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ORGANIZATIONAL/ INDUSTRIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Introduction
It is a branch of psychology devoted to organizations and the workplace. "Industrial"Industrial-organizational psychologists contribute to an organization's success by improving the performance and well-being wellof its people. An I-O psychologist Iresearches and identifies how behaviors and attitudes can be improved through hiring practices, training programs, and feedback systems.

Job Selection & Placement


Selection is a process of gathering information for the purposes of evaluating and deciding who should be employed or hired for the short and Long-term Longinterests of the individual and the organisation.In other words it is the process of getting the best of most qualified candidates from the pool of job seekers adjudged to have potential for job performance.

Importance of selection and placement


To fairly and without any element of discrimination evaluate job applicants in view of individual differences and capabilities . To employ qualified and competent hands that can meet the job requirement of the organization To place job applicants in the best interest of the organization and the individual. To help in human resources manpower planning purposes in organization. To reduce recruitment cost that may arise as a result of poor selection and placement exercises.

Steps taken in Job selection


Test Application Interview Decision Making

Test
PrePre-employment testing is a common form of screening. Aptitude tests can provide valuable information regarding applicants personality traits, practical skills, intellectual ability and more. Conducting a psychometric test could have avoided the situation as the employer would have become aware of particular personality traits of the applicant prior to placement.

Application
An application for employment, job employment, application, application, or application form (often simply called an application) is a form or application) collection of forms that an individual seeking employment, called an applicant, employment, must fill out as part of the process of informing an employer of the applicant's availability and desire to be employed, and persuading the employer to offer the applicant employment.

Interview
The interviewing process is a good method of filtering best talent matching with required job, and used by almost all companies across the globe. A structured interview that reflects the positions needs and company requirements commonly provides added value to the employer, and also plays an important role in the process of establishing good interpersonal communication links.

Types of Interview
Behavioral Interviews Exit Interview Lunch and Dinner Interviews Group Interviews Interviewing in a Public Place Second Interviews Telephone Interviews Video Interviews

Job Interview Tips Practice for interview Prepare answers Do remember to keep Watch Get Ready in proper dress Be On time Stay Calm Show What You Know Follow Up

Example of Interview questions


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Tell me about yourself: Why did you leave your last job? What experience do you have in this field? Do you consider yourself successful? What do co-workers say about you? coWhat do you know about this organization? What have you done to improve your knowledge in the last year? 8. Are you applying for other jobs? 9. want to work for this organization? 10. Do you know anyone who works for us?

11. What kind of salary do you need 12. Are you a team player? 13. How long would you expect to work for us if hired? 14. Have you ever had to fire anyone? How did you feel about that? 15. What is your philosophy towards work? 16. If you had enough money to retire right now, would you? 17. Have you ever been asked to leave a position? 18. Explain how you would be an asset to this organization 19. Why should we hire you? 20. Tell me about a suggestion you have made

Decision Making
State The Problem Identify Alternatives Evaluate The Alternatives Make A Decision Implement Your Decision

Performance appraisal
planning systematic description of employee strength and weaknesses The manager assessing should avoid biasness and tactless criticism remunerating staff means timely payments training and developing staff. meeting legislative requirements.

Job satisfaction
Decentralized decision making. An organizational model where authority extents through out the organization. Centralized decision making is when authority rests in hands of few top management. Job satisfaction also depends on type of supervisor and nature of work.

WORKING ENVIORNMENT
Environment plays an important role in job satisfaction. All businesses must ensure their workplace whether this is a factory, office or shop - meets minimum health and safety standards.

Facilities for customers and employees Meeting legal obligations to provide toilet, food, rest, storage and other facilities for workers and employees Smoking policies, drugs and alcohol abuse Identifying and dealing with problems caused by smoking, drugs and alcohol Protect employees and the environment from air pollution Understanding the effects of air pollution and what your business can do to reduce them Dealing with noise and noise pollution When and why noise can be hazardous or antiantisocial, and meeting your legal duties to prevent harm and nuisance Manage harmful substances safely Dealing with chemicals, hazardous, dangerous or toxic materials or substance

Some other points


carrying out a risk assessment providing clean toilets and sanitation facilities types of communication meeting fire safety standards ensuring employees use IT equipment safely reporting accidents or dangerous incidents in the workplace to the relevant authorities

Factors improving efficiency


Physical factors(rest breaks, boredom, physical health, working conditions,hygeine conditions,pay,saftey issues) Psychological factors (stress, lack of communication, supervisor behavior, security at job, personality type,)

Accidents and its control


An accident at work is defined as an external, sudden, unexpected, unintended, and violent event, during the execution of work or arising out of it, which causes damage to the health of or loss of the life of the employee (the insured). insured).

