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# Compensation

Methods
Electronic Engineering
University of Wales Newport 2009 This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.
The following presentation is a part of the level 5 module -- Electronic Engineering. This resources is a part of the
2009/2010 Engineering (foundation degree, BEng and HN) courses from University of Wales Newport (course codes
H101, H691, H620, HH37 and 001H). This resource is a part of the core modules for the full time 1
st
year
undergraduate programme.
The BEng & Foundation Degrees and HNC/D in Engineering are designed to meet the needs of employers by placing
the emphasis on the theoretical, practical and vocational aspects of engineering within the workplace and beyond.
Engineering is becoming more high profile, and therefore more in demand as a skill set, in todays high-tech world. This
course has been designed to provide you with knowledge, skills and practical experience encountered in everyday
engineering environments.
Contents
Instructions
Gain Curve
Compensation Methods
Dominant Pole Compensation
Frequency Compensation
Lead Lag Compensation.
Summary
Credits
In addition to the resource below, there are supporting documents which should be used in combination with this
resource. Please see:
Clayton G, 2000, Operational Amplifiers 4th Ed, Newnes
James M, 2004, Higher Electronics, Newnes
Compensation Methods
For our amplifier we are going to apply negative
feedback to reduce the gain to 55dB.
Comment on the amplifiers stability.
Compensation Methods
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
Gain Curve
f
C1
f
C2
Phase Curve
-40dB/dec
For our amplifier we are going to apply negative
feedback to reduce the gain to 55dB.
Comment on the amplifiers stability.
Unstable as it crosses the Gain Curve on the -40dB/dec
line.
The amplifier is therefore unsuitable for this
application.
Can we do anything about it?
Compensation Methods
Compensation Methods
There are three methods which we will examine.
1. Dominant Pole compensation
2. Frequency compensation
3. Lead Lag compensation.
Compensation Methods
Dominant Pole Compensation
In this method the Manufacturer introduces an
artificial break frequency (pole) which causes the
gain to drop to 0dB before the first natural one
occurs.
f
C1
f
C2
Unstable
Stable
New f
C
Original Curve
New Curve
gain
frequency
Desired gain
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
At what frequency does the dominant pole need to be
placed?
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
Compensation Methods
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
Gain Curve
f
C1
f
C2
Phase Curve
x
9.5dB 5.1kHz
29.5dB 510Hz
89.5dB 0.51Hz
15dB 2.8kHz
35dB 280Hz
55dB 28Hz
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
At what frequency does the dominant pole need to be
placed?
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
0.51 Hz
28 Hz
Compensation Methods
Notes
This method is stable for all applications.
The user does not need to carry out the compensation
exercise.
Bandwidths are limited in size using this method.
Compensation Methods
Frequency Compensation
This method is similar to the first in that a dominant
pole is introduced. This time its position is selected
by the user and is positioned so that the gain drops to
the desired gain at the point the first natural break
frequency occurs.
f
C1
f
C2
Unstable
Stable
New f
C
Original Curve
New Curve
gain
frequency
Desired gain
Compensation Methods
A table supplied by the amplifier manufacturer allows
the user to convert the new pole frequency measured
from the plot into a capacitor value which is
connected between two pins on the amplifier.
Compensation Methods
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
At what frequency does the dominant pole need to be
placed?
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
Compensation Methods
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
Gain Curve
f
C1
f
C2
Phase Curve
x
69.5dB 3kHz
89.5dB 300Hz
f
C1
15kHz
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
At what frequency does the dominant pole need to be
placed?
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
300 Hz
15 kHz (f
C1
)
Compensation Methods
Notes
The user must compensate each amplifier according
to its use.
The Bandwidth, using this method is always at the
first break frequency.
Once compensated if the gain is reduced the
amplifier will become unstable.
Compensation Methods
Lead Lag Compensation.
Let us examine the problem we have with our amplifier.
f
C1
f
C2
Unstable
Original Curve
gain
frequency
Desired gain
The amplifier would be stable if either f
C1
occurred at a
lower frequency or f
C2
occurred at a higher frequency
Compensation Methods
We cannot move the two break frequencies as they are
inherent parameters of the amplifier.
BUT
We can make f
C1
look as though it started at a lower
frequency using the circuit below.
R1
R2
C
V
IN
V
OUT
Compensation Methods
Series combination of R2 and C
Now we can generate an equation for V
OUT
in terms of
V
IN
C j
CR j
R
C j

2 1
2
1
+
= + =
) ( 2 1 1
2 1
1 2 1
2 1
1
2 1
2 1
R R C j
CR j
V
CR j CR j
CR j
V
R
C j
CR j
C j
CR j
V V
N
I IN IN OUT
+ +
+
- =
+ +
+
- =
+
+
+
- =

