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Leadership and Management

Leadership is like playing golf

It has to be worked at You have to take into account the different playing conditions What is your own style of play? What clubs are at your disposal? What must you work on to improve your game? How eager are you to improve your standard?

One person, showing good leadership, is worth 50 gurus teaching it (Ray Mahoney)

"He who fails to plan, plans to fail: If you plan your work but not work your plan, you achieve none"

Definition of Leadership
Leadership is the social influence in which the leader seeks voluntary participation of subordinates in an effort to reach organizational goals It is the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of goals It is a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive and coherent

Leadership is behavior, not a position Good leaders are made and not born Trust, confidence and communication is the most reliable predictor of employee satisfaction in organizations

The Difference between Management and Leadership

Management Planning & Budgeting Organizing & Staffing Controlling & Problem Solving Leadership Setting a Direction Aligning People Motivating People

Leadership vs. Management

Management is focusing on coping with complexity Leadership is focusing on coping with change Leaders ask what is the right thing. Managers ask how do we do the thing right

Leading vs. Managing Styles Personality


Rational and control Problem solvers Goals, Recourses structures people

Leaders Brilliant In control of themselves Visionary Imaginative Risk takers

Leading vs. Managing Styles Goals

Managers Impersonal attitudes Based on necessity Tied to culture Tend to be reactive Focus on current information Leaders Active Promote their ideas Shape ideas A personal orientation Provide a vision Think what is needed

Leading vs. Managing Styles Work

Managers Enabling process Makes decisions Coordinating Balancing views Reaching compromises Act to limited choices Tolerate routine work Leaders Develop new approaches New options Excite people Develop choices Raise expectations Focus on people Dislike mundane work

Leading vs. Managing Styles Relationships

Managers Work with others well Collaborative Low emotional involvement Reconcile differences Focus on things Controlled & rationale Leaders Intuitive Empathetic Identify with others Attract strong feelings Focus on meaning to others

Power of Leadership

Power of Leadership
Legitimate power By the virtue of the position in the hierarchy Reward power The ability to give or withhold rewards Coercive power The capacity to punish others Expert power Result of knowledge, competency or expertise Referent power To influence people based on traits or desirable resources

Leadership model
EXTERNAL POWER Personal Characteristics Influence

Identified Societal Dysfunction (Value)


Defined visionary solution towards the IDEAL (Value)

Motivation INTERNAL

Leadership Theories
Trait theory Behavioral theory Contingency theories System approaches

Trait Theories
Leaders are born and not made Leaders possessed a number of inborn leader traits / personal characteristics Drive, motivation, initiative, energy, tenacity, responsibility, self confidence, cognitive ability, maturity, tolerance of stress, dominance, intelligence, integrity and honesty

Behavior Theory
Task orientation behavior They take steps to ensure that the works get done and services is performed efficiently and effectively Employee orientation behavior Show subordinates that they trust, respect and care about them. They help them feel good and enjoy working with them

Systems Approaches
Organisation as open system
Functioning of system Inter-relationship with environment Information and corrective action





Douglas McGregor
Theory X Theory Y
1. People do not like work and try to 1. People do not naturally dislike work but avoid it see work as a natural part of their lives 2. People need to be controlled, directed, 2. People are internally motivated to reach coerced and threatened to get them to objectives work towards organisational goals 3. People are committed to organisational 3. People prefer to be directed, avoid goals to the degree that they receive responsibility, want security and have personal rewards when they reach their little ambition objectives 4. People will seek and accept responsibility under favourable conditions 5. People have the capacity to be innovative in solving organisational problems 6. Intellectual potential of people is poorly utilised in most organisations

Contingency Theory
There is no single best way to manage Application of management principles is situation specific Characteristics of the situation are called contingencies (include the external environment) Organizations capabilities Managers and workers (values, goals, skills and attitude) Technology used by the organization Leadership depends on the situation

Transformational Leaders
Change agents Value driven Believe in people Take risks Can deal with complex situations Life long learners Engage in impression management Visionaries and purpose driven

Charismatic Leaders (1)

Have idealized goal / vision Strong personal commitment to their goal Unconventional Assertive and self confident Agents of radical change Need to influence followers Followers trust the leader

Charismatic Leaders (2)

Follower accept leader unconditionally They obey leader willingly There is an emotional involvement Followers believe they can contribute They trust the correctness of the leader believes He/she communicate high expectations They feel affection for the leader They have heightened performance goals

Principles of Leadership (1)

Know yourself and seek self improvement Be technically proficient Seek responsibility and take responsibility Make sound and timely decisions Set the example Know your staff and look out for them

Principles of Leadership (2)

Keep your staff informed Develop a sense of responsibility in staff Ensure that tasks are understood, supervises and accomplished Train and work as a team Use the full capabilities of the organization

Leadership Framework (1)

Be professional Possess good character traits Know the four factors of leadership Know yourself Know human nature Enable others to act Model the way Encourage the hart

Leadership Framework (2)

Provide direction Implement Motivate Know your job Know your organization Challenge the process Inspire a shared vision

