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# Principles of Ships Stability

PETRAS PIKSRYS

SHIPS STABILITY

SHIPS STABILITY IS THE TENDENCY OF SHIP TO ROTARE ONE WAY OR THE OTHER WHEN FORCIBLY INCLINED

WHAY IS STABILITY IS SO

IMPORTENT ?
IF THE SHIP LOST STABILITY WHAT WILL BE HAPPENED: 1. LOST OF MOBILE 2. LOST THE HUMANS LIFES 3. LOST THE SHIP

## 4. LOST THE CARGO

5. OIL POLLUTION

FUNDAMENTALS OF STABILITY
STABILITY is the tendency of vessel to rotate one way or the other when forcibly inclined.

IMPORTENT !!

## Ships stability cant catch directly

Stability can define only by calculating

## HOW CALCULATING SHIPS STABILITY AND CARCO PLAN ?

1.By previous similar cargo plan. 2.By standard cargo plan according STABILITY BOOKLET 3.By standard cargo plan forms 4.By special cargo plan computer 5.By standard PC with special cargo plan program 6.By special or standard hand calculator

## SHIPS STABILITY CRITERIAS

THERE ARE TWO SHIPS STABILITY CRITERIAS: 1 h>0 ships metacenter height always
positive. 2 Zg < Zcritical

diagram.

## SHIPS STABILITY CALCULATING

SHIPS STABILITY CALCULATING BY MOMENT FORMULAS. MAIN OBJECT OF CALCULATING TO DEFINE SHIPS STABILITY CRITERIAS: GM=h METACENTER HEIGHT Zg SHIPS GRAVITY HEIGHT MOMENT FORMULA:
D0Z0+P1Z1+P2Z2+.+PnZn Zg = D0 + P1 +P2 + .. + Pn

## SHIPS STABILITY CALCULATING

Zg critical CURVE
6.60 6.50
6.40 6.30

Zg critical

6.20 6.10
8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 18000 20000

## WHO CALCULATING SHIPS CARGO PLAN AND STABILITY?

1.CARGO OFFICER (ch.mate) 2.PORT CARGO OFFICER (supercargo) 3.SHIPS MASTER

SHIPS STABILITY
STABILITY

INITIAL

OVERALL

DYNAMIC

STABILITY
INITIAL STABILITY - The stability of a ship in the range from 0 to 7/10 of inclination. OVERALL STABILITY - A general measure of a ship's ability to resist capsizing in a given condition of loading. DYNAMIC STABILITY - The work done in heeling a ship to a given angle of heel.

## INITIAL SHIPS STABILITY

Initial ships stability when ship inclinating from 7 till12 degrees. Ships underwater body did not change volume V0=V1 V1 m L1
V0 w W1
C

G C1

M=D lst

lst=hsinQ
M=D h sin Q

m
lst

Qst

h
D Vg

C1

## SHIPS STABILITY CALCULATING

Initial stability calculating by ships stability triangle Calculating formula lst= h sinQ Overall stability calculating by hydrostatic ships body formula lf Dynamic stability is the area under the static stability curve Dynamic stability also potential energy available to return the ship to the upringing

STABILITY TRIANGLE
m

lst =hsin Q
l
f

h
G

Q
st

Vg D lf C1

PHANTACORENS
SHIPS BADY FORM STABILITY ARMS lf lf
2.8

2.4
1.6 1.2 0.8 0.4

80 70 60 50

90

40
30 20 10

4000 6000

8000

10000

## 20000 12000 14000 16000 18000

DISPLACEMENT

METACENTRIC HEIGHT
Metacentric height GM is calculated by subtracting KG From KM (GM=KM-KG), GM is a measure of the ship.s stability. KM=h. With initial stability(0 10 deg.) the metacenter does not move, and Sine function is almost linear(a straight line). Therefore, the size of the ship,s Righting Arm, GZ, is directly prportional to the size of the ships Metacentric Height, GM.
IMPORTENT !

## Thus , GM is a good measure of the ships initial stability.

METACENTRIC HEIGHT
m W G

h
a
a

## MAIN STABILITY POINTS

There are three main stability points: m- metacenter is the end of hydrostatic force when ship listing. G- centre of ship gravity C- centre of ship underwater body.