Workplace safety is a category of management responsibility in places of employment.

To ensure the safety and health of workers, managers establish a focus on safety that can include elements such as: management leadership and commitment employee engagement accountability safety programs, policies, and plans safety processes, procedures, and practices safety goals and objectives safety inspections for workplace hazards safety program audits safety tracking & metrics hazard identification and control safety committees to promote employee involvement safety education and training safety communications to maintain a high level of awareness on safety

Things you should do for your safety Take responsibility for your own health and safety Try and avoid wearing loose clothing or jewellery if operating machinery In conjunction with your employer ensure that you get all of the correct training that you need to safely complete your job Take sufficient steps to avoid putting other people, as well as yourself at risk by what you do or don't do whilst working Keep long hair tied back and out of the way Inform your employer if you have injured yourself or have something that might prevent you from doing your job properly Detail any injuries, illnesses or strains that you might have incurred to your employer as soon as they happen Do not interfere with anything that has been provided for your health and safety Refrain from misusing the equipment in the correct manor Inform your employer if you are required to take any medication that could prevent you from doing your job correctly -

MORALE PRODUCTIVITY
Managers cannot overlook employee morale when evaluating a team's success or productivity. Although it is often difficult to measure and takes several data points to gauge its impact, when morale is low, you feel it. Unfortunately, low morale is contagious and can spread like a cancerous cell through a team or organization.

Top Three tips, managers can use on a daily basis to make sure they're contributing to high morale: Notice when your people do something well and tell them about it. Listening cultivates respect. Do not just talk at employees; listen to their ideas, concerns, and opinions. Show more appreciation. Appreciation is the biggest motivator for employees. Managers who do not express appreciation sow the seeds of discontent and disengagement.

Types of communication
Star communication . Low morale Chain communication. job satisfaction Circle communication. High morale

Ten ways of improving Morale Let employees express their feelings about the difficulties and changes that are going on. Telling them they need to move on and get over it will only foster anger and resentment, or result in employees becoming disengaged. Don't focus all your efforts on getting buy-in to the changes you buyseek. People need to know you understand their perspective and their feelings before they will listen to your exhortations. Support constructive criticism. Make it safe for employees to express dissent or criticism without being labeled as not being a team player. Ignoring this will create a workforce that learns not to care. Give employees many opportunities to solve problems and take constructive action, the strongest antidote to fear and feeling helpless. Establish and communicate clear short-term goals to build shortconfidence and a sense of purpose.

Improve your communication, giving details about what is going on each step of the way. When people feel vulnerable, their tolerance for ambiguity decreases. When talking about your vision and challenges, use stories and analogies, rather than PowerPoint slides filled with statistics and facts. Great leaders are masters at inspiring people through compelling stories. Make sure you are wired into the voice of your internal customers through employee advisory groups, presidents' breakfasts, team meetings, and focus groups. You will get valuable feedback to form effective strategies for executing and communicating changes. When asking for employee input and ideas, clearly define the parameters of their input. Celebrate victories and examples of excellence during difficult times; it is important especially then for employees to feel like winners.

ADVERTISING
Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. service.

Types of Advertisements
Print Advertising: newspapers, magazines, local entertainment guides, etc. Online Advertising: pay per click, search engines, banners, flash movies, etc. Media Advertising: radio, television, Internet radio, etc. Outdoor Advertising: billboards, sporting events, etc. Mobile Advertising: print on car, billboard towed by truck, billboard on bus, etc.

Quality of an advertisement
Message must attract and hold attention. Color,size,layout. Message clear and meaningful. It must be remembered.

The main objectives of advertising are:

Increasing the usage of a certain product and hence acquiring more orders. Creating new customers and increasing brand recognition. To obtain feedback from customers regarding a certain product. To indicate introduction of new products or replacement of old ones.