) ( 2 1 1
2 1
R R C j
CR j
Gain
+ +
+
=

Compensation Methods
) ( 2 1 1
2 1
R R C j
CR j
Gain
+ +
+
=

Quantative Analysis
At low frequencies parts << 1 so
the gain = 1 phase will be 0
At high frequencies parts >> 1 so
the gain = R2/(R1 + R2) phase will be 0
In between gain must roll off in some way.
e.g. R1 = 10k;, R2 = 1k;, C = 10nF
Plot over the range 100 Hz to 100 kHz
2 2 2
2 2
2 1 1
2 1 2 2 1 2 1
) (
) ( ) (
R R C
R R R C R R C j CR j
Gain
+ +
+ + + +
=

) ( 2 1 1
2 1
R R C j
CR j
Gain
+ +
+
=

2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 1 1
1
2 1 1
2 1 2 1
) ( ) (
) (
R R C
CR
j
R R C
R R R C
Gain
+ +

+ +
+ +
=

) )
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2 1 1
1 2 1 2 1
) (
) (
R R C
CR R R R C
Gain
+ +
+ + +
=

'
+

'

+ +
=

) ( 2 1 2 1
1
2 2
1
R R R C
CR
Tan Phase

## Frequency Gain Gain dB Phase

100 0.99764 -0.0205249 -1.99651
200 0.990659 -0.0815145 -3.97231
400 0.964149 -0.3171164 -7.78572
700 0.901053 -0.9049962 -12.9442
1000 0.82426 -1.6787185 -17.2528
2000 0.590744 -4.572012 -26.0858
4000 0.350726 -9.1006474 -31.1146
7000 0.221129 -13.107079 -30.3226
10000 0.169115 -15.436358 -27.5696
20000 0.115878 -18.719977 -19.0967
40000 0.097777 -20.195268 -10.903
70000 0.093209 -20.610813 -6.45841
100000 0.092044 -20.720125 -4.5634
Lead Lag Network
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
100 1000 10000 100000
Fr e quency
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
Compensation Methods
Referring to our equation for the network, we will have
two break frequencies, one for the top line and one for
the bottom.
Break frequency where roll off begins f
1
is given by:
Break frequency where roll off stops f
2
is given by:
Gain after roll-off is given by
) ( 2 1 1
2 1
R R C j
CR j
Gain
+ +
+
=

kHz
R R C
45 1
2 1 2
1
.
) (
=
+ x
kHz
CR
9 15
2 2
1
. =
x
dB
R R
R
83 20 091 0
2 1
2
. . = =
+
Compensation Methods
Lead Lag Network
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
100 1000 10000 100000
Fr e quency
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
x
x
f
1
f
2
-20dB/dec
Compensation Methods
Note
The phase is not a concern as it returns to a low value
by the time the gain curve stops reducing.
Let us return to our amplifier.
Compensation Methods
f
C1
f
C2
Unstable
Original Curve
gain
frequency
Desired gain
Introduce a lead lag network which starts before f
C1
and
stops at f
C1
f
1
f
2
Stable
f
C1
now looks as though it starts at f
1
Compensation Methods
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
What component values do we need assume C has a
value of 100pF
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
Compensation Methods
Firstly f
2
must equal f
C1
Secondly what drop in gain is required
kHz
CR
15
2 2
1
=
x
; =
- - -
= k
pF k
R 106
100 15 2
1
2
x
Compensation Methods
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
Gain Curve
f
C1
f
C2
Phase Curve
Required drop in
gain = -10dB
Firstly f
2
must equal f
C1
Secondly what drop in gain is required
Finally, what is f
1
kHz
CR
15
2 2
1
=
x
; =
- - -
= k
pF k
R 106
100 15 2
1
2
x
2 1
2
316 0 10
R R
R
dB
+
= = . ; = = k R
R
R 229 2
316 0
2
1
.
kHz
k k pF R R C
75 4
229 106 100 2
1
2 1 2
1
.
) ( ) (
=
; + ; - - -
=
+ x x
Compensation Methods
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000
-180
-160
-140
-120
-100
-80
-60
-40
-20
0
Gain Curve
f
C1
f
C2
Phase Curve
x
x
f
1
f
2
Bandwidth
f
C2
Try this out on our plot and answer the following
questions:
What component values do we need assume C has a
value of 100pF
What is the Bandwidth of the compensated amplifier?
229k;
106k;
100pF
V
IN
V
OUT
f
C2
= 300kHz
Compensation Methods
Notes
The user must compensate each amplifier according
to its use.
The Bandwidth, using this method is always at the
second break frequency.
Once compensated if the gain is reduced the
amplifier will become unstable.
Compensation Methods
Summary
No compensation Unstable
Dominant Pole Compensation B.W. = 28Hz
Frequency Compensation B.W. = 15kHz
Lead Lag Compensation - B.W. = 300kHz
Compensation Methods
This resource was created by the University of Wales Newport and released as an open educational resource
through the Open Engineering Resources project of the HE Academy Engineering Subject Centre. The Open
Engineering Resources project was funded by HEFCE and part of the JISC/HE Academy UKOER programme.
2009 University of Wales Newport
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 License.
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Compensation Methods