a rough surface weighing 5kg is being pulled by force of 80N at 20o the the horizontal. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 (between the particle and the surface). Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration First: Draw a Force diagram 21.6 N 80 N -2
N2L : F

= ma Resultant = 5 x a = 5a N

a ms

6.5 N 49 N

20o

Resolve Horizontally

Resultant = 80 cos 20 - 6.5 N = 75.2 - 6.5 = 68.7 N Resultant = 5a 68.7 = 5a a = 68.7 / 5 = 13.7 ms-2

## Friction and Slopes

An object on a rough plane Normal Reaction The friction force will act in the opposite direction to the one it wants to move Weight An object is kept in equilibrium (forces will balance) when

Shallow slope

F e QR

## Friction and Slopes

An object on a rough plane As the object starts to slip, the friction will act against it to try to slow it down

Normal Reaction

Steep slope

F = QR

## Friction and Slopes - Example (1)

E.g a 5 kg sled sliding down a hill The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration

a ms-2
R F

30o 49 N 60o

## Friction and Slopes - Example (2)

E.g a 3 kg sled sliding down a hill The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration

a ms-2
24.5 F

F = QR

49 N 60o

## Friction and Slopes - Example (3)

E.g a 3 kg sled sliding down a hill The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction, the friction force and the acceleration

a ms-2
24.5 7.35N

Resolve Parallel to slope A resultant force must exist to make the object accelerate

30o 49 N 60o

## A rough slope and N2L problem (1)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a rough slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction and the tension in the string if (a) it moves up the slope with constant speed (b) it accelerates at 1.5 ms-1 First: Draw a Force diagram

a ms-2

R T 40o
Friction acts against the motion

F 40o 27.44 N

## A rough slope and N2L problem (2)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a rough slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction and the tension in the string if (a) it moves up the slope with constant speed (b) it accelerates at 1.5 ms-1 Force diagram Resolve Perpendicular to slope No resultant force Any acceleration is parallel to slope F 50o 40o 27.44 N R T

## A rough slope and N2L problem (3)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a rough slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction and the tension in the string if (a) it moves up the slope with constant speed (b) it accelerates at 1.5 ms-1 Force diagram
Once the object is moving, the friction stays constant at

F = QR

## A rough slope and N2L problem (4)

An object of mass 2.8kg is pulled up a rough slope inclined at 40o by a light string parallel to the slope. The coefficient of friction is 0.3 Find : the normal reaction and the tension in the string if (a) it moves up the slope with constant speed (b) it accelerates at 1.5 ms-1 Force diagram Resolve Parallel to slope A resultant force must exist 21.0 N to make the object accelerate T -2

1.5 ms

## Activity / Homework Mechanics 1 book

Exercise F [page 95]
Q 1 , 3, 5

Q 1, 2

## Pulleys and Pegs

pulley

weight weight

LINK

http://www.mathsnet.net/asa2/2004/m14pulley.html

5kg

10kg

## A simple pulley system

To solve pulley/peg problems the key fact is that the tension in the string is equal throughout

12 kg 4 kg

## Problems are solve by considering the forces on the masses separately

Example

Calculate the acceleration and the tension in the string Same acceleration First: Draw Force diagrams

a ms-2

T
12 kg

## Same string, same tension

T a ms-2

4 kg 39.2 N

12 kg

4 kg

117.6 N

Example
Left Weight

Calculate the acceleration and the tension in the string First: Draw Force diagrams

T a ms-2
12 kg

T a ms-2
4 kg 39.2 N

117.6 N

Example
Left Weight

Calculate the acceleration and the tension in the string First: Draw Force diagrams

117.6 - T = 12a
Right Weight

T - 39.2 = 4a 117.6 - T = 12a T - 39.2 = 4a + 117.6 - 39.2 = 16a 78.4 = 16a a = 78.4 / 16 = 4.9 ms-2

T a ms-2
12 kg

T a ms-2
4 kg 39.2 N

117.6 N

## Example 2 - find tension and acceleration

First: Draw Force diagrams

a ms-2
5kg

5kg

5g = 49 N

T a ms-2
10kg

10kg

10g = 98 N

## Example 2 - find tension and acceleration

Force diagrams Top Weight Resultant force (in direction of acceleration)

a ms-2
5kg 5g = 49 N

T a ms-2
10kg

10g = 98 N

Modeling Assumptions
The cable does not stretch The cable/string is weightless

m1
The surface is smooth (questions with friction will always have the word rough in them and talk about the coefficient of friction) There is no friction here Air resistance is negligible

m2

## Something for the weekend Sir?

Mechanics 1 book
Friction : Exercise F [page 95]
Q1,3

Q 1, 2

Q 1, 2, 4

## Newton s Third Law of Motion

I ve just had yet another thought

## Action and Reaction

The bullet flies this way The cowboy recoils backwards Bird goes up

Normal Reaction
Air pushed down

Weight

## Action and Reaction Problems

The [towing] force the car exerts on the caravan is EQUAL TO the force the caravan exerts on the car The forces in the coupling are equal and opposite. This fact is used to solve problems.