SHIPS STABILITY
STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS
m
Zm

h r Lo a

WO
ZG

Zc

## MAIN STABILITY POINTS

m metacenter G center of gravity C center of buoyancy

h Wo
W1

L1

G C
C1

LO

SHIPS STABILITY

METACENTER

C0

SHIPS STABILITY
METACENTRIC HEIGHT FORMULAS h=r-a
h=zm

zG zG

h=zc - ro -

METACENTRIC HEIGHT
METACENTRIC HEIGHT MEENS SHIPS INITIAL STABILITY m

h W G a
C

r0

## Three states of static equilibrium

(a) Positive stability - m above G (b) Neutral stability m and G in the same position ( c )Negative stability m below G

m h>O
G
a

G m

G h=O m
b

h<O c

## POSITIVE SHIPS STABILITY

Positive ships stability when m above G h>0
h

m G
C1

L1
L

W W1

## SHIPS STABILITY CURVE

POSITIVE SHIPS STABILITY
L l st

h>0

57, 3

## NEUTRAL SHIPS STABILITY

Neutral ships stability when m and G in the same position h=0
Gm

L
C1

SHIPS STABILITY
NEUTRAL SHIPS STABILITY
lst

h=0

## NEGATIVE SHIPS STABILITY

Negative ships stability when m below G h<0
G

L1
h
C1

W
W1

m C

NEGATIVE

SHIPS

STABILITY

h=-0
Mst

57.3

Qst

-h

STABILITY CONDITIONS

The positions of Gravity and the Metacenter will indicate the initial stability of a ship. Following damage, the ship will assume one of the following three stability conditions: 1. POSITIVE STABILITY. The metacenter is located above the ships center of gravity. As the ship is inclined, Righting Arm are created which tend to return the ship to its original, vertical position. 2. NEUTRAL STABILITY. The metacenter and the ships center of gravity are in the same location. As the ship is inclined, . there are no returing moment. 3. NEGATIVE STABILITY. The ship,s center of gravity is above the metacenter. As the ship is inclined, negative Righting Arms (called upsetting arms) are created which tend to capsize the ship.

METACENTRIC FORMULA
M

OVERALL

h=Zm - ZG
h
W0

M=( lf lst)D
L1

lst
Vg
lf

L0

C1

Zm

W1

ZG

M- UPSERTING MOMENT

METACENTRIC HIGHT
METACENTRIC HIGHT IS FIRST DERIVATIVE SHIPS STABILITY CURVE

lst

Mst

h
57,3
Q

METACENTER HEIGHT

L1 L C1 W1 C

## METACENTER MOMENT IS UPSERTING MOMENT M= D h sin Q

DYNAMIC STABILITY

## SHIPS DYNAMIC STABILITY

DYMAMIC MOMENT
M

DYNAMIC MOMENT

SHIPS STABILITY
STATIC MOMENT CURVE
M

## SHIPS DYNAMIC STABILITY

MAXIMUM DYNAMIC ANGLE
M S2

S1

static

dyn

Q dyn max Q

## SHIPS DYNAMIC CURVE

SHIPS DYNAMIC STABILITY CURVES APPLICATES IS EQUVALENT STATIC CURVES AREA
Mdyn

S=Mdyn

Mdyn
Q

DYNAMIC STABILITY
The dynamic stability is the area under the curve in metre-radians Multiplated by the ship,s displacement in tonnes. It is areas under the GZ Curve which are required for checking stability criteria which depending Upon the ship,s data may be expressed in metre-degrees or metre-radians. The area unde GZ curve also the potential energy available to return the Ship to the upringht. Principle of conservation of energy, the potential energy in converted into Rotation energy as the ship moves towards the upright.

Mst

Mst

Mdin

Md

max

STABILITY

ELEMENTS

## STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS

LINEAR MESURMENTS IN STABILITY THE STABILITY TRIANGLE RIGHTING MOMENT

## STATIC STABILITY CURVE DYNAMIC STABILITY CURVE ROLLING PERIOD

Learning Objectives
Comprehend the concepts of hydrostatics, buoyancy, and Archimedes' principle Comprehend static equilibrium of a floating vessel and the relationship of the centers of gravity and buoyancy to righting arms and stability Comprehend and identify positive, negative and neutral conditions of stability Comprehend the effects of movements of the centers of gravity and buoyancy on vessel stability Know how ship's stability curves are derived and comprehend their use in determining stability condition

Definitions
Draft Freeboard Depth of hull Reserve buoyancy List / Trim

SHIPS HULL

MARKINGS

At XVIII hundred one Englishman called PLIMSOL in Great Britan Parlament filds for marcks on the hull to for Safe shipping. Now thats marks called PLIMSOL MARKS.