Factors of Leadership
1 The Follower (The be, know & do attributes) 2 The Leader 3 Communication 4 Situation ( Seniors, confrontation, informal leaders, organizational structure)

Tips for leaders (1)

Identify team members and resources willing to support your leadership Empathize with others and assess their understanding of the situation This will help you to understand how to influence them Open up discussions with subordinated Encourage team communication and unity

Tips for leaders (2)

Motivate team members appropriately Plan and organize be setting SMART goals When reaching goals praise and reward them Inspire your employees (Be passionate, get them involved in the decision-making process and know what the organization is about

Tips for leaders (3)

Do not under or over supervise
Under = miscommunication, lack of coordination and a perception he/she do not care Over = It stifles initiative, breeds resentment and lowers morale and motivation

Tips for leaders (4)

Train and coach subordinates Evaluate staff and performances Get feedback Use checklists

A Recipe that work for leadership

Responsibility- for own actions and to look for other ways to do things Experience For here and now Confident Have courage to lead I Language To own what you say Process review Deal and to confront issues at the appropriate moment Equality of opportunity To create an environment where everyone can contribute

The difference between a Boss and a Leader (1)

The Boss Drives people Depends on authority Says I Fixes blame Know how Uses people See today The Leader Coaches people Lead on goodwill Says we Fixes breakdown Shows how Develops people Look at tomorrow

The difference between a Boss and a Leader (2)

The Boss Inspires fear Commands Takes credit Concerned with things Work hard to produce Never enough time The Leader Inspires enthusiasm Asks Give credit away Concerned with people Work hard to help Time for things that count

Leaders and Managers

Good manager & Poor leader Managerial Ability Poor manager & poor leader Good leader & poor manager Good leader and Good manager

Leadership ability

Business Objectives

Trained Leader

Good manager & Poor leader Managerial Ability Poor manager & poor leader

Good leader and Good manager

Good leader & poor manager

Personal Objectives Selfish motives

Leadership ability

Humanitarian Objectives Religious Objectives (accountability)

Definition of Management
It is a set of activities directed at an organizations resources with the aim of achieving organizational goals efficiently and effectively It is the process of coordinating and integrating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people

Levels of Management (1)

Top level
Make decisions affecting all Provide strategic direction Few people who control the organization Final authority and responsibility Responsible for determining the goals of the organization Concerned with long-term planning, and designing broad organizational structure

Levels of Management (2)

Middle level
On level under top management Carry out the goals set by top management Motivate and assist first line managers Communicate up and downwards Responsible for medium term planning ( Year plans) Responsible for specific departments Concerned with implementation of policies and plans of top management Link lower and top management

Levels of Management (3)

First line/Supervisors
A strong influence on the company Short term planning ( Day, week, month) Responsible for smaller segments of the organization (subsection) supervisors Concerned with daily activities of the organization Apply rules and procedures Provide technical assistance Motivates staff - workers

The 4 Management Processes

Planning Leading Organizing Controlling








Management decides what should be done

Management decides how it should be done Management decides how and when it should be done


Management ascertains whether the tasks have been carried out


Level of management

Direction MIDDLE




Planning Organising Leading Control


Human resources Financial resources Material resources Information resources




Establish standards (derived from the goals)

Take appropriate action (correct deviations)

Control: the starting and ending points of the management process

Observe actual performance and information about it

Evaluate deviations and determine performance deviations

Operational Plan Strategic Plan Business plan Plan

People Money Equipment Outputs Quality Information Conformance to policy

INDICATORS 1. Input 2. Process 3. Output 4. Outcome

Managerial Effectiveness
A measure how well managers embark on the right activities and achieve results A measure of the appropriateness of the goals and the degree to which these goals are met Effectiveness achievement of goals Efficiency Utilization of the minimum of resources to achieve a given output

Effective Managerial Behavior

Controlling Organizing Information Growth & development Motivating Strategic problem solving

Motivation to Manage
Authority acceptance Competitive games Competitive situations Assertiveness Imposing wishes Distinctiveness Routine functions

4 Skills Needed for Managers

Human skills Conceptional skills Political skills Technical skills

All four needed in order to be successful

Human Skills
Ability to understand oneself Work with others Motivating others and empowering Self awareness Managing personal stress Coaching, counseling Managing conflict

Conceptional Skills
Understanding how parts of the institution fit into each other the big picture Decision-making skills Planning skills Organizing skills

Political Skills
To enhance ones position To build a power base To establish the right connections To gain power and influence

Technical Skills
The ability to use tools, procedure and specialized knowledge and techniques Management techniques Computer skills Economic analysis et cetera

Management Roles
Decisional Interpersonal Informational

Decisional Roles
Entrepreneur role Disturbance handler Resource allocater Negotiator

Interpersonal Role
Figurehead Set the example Coordinate the work of different units

Informational Role
Obtain and transmit information Monitor and evaluate the performance of others Monitor changes in the environment Dissemination of information Spokesperson with external environment

The most important words

6 I admit I made a mistake 5 You did a good job 4 What is your opinion? 3 If you please 2 Thank you 1 We Least important word = I