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# TRAINING MATERIAL

SEVEN QC TOOLS
Seven QC Tools are used for systematic problem solving and quality enhancement. Systematic problem solving process is derived from basic PDCA cycle. ACT PLAN

CHECK

DO
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## SYSTEMATIC PROBLEM SOLVING

DEFINATION PLAN DO CHECK ACT OBSERVATION ANALYSIS ACTION CHECK
STANDARDISATION

CONCLUSION
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SEVEN QC TOOLS
Seven QC Tools are categorized in three types:
DATA COLLECTION TOOLS TOOLS:

## Tally Sheet / Check Sheet

TOOLS: DATA DISPLAY TOOLS:

## Bar graphs, Pie Charts, Run Charts

ANALYSIS TOOLS TOOLS:

Cause & Effect Diagram Scatter Diagram Histogram Pareto Analysis Stratification
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CHECK SHEETS
What is a Check sheet ?
Check Sheet is a logical point to start the process of translating opinions into facts. Check sheet is a well thought out format for collecting & compiling events as they happen. It answers the basic question how often in what category

## When to use a check sheet?

To understand & grasp the past & present status of the problem situation. To stratify the data as they are collected. To understand the changes through the passage of TimeTrend. To analyze the data as they are collected.
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CHECK SHEETS
DATE:01-06-03 SHIFT: 2ND OPERATOR:YE-178 Part :15mm shaft Machine:MMK01 Total Chkd: 93
21.96 / 21.98 21.98 / 22.00 //// //// //// //// // //// //// //// //// //// //// //// / //// //// //// //// //// /// //// / 16 22

DIAMETER in mm

## 22.00 / 22.02 22.02 / 22.04 22.04 / 22.06 22.06 / 22.08

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CHECK SHEETS
How to make a check sheet?
Clearly state the event or issue being observed & what data
pertaining to it is to be collected Decide where & when the data will be collected. Decide the types, categories or groups under which data needs to be classified. E.g. ( by time, by place, by cause, by process stage.) Make trail format & try it out & confirm that it meets all the objectives & it is easy to use. If required, modify & try again. Make required no. Of copies of finalized Check Sheets & collect data consistently & honestly.

## How to interpret a Check Sheet?

Completely filled Check sheet offers clearly visible data for the event & is self explanatory. Its interpretation is built into its design.The data can further analyzed using other QC Tools.
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## GRAPHS - BAR CHARTS

What is a Bar Graph Chart?
Graphs are among the simplest & best techniques to analyze &
display data for easy communication. Bar Chart shows a comparative characteristics (height, cost) by length of the bar over the dimension of time or place in the other axis.

## When to use a Bar Graph Chart?

When a general pattern of figures have to be highlighted rather
than true absolute figures. When relative comparison is more important to grasp than absolute difference. When in shortest time maximum clarity of communication is to be achieved. Almost any table can be converted to a graph which can highlight the relevant information without filling the mind with data.
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## GRAPHS - BAR CHARTS

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## GRAPHS - BAR CHARTS

How to make a Bar graph Chart?
Draw the vertical & horizontal axis. On the horizontal axis, show the items being compared (dimension of time, place etc.) mark the scale depending on number & type of items. This also determines the width of the bar. On the vertical axis, show the characteristic (frequency, cost, temperature). Mark the scale considering the range of values. Draw the length of the bar proportionate to the value as per scale. Complete the graph with legends & titles for clear communication.

## How to interpret a Bar Chart?

Completed graphs show the relative frequencies of events. They show the variation in the characteristic plotted. The variations & levels offer clues for causes of events & direction in which further investigation needs to be carried out.Ultimately the interpretation depends on the purpose & content of the graph.

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## GRAPHS - PIE CHART

What is a Pie Chart?
Pie Charts show percentage of total quantities by dividing a circle into proportionate wedges ( like a piece of pie ).

## When to use a Pie Chart?

When the largest shares & their magnitude have to be highlighted in relation to Total Quantities.

## How to make a Pie Chart?

Calculate the proportion of each item from the total. Multiply the proportion by 360o to determine the angle size of the wedges. Complete the Pie Chart with legends & titles for clear communication.
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## GRAPHS - PIE CHART

How to interpret a Pie Chart?
Pie Chart shows the items with large shares & offers clues for reasons & causes for events.
4th Qtr 13% 1st Qtr 13% 2nd Qtr 17% 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr

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## GRAPHS - RUN CHART

What is a Run Chart?
Run Chart displays the trend of changes of a characteristics over a period of time. It is a specialized graph which uses connected lines instead of bars to illustrate data. A Run Chart with statistically derived control limits is a Control Chart.

