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Forestry

Group -12
   

Alok Kumar Dipankar Dhar Manu Varambally Kiran Eliza Abraham

Definition of forests
Forests as minimum area of land of 0.5 to 1.0 ha with tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking)of more than 10 to 30% with trees or 30% regeneration with the potential to reach 2 to 5 m in height at maturity Option forest is minimum area of land of .05 .03-10 ha 03- ha

DefinitionsDefinitions-forestry activities


First commitment period only (2008-2012) (2008Afforestation and Reforestation eligible




ReforestationReforestation-raising forests on lands not containing forests as on 31.12 1989 AfforestationAfforestation-conversion of land which has not been forest for last 50 years through planting seeding or human induced promotion of natural seed sources

ReforestationReforestation-optional definition


Reforestation is the direct human induced conversion of non forest land to forested land throughon throughon land that was forested but has been converted to non forested land. land.

TYPES OF FORESTS IN INDIA


1.Tropical Rain Forests (Ever green forests) 2.Tropical Deciduous Forests 3.Thorn and Scrub Forests 4.Tidal Forests (Mangrove Forests) and 5. Mountain Forests
INDIAN FOREST SURVEY

Forest type

Area in Place India


MP,GUJR AT,MAHA . HIMALA YA TO KANYAK UMARI HIMALA YAS

Tropical 37% moist deci. deci. TROPICA 28% Rain Forest Tidal Forest 25%

New project
The Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) Project is concerned with modeling and monitoring ecosystem processes and patterns in response to natural and anthropogenic effects. The project uses coupled ecosystem models and remote sensing models and measurements to predict and observe ecosystem change. The overall objective of the FED project is to link and use models of forest dynamics, soil processes, and canopy energetics to understand how ecosystem response to change affects patterns and processes in northern and boreal forests and to assess the implications for global change.

STATE OF FORESTS IN INDIA




As per report 2003 of Forest survey of India ,Dehradun the forest cover in the country is 678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its geographical area. Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%) & open forest 287,769(8.75%). In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest among all States/UTs followed by AP & Chandigarh.

STATE OF FORESTS IN INDIA




As per report 2003 of Forest survey of India ,Dehradun the forest cover in the country is 678,333 sq.km & constitutes 20.63% of its geographical area. Dense forest contributes 390,564sq.km(11.88%) & open forest 287,769(8.75%). In India M.P with 76429 sq.km of forest cover has the maximum forest among all States/UTs followed by AP & Chandigarh.

TREND ANALYSIS OF FOREST GROWTH IN INDIA


(ALL FIGURES IN Sq. km)

6,80,000 6,70,000 6,60,000 6,50,000 6,40,000 6,30,000 6,20,000 6,10,000 1997 1999

6,75,5386,78,333

6,37,293 6,33,397

FOREST COVER

2001

2003

AS per ministry of Environment and forest ,the total area covered under forest is 757010 Sq.km which is 23.03% of total geographical area of the country. As per 10th plan Government has targeted to enlarge the forest cover to 25% of geographical area by 2007 and 33% by 2012.

PROBLEMS & CHALLENGES


APPROXIMATELY 130 MILLION HECTARE OF LAND SUFFERS FROM DEGRADATION/ DESERTIFICATION AFFECTING AROUND 300 MILLION PEOPLE ACCOUNTING FOR 2.4% OF TOTAL GEOGRAPHIC AREA IN THE WORLD, INDIA SUPPORTS 16% HUMAN POPULATION AND 18% OF THE LIVESTOCK POPULATION

INTERNAL MOBILIZATION SINCE INDEPENDENCE (1947-2002)

UPTO VIII PLAN (1947-1997) AN ESTIMATED 27 million h.a. HAS BEEN BROUGHT UNDER TREE COVER AT A COST OF RS 70 BILLION (US$1.4 billion) DURING IX PLAN (1997/98 - 2001/02) AN AREA OF 8.38 million h.a. HAS BEEN TREATED UNDER WATERSHED SCHEMES

