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Basics of Signalling

Methods of Block Working


Key Statistics
• Route Kms : 63,028
• Number of Stations : 6,853
• Passenger Kms : 457,022m
• Tonne Kms : 312,371m
• Employees : 1,545.3m
• Revenue :Rs. 348,805m
• Expenditure :Rs. 346,673m
Up-to 31.3.2001
Systems of working
• Chapter VII of GR describes the Systems of
working.
• Systems of working:
– The Absolute Block System,
– The Automatic Block System,
– The Following Trains System,
– The Pilot Guard System,
– The Train-staff and Ticket System, and
– The One Train Only System.
Systems of working
• The Following Trains System
– Trains are despatched from one station to the next in
succession in the same direction on the same line, with
a time interval
– Station Master of next station will ensure that no train
leaves his station towards the station in rear until all
trains have reached his station and a fresh Direction of
Traffic has been esteblished
– All trains should run at the same speed not exceeding
25 kmph
Systems of working
• The Pilot Guard System
– Trains are piloted by the Pilot Guard who shall travel
on the foot plate of the Engine
– No train shall leave a stationwithout the Pilot Guard
– All trains should run at the same speed not exceeding
25 kmph and with a time interval of minimum 15
minutes
Systems of working
• The Train-Staff and Ticket System
– Trains may be worked under this system between two
stations
– a single Train-Staff shall be kept at one of the stations
– Train shall not start from a station unless the Train-
Staff has been handed over or shown to the driver
– Driver must be in possession of either Train-Staff or
Train-Staff Ticket
– All trains should run at the same speed not exceeding
25 kmph and with a time interval of minimum 15
minutes
Systems of working
• The One Train Only System
– Trains may be worked under this system on short
terminal branch lines on single line
– Only one Train shall work in the section, at any time
– If the train becomes disabled and requires assistance,
the same will be arranged by the Station Master of the
Base Station, after observing laid down precautions
– Guard of the disabled train will be responsible for safe
working till normal working is restored
The Absolute Block System
Essentials:
– No train shall leave a Block Station unless LC has
been received from Block Station in advance

– On double line, such LC shall not be given unless


• the last preceding train has arrived complete and
signals have been put back to on behind the said train
• line is clear up-to FSS plus adequate distance
The Absolute Block System
• Essentials:

– On single line, such LC shall not be given unless


• the last preceding train has arrived complete and
signals have been put back to on behind the said train
• line is clear up-to FSS plus adequate distance
• AND it is clear of trains running towards the station to
which LC is being given.
The Absolute Block System

Stn A Stn B

Block Section

Overlap
The Absolute Block System
• Points to remember:
– Adequate distance is 400m for 2 aspect signals &
180m for multi aspect signals
– Arrival of whole train is manually checked by
verifying Tail Board / Lamp and exchange of
Alright signal with Guard. It can also be done by
Axle Counters or track circuits.
– Putting back of signals and clearance of overlap is
checked by circuits
The Automatic Block System
• Essntials for double line:
– Line must be continuously track circuited
– Line between stations is divided into Automatic
Block Signalling Sections
– Entry into each Section is controlled by MACL
stop signals
– Track Circuits control the aspect of signals
• OFF aspect only when line is clear up-to next signal
plus overlap (120 m)
• Automatic replacement to ON with passage of train
The Automatic Block System
• Essntials for single line:
– Line must be continuously track circuited
– Direction of traffic only after LC has been
obtained from stn in advance
– Train to start from the stn only after direction of
traffic has been esteblished
– LC shall not be granted unless line is clear up-
to FSS plus overlap (180m)
The Automatic Block System
• Essntials for single line:
– Line between stations is divided into Automatic
Block Signalling Sections
– Entry into each Section is controlled by MACL
stop signals in the direction of traffic
– Signals against the direction of traffic at ON
– Track Circuits control the aspect of signals
• OFF aspect only when line is clear up-to next signal
• If next signal is manual, then overlap (180m) is also
required
The Automatic Block System
• Aspect Control:
• Yellow when one signalling section plus overlap is
clear
• Green when two signalling sections plus overlap is
clear (in 3 aspect territory)
• Double Yellow when two signalling sections plus
overlap is clear (in 4 aspect territory)
• Green when 3 signalling sections plus overlap is
clear (in 4 aspect territory)
3 Aspect Signals 4 Aspect Signals
The Automatic Block System
• Minimum equipment of signals
– Manual stop signals at stations
• a Home
• a Starter
– an Automatic stop signal in rear of Home signal
of the station
• one or more additional auto signals in
between block stations
The Automatic Block System
• Conditions for taking OFF manual signals
in auto territories:
– Home signal except at terminal station
• Line to be clear upto Starter plus overlap (120m)
– Last stop signal
• Direction of Traffic has been esteblished
• Line is clear upto next signal (automatic) or
• Line is clear upto next signal (manual) plus overlap
(180m)
The Automatic Block System
• What happens if an Automatic signal is
defective:
– Signal can be at ON due to TC failure or some
other defect
– Driver should stop and wait in rear of signal
• one minute during DAY
• Two minutes during NIGHT
– If signal remains ON, inform Guard by whistle
code & hand signal and proceed at restricted
speed (15 kmph or less) till he reaches the next
signal
– Then be guided by the aspect of next signal
The Automatic Block System
• Points to remember:
– Track is continuously track circuited
– Signals diplay Off aspect normally when there
are no trains
– Signals are replaced automatically to On with
the passage of trains past them
– Drivers are authorised to pass automatic signals
after observing certain precautions