## When to use a Run Chart?

To highlight variations of a characteristic (pressure, voltage, cash flow, inventory ) over a period of time & seek explanation for changes. To highlight a growing or a declining trend of the average. To highlight significant improvements in performance after implementing counter - measures. To track the effectiveness of the measures taken for improvements.
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## GRAPHS - RUN CHART

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## GRAPHS - RUN CHART

How to make a Run Chart?
Mark the time interval scales on the horizontal axis (hours, days, year). Mark on the vertical scale considering the expected range of variation & then plot values of the characteristics on the vertical axis. Connect the points plotted by solid lines. Complete the chart with legends & titles for clear communication.

## How to interpret a Run Chart?

Run Charts are best interpreted by identifying points in time when the characteristic changes significantly. If this is compared with other possible changes at the same time, it offers clues for causes. If these charts are used in conjunction with control limits, they offer detailed explanations for possible causes of variation & process capabilities.

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## CAUSE - EFFECT DIAGRAM

What is a Cause - Effect Diagram?
Cause - Effect Diagram is a representation of the systematic relationship between the event under investigation & all possible causes influencing it. Cause Effect Diagram is also a documentation of group thinking process to investigate the root cause(s) of the event. It looks like a skeleton of a fish & hence, is also called Fish-Bone Diagram.

## When to use Cause - Effect Diagram?

To investigate & list down the cause & effect relationship of problem under investigation. Analyze the causes to trace the real or root causes. To help stratification for collection of further data to confirm the relationship. To help evolve counter - measures.
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## CAUSE - EFFECT DIAGRAM

How to make Cause - Effect Diagram?
Define the problem or effect clearly.( e.g. Inventory is Rs. 300 lakhs more than required) Write down the problem statement in the effect box on the right side. Identify the causes in the major categories. Commonly used categories are Man, Machine, Method, Material, Measurement. Depending on problem statement, the major categories can be different. Investigate the root cause by repeatedly asking why for each cause to get to sub-causes & lead to further to possible root cause(s) Identify likely root cause(s) & circle them. Collect data to verify the most likely root cause by constructing a Pareto Chart ( if it is not done while identifying root causes.
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## CAUSE - EFFECT DIAGRAM

Loose contact Poor scanning

Tuning
Not tuned

## Picture tube defective Defective tuner

Booster defective

## TV Picture not clear.

Poor satellite link Poor transmission Poor weather

Power

Transmission

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## CAUSE - EFFECT DIAGRAM

How to interpret a Cause - Effect Diagram?
By tracing the effect into its thinnest Branch, the root cause(s) can be interpreted. Also each of the root causes so traced suggests possible countermeasures. Interpretation improves if people can add causes to the diagrams & collect facts to find the relative frequencies of the causes.

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PARETO CHART
What is a Pareto Chart?
A Pareto Chart is a special form of vertical bar graph which helps identify the vital few from the helpful many. Pareto Chart determines priorities.

## When to use a Pareto Chart?

To direct attention & effort to the truly important problem. To identify the most important root causes contributing substantially to the problems. To set priorities for counter measures. To compare the extent of improvement prior & subsequent to implementing counter measures.

## How to make a Pareto Chart?

Select the problem, cause or event to be analyzed. Determine categories of the above for analysis. Categories become clear from Cause - Effect Diagram).
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PARETO CHART
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## Assembly Defects - Final Inspection Data

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 PAINT DEFECTS DENTS PART MISSING PARTS BROKEN SCRATCHES MICS. DEFECTS

## PARETO CHART - ASSEMBLY DEFECT DATA

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PARETO CHART
Collect the required data of frequency (normally with a check sheet) Select an appropriate scale on vertical axis depending on total value. Calculate % for each category. Compute cumulative total % for each category. Draw the % each category as bars in descending order from left to right . Less important items can be lumped under one categories of others in the last column. Draw the cumulative % line from the top of the first (tallest) bar from left to right. Complete the chart with legend,scale(%on right & value on left vertical axis) & titles for clear communication.

## How to interpret a Pareto chart?

By identifying those categories which cumulatively add up to 80% of the total, the vital few can be separated. The impact of the improvement is noticed by comparing the shift & the size of the bar of the category prior to & subsequent to the counter measures.
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HISTOGRAM
What is a Histogram?
A Histogram is a special type of bar chart to show the distribution or spread of the observed characteristics. It is a visual presentation of range & magnitude & the central tendency & the spread ( dispersion )