LONG-TERM PLAN OF GOVERNMENT OF INDIA

National Forestry Action Programme (2000-2020) plans to bring one-third of county,s geographical area under forest/tree cover- Estimated cost Rs 1339 billion (US$26.8 billion) Integrated Watershed Development Programme (1997-2022) aims to cover 63 million Ha with an estimated cost of Rs 760 billion (US$15.2 billion)

RESOURCE MOBILIZATION DURING TENTH FIVE YEAR PLAN (2002-07)

NATIONAL AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME

Participatory process for regenerating forests through a mechanism of

degraded




Caring and Sharing basis in around 1,73,000 villages covering 31 mill. h.a. 73, mill.
(Land owned by the Government and management is assigned to the communities)

About 63,000 village communities and 63, Voluntary Associations actively involved in protecting around 10.25 mill h.a. of degraded 10. forest land

INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR NATIONAL AFFORESTATION PROGRAMME: FOREST DEVELOPMENT AGENCY (FDA)

FDA is a federation of Joint Forest Management Committees at district/division and village levels Adequate (upto 50%) representation of 50% Women in all decision making level in FDA Bottom up approach in planning and implementation 100 % Central Government Funding to FDAs State governments undertake monitoring/assessment

Example Water harvesting structure by Self Help Groups (SHGs)

Example: Soil moisture conservation measures

Forest regeneration

Non-timber forest produce (NTFP)

ACHIEVEMENT SO FAR 26 out of 28 States have so far adopted FDA mechanisms for implementing Joint Forest Management activities. Two more likely to activities. follow soon Central Government allocates Rs 10.25 10. billion to afforest/regenerate about 1.5 mha in five year (2002-07 2002-

INTERNATIONAL SUPPORT TO THE AFFORESTATION PROGRAMMES


Examples

World Bank assisted projects in Andhra Pradesh State (Second phase completed in 2001) JBIC (Japan Bank for Intl Cooperation) assisted project in Rajasthan State Swedish Intl Devt Agency (SIDA) assisted social forestry project in Orissa and Tamilnadu State Indo-German project in Himachal Pradesh State European Commission, IFAD, GTZ, etc.

Deforestation


Deforestation is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a nonforest use. use. Examples of deforestation include conversion of forestland to farms, ranches, or urban use. use.

Deforestation occurs for many reasons: trees or derived charcoal are used as, or sold, for fuel or as timber, while cleared land is used as pasture for livestock, plantations of commodities, and settlements. The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in damage to habitat, biodiversity loss.

Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.

Causes
     

Corruption of government institutions. Inequitable distribution of wealth and power. Population growth. Overpopulation. Urbanization. Globalization.

Control


   

The blanket term Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) describes these sorts of programs, which use direct monetary or other incentives to encourage developing countries to limit and/or roll back deforestation. Farming Monitoring Deforestation Forest management Reforestation

Initiatives by government


 

Forestry in India is a significant rural industry and a major environmental issue. Dense forests once covered India. As of 2010, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates India's forest cover to be about 68 million hectares, or about 20 percent of the country's area.

In qualitative terms, however, the dense forest in almost all the major Indian states has been reduced. Forest degradation is a matter of serious concern.

The role of forests in the national economy and in ecology was further emphasized in the 1988 National Forest Policy, which focused on ensuring environmental stability, restoring the ecological balance, and preserving the remaining forests. Other objectives of the policy were meeting the need for fuelwood, fodder, and small timber for fuelwood, rural and tribal people while recognizing the need to actively involve local people in the management of forest resources.

Forest rights In 2006 forestry in India underwent a major change with the passage of the Forest Rights Act, a new legislation that seeks to reverse the "historical injustice" to forest dwelling communities that resulted from the failure to record their rights over forest land and resources. It also sought to bring in new forms of community conservation.

Chipko movement in India started in 1970s around a dispute on how and who should have a right to harvest forest resources. Although the Chipko movement is now practically non-existent in Uttarakhand, the nonUttarakhand, Indian state of its origin, it remains one of the most frequently deployed examples of an environmental and a people's movement in developing countries such as India.