## Action and Reaction Problem

1200 kg 400 kg The car has a driving force of 6000N.

a ms-2
First: Draw Force diagrams

## What is the acceleration? R1

R2
400 kg

T T
Opposite and equal force

1200 kg

6000 N

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

Caravan Car

## First: Draw Force diagrams

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problem

Caravan Substitute T

## First: Draw Force diagrams

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problems

The [towing] force the car exerts on the caravan is EQUAL TO the force the caravan exerts on the car The forces in the coupling are equal and opposite. This fact is used to solve problems.

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

1500 kg 500 kg The car has a driving force of 8000N. Forces of resistance are 200 N on the car and 100N on the caravan.

a ms-2
First: Draw Force diagrams

## What is the acceleration and tension in the coupling?

R2
500 kg 100 N Weight =500g 200 N

R1

T T
Opposite and equal force

1500 kg

8000 N

Weight =1500g

## Action and Reaction Problem

Caravan Resultant force = T (in direction of acceleration)
N2L : F

N2L : F

= ma

## T = 400a First: Draw Force diagrams

= ma 6000 - T = 1200a

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problem

Caravan T = 400a Car 6000 - T = 1200a First: Draw Force diagrams Substitute T 6000 - T = 1200a 6000 - 400a = 1200a 6000 = 1600a a = 6000 / 1600 = 3.75 ms-2

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

1500 kg 500 kg The car has a driving force of 8000N. Forces of resistance are 200 N on the car and 100N on the caravan.

a ms-2
First: Draw Force diagrams

## What is the acceleration and tension in the coupling?

R2
500 kg 100 N Weight =500g 200 N

R1

T T
Opposite and equal force

1500 kg

8000 N

Weight =1500g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

Caravan Car

Force diagrams

R2
500 kg 100 N Weight =500g 200 N

R1

T T
Opposite and equal force

1500 kg

8000 N

Weight =1500g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

Caravan Substitute T

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. 0.1 ms-2 Find the tensions in the cables. First: Draw Force diagrams

120kg 30kg

T1
120kg

30kg 294N

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. Find the tensions in the cables. Top Weight First: Draw Force diagrams

T1
120kg

30kg 294N

Bottom Weight

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. Find the tensions in the cables. First: Draw Force diagrams

T1
120kg

## 0.1 ms-2 T2 T 1176 N 2

30kg 294N

Examples
Mechanics 1 book
Exercise B [page 111]
all

Q 1, 2, 4

## Newton s Third Law of Motion

I ve just had yet another thought

## Action and Reaction

The bullet flies this way The cowboy recoils backwards Bird goes up

Normal Reaction
Air pushed down

Weight

## Action and Reaction Problems

The [towing] force the car exerts on the caravan is EQUAL TO the force the caravan exerts on the car The forces in the coupling are equal and opposite. This fact is used to solve problems.

## Action and Reaction Problem

1200 kg 400 kg The car has a driving force of 6000N.

a ms-2
First: Draw Force diagrams

## What is the acceleration? R1

R2
400 kg

T T
Opposite and equal force

1200 kg

6000 N

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

Caravan Car

## First: Draw Force diagrams

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problem

Caravan Substitute T

## First: Draw Force diagrams

R2
400 kg

a ms-2

R1
1200 kg 6000 N

T T
Opposite and equal force

Weight =400g

Weight =1200g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

1500 kg 500 kg The car has a driving force of 8000N. Forces of resistance are 200 N on the car and 100N on the caravan.

a ms-2
First: Draw Force diagrams

## What is the acceleration and tension in the coupling?

R2
500 kg 100 N Weight =500g 200 N

R1

T T
Opposite and equal force

1500 kg

8000 N

Weight =1500g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

Caravan Resultant force = T - 100 (in direction of acceleration)
N2L : F

N2L : F

## = ma 8000 - 200 - T = 1500a 7800 - T = 1500a

R2
500 kg 100 N Weight =500g 200 N

R1

T T
Opposite and equal force

1500 kg

8000 N

Weight =1500g

## Action and Reaction Problem 2

Caravan Substitute T

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. 0.1 ms-2 Find the tensions in the cables. First: Draw Force diagrams

120kg 30kg

T1
120kg

30kg 294N

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. Find the tensions in the cables. Top Weight First: Draw Force diagrams

T1
120kg

30kg 294N

Bottom Weight

## Page 111 - example 6

A crate mass 120kg is pulled vertically by a cable. A box mass 30kg is attached to the underside. They accelerate upwards at 0.1ms-2. Find the tensions in the cables. First: Draw Force diagrams

T1
120kg

## 0.1 ms-2 T2 T 1176 N 2

30kg 294N

Examples
Mechanics 1 book
Exercise B [page 111]
all

Q 1, 2, 4