## When to use a Histogram?

To observe the spread & the central tendency of the characteristics under investigation To confirm if the distribution is normal with a bell shaped curve. To compare the actual results & requirements of the process to infer process capability. (It can be done only in conjunction with a control chart To confirm the results of process improvements To highlight the surprises in the natural distribution which can lead to causes or counter-measures To obtain clue for stratification..
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HISTOGRAM
How to make a Histogram?
Collect at least 50 samples of data for the characteristics under investigation. Determine the range between highest value & the lowest value. Select the number of class intervals (8 - 10 upto 200 data points). Determine the class interval by dividing the range by number of class intervals. Round it to a proper unit of measure for convenience. If required, find class boundaries. Prepare a frequency table ( special type of Check sheet ) & check each data 7 mark it to the interval to which it belongs. Total the check marks to obtain total frequencies for each class interval. Taking class intervals on the horizontal axis, draw the height of the bar corresponding to frequencies in the interval on the vertical axis. Complete the chart with legend, scale & title for clear communication. 24

HISTOGRAM
How to make a Histogram? If required, mark the average, median & mode after calculation to illustrate central tendencies. Also specification limits can be marked to highlight process capability.(But note that it is not the measure of process capability

## How to interpret a Histogram?

Natural statistical variations always display a bell shaped normal distribution. From the shape of the curve, the nature of distribution can be judged.
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## BELL SHAPED DISTRIBUTION

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HISTOGRAM
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0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 11

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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BIMODAL DISTRIBUTION - Two peaks - coming from two sources, two different distribution COMBLIKE DISTRIBUTION - regular ups & downs - possible measurement error or rounding problem. CLIFF LIKE DISTRIBUTION - data above or below are inspected out or incorrectly represented

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HISTOGRAM
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FLAT DISTRIBUTION Multisource data with small differences in average. Look for stratification on single source. ISLAND DISTRIBUTION The outliers indicate a mistake in the sampling, data collection or measurement. Possible shift in the process during sampling.

## 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

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HISTOGRAM
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

SMALL VARIABILITY

LARGE VARIABILITY

SMALL OR LARGE VARIATION - Spread of data narrow or wide, indicating process variability capability. Depending on the shape & spread these interpretations offer further clues for investigation.

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STRATIFICATION
What is Stratification?
Stratification is a statistical technique of breaking down values & numbers into meaningful categories or classification to focus corrective action or identify true causes. If recorded data come from many sources, stratification by source unmasks the true facts.

## When to use Stratification?

To identify the causes of problem, if they come from a particular source. To identify the source of variation & then infer the cause of variation. To analyze root causes in conjunction with other techniques like Pareto Diagram, Histogram & Graphs.
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STRATIFICATION
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STRATIFICATION
How to use Stratification?
Re-group the original data as per the source of the data. (Different machines, different suppliers). If required, collect data afresh after marking the source from which they come. Recreate Histograms, Pareto Charts & Graphs on classified data.

## How to interpret Stratified Data?

Stratified data can be interpreted using the same techniques of Histogram, Pareto Charts, & Graphs. If data after Stratification shows significant difference compared to the prior analysis, there is strong reason to suspect a major cause isolated in the stratified class. It narrows down the search of problem & possible solution.
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SCATTER DIAGRAM
What is a Scatter Diagram?
Scatter Diagram is a simple means of relating a cause to its effect. It is a graph of points for comparison of two variables. The pattern of points indicate the degree & nature of relationships.

## When to use a Scatter Diagram?

To verify if there is relationship between cause & effect with faces. To estimate the strength & nature of the relationship between two sets of data.

## How to make a Scatter Diagram?

Collect about 50 pairs of sample data for which relationship has to be studied. Draw the horizontal & vertical axis. Normally cause ids on the horizontal axis & effect is on the vertical axis. Determine the scale depending on the range of data for each axis separately.

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SCATTER DIAGRAM
How to make a Scatter Diagram?
Plot a point for each pair of data. If a point coincides for more than a pair for a data, encircle the point. Cluster of points will appear scattered on the Graph - Hence the name Scatter Diagram. Complete the diagram with legend, titles & scale for clear communication.

## How to interpret a Scatter Diagram?

The pattern generated by the cluster of points give clue to the possible relationship.

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SCATTER DIAGRAM
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## Randomly scattered points - No possible correlation

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Points scattered closely around a right side upward sloping line - Very strong positive relationship. Increase in one related to increase in other.
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Points scattered closey around a right side upward sloping line -Possible strong correlatoion Increase in one may cause increase in another
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SCATTER DIAGRAM
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Points scattered closely around a right side downward sloping line Avery strong negative relationship. Increase in one is related to decrease in another Points scattered loosely around a right side downward sloping line Possible negative correlation. Increase in one may cause a decrease in another.

Depending on the degree of relationship, further statistical analysis or verification can be carried out. Also, quantification of degree of relationship can be carried out by working out coefficient of correlation

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