As another step forward, to take Gajah to Prajah, Haathi Prajah, Haathi Mere Saathi is an initiative of Saathi the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), Government of India in collaboration MoEF), with the Wildlife Trust of India (WTI), to generate the support from various stakeholders for the countrys National Heritage Animal

The Forest Department State Head Quarters is situated at Aranya Bhavan, 18th Cross, Bhavan, Malleswaram, Bangalore-560 003. Malleswaram, BangaloreThe Administrative head of the Department is the Principal Chief Conservator of Forests(Head of Forest Force), who is a technical and professional adviser of the Government on forest matters. matters.

The Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (Wild life) is the Chief Wildlife Warden of the state. He is responsible for the management of National Parks and Sanctuaries and all the wildlife matters of the state. For Territorial Administrative purpose of the Department, the State is divided into thirteen Territorial Circles, besides three Functional Circles namely Forest Research and Utilization Circle, Field Director (Project Tiger)

Forest Of Karnataka


Most of the dense forests are located along Western Ghats region of Karnataka. 60% of the Western Ghats are located in Karnataka State. Karnataka State has a recorded forest area of 43,356.45 Sq. Km which is 22.60% of the total geographical area of the State. The land actually covered by forest is 33,238.47 Sq. Km which constitutes 17.33% of the total geographical area.

Contd Contd


 

Dense Forest (40% and above crown density) is 28,144 Sq. Km; Open Forest (10% to 40%) and Scrub Forest (less than 10% density) is 15,212 Sq. Km; and Mangrove forest is 3 Sq.Kms and rest of the forest land is not covered by forest. Home of world-famous sandal and rosewood worldtrees. Supports 25% of Indias elephant population. Supports 10 % of Indias tiger population

Total Forest Area

Projects


Forestry and Environment Project for the Eastern Plains of Karnataka assisted by Japan Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC) CoThe Forestry and Environment Project for Eastern Plains of Karnataka was implemented from 1997-98 to 2001-02 with the financial 19972001assistance from Japan Bank for International CoCo-operation.

Silent Features of the project




1. Afforestation, soil and water conservation in areas of Eastern Plains. 2. Conservation and Maintenance of Ecologically Sensitive areas of Eastern Plains. 3. Supply of Fuel, fodder,Green Manure, Small Timber, Minor Forest Produce, Fruits and Medicinal plants from the Community forestry and farm forestry plantations. 4. Distribution of seedlings of above species for farm forestry.

Contd Contd


 

5. Carrying out publicity and Extension programmes. 6. Conservation and Development of Lakes and Tanks. 7. Employment Generation in Wasteland and Degraded Forests. 8. Implementation of JFPM 9. Construction of Residential and NonNonResidential Buildings and Civil structures for Staff and Office purpose

Different Forest Corporation


The Karnataka Forest Development Corporation:Corporation:100% 100% Government of Karnataka Undertaking established in 1971. Karnataka Forest Development Corporation is the Corporate arm of the Karnataka Forest Department.

Main Objective


To develop the public land for raising various kinds of tree species, bamboo etc. b) Grow and make available cheap fuelwood for the rural masses. c) Reclaim the waste lands and covert them into productive assets. d) Provide maximum employment opportunities to the rural folks in remote areas.

Main Objective


) Support the Forest department in minimixing the biotic pressure on the natural forest. f) Carry out experiment in new technology species

KSFIC
The Karnataka State Forest Industries Corpora  Karnataka State Veneers Limted (Registered Office Dandeli Factory Kavachur) Kavachur)  2. Mysore Match Company Limited, Shimoga tion Limited (KSFIC Ltd


KCDC
 

Karnataka Cashew Development Corporation The Corporation was incorporated in February 1978 under the companies act 1956 mainly with the object of taking over the existing cashew plantation for intensive development and to raise new plantation in the state to attain increased productivity

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