PLIMSOL DISC
PLIMSOL DISC DIVAIDING SHIPS BODY IN TWO PARTS: 1. RESERVE BUOYANCY 2. DISPLACEMENT

## RESERVE BOYANCY DISPLACEMENT

FREE BOARD
SHIPS MAIN FREE BOARD MEENS SHIPS RESERVE BUOYANCY

DRAFT

## SHIPS MAIN DRAFT MEENS SHIPS DISPLACEMENT

RESERVE BUOYANCY
MAINTAIN FREEBOARD RASERVE BUOYANCY PRIOR TO PREVENT LIMITING DRAFTS ARE ASSIGNED TO EXCESIVE HULL STRESS AS A RESULT OF OVERLOADING

FREE BOARD
FREE BOARD MEENS RESERVE BUOYANCY

FREE BOARD WL

TF
F S W WNA

DRAFT
MAIN DRAFT MEENS SHIPS DISPLACEMENT

L
DRAFT

Buoyancy
Archimedes' principle Calculations of displacement (W) The effect of salt water and fresh water on displacement (relate to draft) [1/35 vs 1/36]

Archimedes principle
BOYAD
A body immersed (or floating) in water will buoyed ARCHIMEDES FORCE By a force equal to the weight of the water displaced.

## THE LAWS OF BUOYANCY

1. Floatating objects posses the property of buoyancy. 2. A floatating body displaces a volume of water equal in a body immersed (or floating) in water will be duoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the water displaced
D=Vg D G

C
Vg

SHIPS BUOYANCY
D=V*g
G L D V*g

ARCHIMEDES FORCE

PLIMSOL

## MARKS (Load lines)

Markings of minimum allowable freeboard for registred cargoCarryng ships.Located amidships on both the port and starboard sides the ship. Since the required minimum freeboard varies with water density and severity of weather, different markings are used for:
TF - TF Tropical Fresh Water F - F - Fresh Water - T - Tropical Water (sea water) T - S - Standard Summer - W - Winter - WNA-Winter North Atlantic

S W

WNA

## SHIPS HULL MARKINGS

Calculative Draft Marks

Used for determining displacement and other properties of the ship for stability and damage control. Those draft marks indicate the depth of the keel (baseline) below the waterline.

## DRAFT IN FEETS 1 ft = 0.3048 m

XVII XVI XV

XIV
XIII

DRAFT IN METRES
1 ft = 0.3048 m
44

42

40
38 36

SHIPS HULL MARKINGS Navigational Draft Marks Ships operational drafts. These draft marks include the depth of any projections below the keel of the ship. Limiting Draft Marks Limiting drafts are assigned to maintain reserve buoyancy (freeboard) prior to damage, and to prevent excessive hull stresses as a result of overloading.

DISPLACEMENT
The weight of the volume of water that is displaced by the underwater portion of the hull is equal to the weight of the ships

GRAVITY
The force of gravity acts vertically downward through the ships center Of gravity. The magnitude of the force depends on the ships total weight.

MOMENT
The endency of a force to produce a rotation about a pivot point. This works like a torque wrench acting on a bolt.

DISPLACEMENT

D=DLS + DS + DC D Displacement DLS Weight light ship DS - Weight supply DC - Weight cargo

GRAVITY
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY ACTS VERTICALY DOWNWARD THROUGHT THE SHIPS CENTER OF
GRAVITY

D= DL+DC+DS

SHIPS STABILITY

## METACENTER MOMENT =UPSERTING MOMENT

M = D h sin O

RIGHTING MOMENT
THE TENDENY OF A FORCE TO PRODUCE A ROTATION ABOUT A PIVOT POINT h
m

M=Dh
D Vg

sinQ

C1 C0

GRAVITY
The force of gravity acts vertically downward throught the ships center of gravity.

D=Vg
W

D
G C

Vg

(a)Couple

## (b)Righting arm (GZ)

(c)Righting moment (RM) - RM= GZ (W) (d)Upsertting moment

DEFINITIONS

Couple. Since the forces of buoyancy and gravity are equal and act along parallel lines, but in opposite directions, a rotation is developed

Righting arm. The distance between the forces of buoyancy and gravity is know as the ships righting arm. Righting moment. The righting moment is equal to the ships Righting arm multiplied by the ships displacement.
Metacentric height. The distance between center of gravity G and Metacener M .

The development of the static stability curve from the cross curves of stability Foctors involed:
- G does not change position as heeling angle changes - C is always at the geometric center of the volume of the underwater hull - the shape of the underwater hull changes as heeling angle changes

## SHIPS STABILITY CURVE

Using curves,find

(a) Maximum rigting arm (GZ) GZ=h (b) Angle of heel where maximum GZ arm ocurs l static maximum (c) Range of critical stability Q critical

SHIPS STABILITY
STABILITY CURVES ELEMENTS
lst

l static max

h
57.3

critical

## STATIC STABILITY CURVE

When a ship is inclined through all angles of heel,and the righting arm for each angle is measured, the statical stability curve is produced. This curve is a snapshotof the ships stability at that particular loading condition.Much information can be obtained from this curve, including: 1. Range of Stability: This ship will generate Righting Arms when inclined from 0 deg. Till to approximately 74 dg. 2. Maximum Righting Arm: The angle of inclination where the maximum Righting Arm occurs 3. Danger Angle:One half the angle of the maximum Righting Arms.

