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Overlaps

- block overlap
- signal overlap
Adequate distance
• As per GR 1.02 (2), Adequate Distance means the distance
sufficient to ensure safety.
• This is the length of track in advance of a signal which
must be kept clear before the signal next in rear can be
taken off.

Signal 1 Signal 2

For taking off Signal 1, portion shown


beyond Signal 2 must also be clear. This
portion is the Adequate Distance.
Adequate distance (contd.)
Conditions for taking off various Stop Signals reflect this
requirement:
• GR 3.40: The Home signal (except at a terminal station or unless the
train has been brought to a stop in rear of it) shall not be taken off
unless, on a double line the line is clear for an adequate distance
beyond the starter, or on a single line, line is clear for an adequate
distance beyond the trailing points.
• GR 3.42: The LSS or IBS shall not be taken OFF for a train unless
Line Clear has been obtained from the block station in advance.
• GR 8.01 (1) (b) & (c ) : Such Line Clear shall not be given unless the
line is clear not only upto the FSS but also for an adequate distance
beyond it.
GR 1.03 (2) defines C class stations where Line Clear
may not be given for a train unless the whole of the last
preceding train has passed complete at least 400 metres
beyond the Home Signal.
GR 9.01(c ) ( i ): The (automatic) signal shall not assume
off aspect unless the line is clear not only upto the next
Stop signal in advance but also for an adequate distance
beyond it
Adequate distance
We can therefore say that:
• A Stop Signal shall not display Off aspect
unless the line is clear not only upto the
next (stop) signal but also an adequate
distance beyond it.
Important:This condition does not apply for Home
signal at terminal stations and also if the train has
been brought to a stop outside the home signal.
Adequate distance
In other words,
The length of track in advance of a stop
signal, which should be kept clear before
the (stop) signal next in rear can be taken
off is known as adequate distance.
Adequate distance - how much?
• GR 3.40 dealing with conditions for taking off Home Signal lays
down in sub-para (c) that the adequate distance shall not be less than
180 metres for 2 Aspect signals and not less than 120 metres for
multiple aspect or MLQ signals.
• GR 8.01 read with GR 3.42 dealing with conditions for taking off LSS
lays down in sub-para (2) that the adequate distance shall not be less
than 400 metres for 2 Aspect signals and not less than 180 metres for
multiple aspect or MLQ signals
• GR 9.01 dealing with automatic signals in sub-para (2) lays down that
the adequate distance shall not be less than 120 metres.
Overlap
• The adequate distance in advance of FSS of next station
(for taking off LSS) is called Block Overlap, and is 400m
and 180 m respectively for 2 aspect and multi-aspect or
MLQ signals.
• The adequate distance in advance of Home Signal at a ‘C’
class station (for taking off LSS at station in rear) is
always 400m for 2 aspect as well as for multi-aspect and
MLQ signals.
• The adequate distance for taking off all other signals is
called Signal Overlap, and is 180m and 120 m
respectively for 2 aspect and multi-aspect or MLQ signals.
Overlap
• For taking off Home signal for reception on loop lines,
overlap may be provided:
– either by providing a dead end siding of 180/120
metres, or
– by providing a sand hump or a snag dead end, or
– by setting the points for the main line.
• GR 5.19 (2) A sand hump or a snag dead end shall not be
obstructed for any purpose and when it has become
obstructed, it shall cease to be a substitute for the adequate
distance for the purpose of taking ‘off’ signals.
For 2 Aspect Signals

Station A Station B

Route of LSS of Stn A Block Overlap

Portion to be kept clear for giving line clear


by Stn B

For Multi-Aspect Signals

Station A Station B

Route of LSS of Stn A Block Overlap

Portion to be kept clear for giving line clear


by Stn B
For 2 Aspect Signals

For Multi-Aspect Signals


Loop Line Not for stabling

Main Line

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