## DRAFT DIAGRAM AND FUNCTIONS OF FORM

The Draft Diagram is a nomogram located in Section II(a) of the Damage Control Book. It is used for determining the ships displacement, as well as other properties of the ship, including: - Moment to Trim One Inch (MT1); - Tons per Inch Immersion (TPI); - Height of Metacenter (KM); - Longitudinal Center of Flotation (LCF) - Longitudinal Center of Buoyancy(LCB) -Displacement (D)
-VOLUME V m

## -Weight, drafting per 1 cm

DRAFT NOMOGRAM
8.2 7.8 7.2 6.8 6.4 6.0 5.6 5.2 4.8 18000 17000 16000 15000 14000 13000 12000 11000 10000 17900 16860 15845 14840 13840 12820 11820 10820 9820 19900 18800 17600 16600 15500 15000 14600 14400 14200 26.5 26 25.5 25 24.5 24 23.5 23 22.5

Tm

4.4

9000

8820

14000

22

Dt

Vm3

M t/cm

P t/cm

HYDROSTATIC CURVES
SHIPS FLOATING BODY FUNCTIONS CAN CALCULATING BY HYDROSTATIC CURVES. THIS CURVES IS FUNCTIONS FLOATING SHIPS BODY STABILITY AND UNDERSEA SHIPS BODY CAPITICY. ARGUMENT FOR CALCULATING IS SHIPS DRAFT FUNCTIONS FOR CALCULATING: a) DISPLACEMENT D b) VOLUME V c) FLOATING CENTER Xf d) BOYAD CENTER XC Zc e METACENTER RADIUS r f) SQUERE OF WATERLINE S

HYDROSTATIC CURVES
SHIPS FLOATING BODY FUNCTION CURVES

DRAFT

Zc Xf

FUNCTIONS

COUPLE
M=D h sin Q
h
G D m Q
st

Vg C1

PLIMSOL DISC
TF F

T
S W
WNA

LIST
Q WO

L1

Q Lo

W1

ROLLING PERIOD
SHIPS STABILITY AND ROLLING PERIOD

T=

CB h

ROLLING PERIOD
The rolling period of the ships dependenced from ships stability. The formula Between ship,s stability and rolling :

T = c*B/sqr GM In this formula: T rolling period in sec. c - constanta B the ships beam to outside of hull.
Note: the constanta c dependenced from ships displacements. There are the followings meanings: c=0.88 when ship is empty or ballast; c=0.78 - when the ship has on board amout 20 % c=0.75 when liquids on board 10% c=0.73 when all liquids on board amout 5% HOWEVER, for all lagers ships Lloyds Register of shipping and the 1991 HMSO Code of Practice for Ro-Ro ships use c= 0.7

LOADING CARGO
m0

h0
G0

C0

h0 < h1

m0
m1

h1
G0
G1 C1 C0 p

h0

h0 >h1

h1
P1

m0

m1

P2

G1
G0 C0

h0

C1

MOVING CARGO
m0

h0
G0

C0

MOVING CARGO
P1

m0

P2

h0
G0

C0

MOVING CARGO
m0
h1 > h0

h0
G0 G1
P1 C0 P2

h1

MOVING CARGO
m0

h0
G0

C0 P1 P2

h0 > h1

MOVING CARGO
P1

P2

m0
G1
G0 C0

h0

h1

LOADING CARGO
m h0 W0 G0

h1 G1 L0

C0

FREE LIQUID AREA

W0

G0 C0 P0

L0

M Moment liquid

## SHIPS STABILITY VARIATIONS

M Moment upserting

m

G0

L1 L0
Q

W0
W1 C0

C1

P1

P1

Y1 Q1

M1

P1

M2

Y2 P2

M2>M1

Q2>Q1

Mcargo

HANGING CARGO
Q
lz

W0

L1

L0

W1

## Mcargo= Pcargo lz sin Q

TRIM
Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF

W1
W L

TAF
TF

L1

m 9 8 7 6

TAf

5 4
3

2
1

Tf
9 m

## SHIPS TRIM DIAGRAM

Dt
4000

3600

3200

2800

2400

1600

1200
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 0 1 2

3
Xc m

## SHIPS STABILITY VARIATIONS

TRIM
Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF

W1
W

lx TAF P
TF

L1

Mdif

DH

## SHIPS STABILITY VARIATIONS

TRIM
Trim means different between draft fore TF and draft aft TAF d= P lx L

W1
W

DH

TAF1

TAF0

lx

P TF0

L1
TF1

LIST
Q WO

L1

Q Lo

W1

LIST
P

WO

Lo

LIST
P ly

L1

WO
W1

Lo

tg Q =

P ly Dh