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IMPATT DIODE AND TRAPATT DIODE

IMPATT DIODE
IMPATT Stands for IMPact ionization Avalanche Transit-Time

Pn junction diode is revere biased

Avalanche multiplication of electrons and holes occur

Negative resistance is based upon avalanche multiplication and transit-time effect of carriers

This exhibits negative resistance characteristics in microwave frequency range.

Device based on this principal is called the IMPATT DIODE

CONSTRUCTION OF IMPATT DIODE:

EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FOR IMPATT DIODE:

Where, Where,

OPERATION OF IMPATT DIODE:

Voltage and Current Vs Time:

COMPARISION
IMPATT is designed for high power applications whereas, a diode burns (heat-up) at high power.
IMPATT is operated at reverse bias whereas a diode is normally operated at forward bias because at reverse bias there is high voltage drop.

ADVANTAGES OF IMPATT DIODE:


1. Operate at frequencies between about 3 and 100 GHz or more. 2. High power capability.

DISADVANTAGES OF IMPATT DIODE :


1. Major drawback of using IMPATT diodes is the high level of phase noise they generate. 2. The noise figure for IMPATT is 30dB . 3. Tuning range is not as good as Gunn diodes.

APPLICATION OF IMPATT DIODE:


1. MICROWAVE GENERATOR 2. MODULATED OUTPUT OSCILLATOR 3. RECEIVER LOCAL OSCILLATOR 4. PARAMETRIC AMPLIFIER (par amps) 5. INTRUSION ALARM NETWORK 6. FM TELECOMMMUNICATION TRANSMITTERS 7. CW DOPPLER RADAR TRANSMITTER.

IMPATT DIODE OSCILLATOR:


Very high frequency stability High output power Low phase noise Fine spectrum Precision frequency adjustment Weak temperature dependence Compact, low cost

TRAPATT DIODE
TRApped-Plasma Avalanche Trigged Transit Diode

Construction of TRAPATT Diode:

It is derived from IMPATT Diode. Silicon or Gallium Arsenide is used for fabricating TRAPATT Diode.

TRAPATT Diode can be constructed either by p+ -n-n+ or n+-p-p+.

OPERATION OF TRAPATT DIODE:

A square pulse is used to excite TRAPATT diode.

TRAPATT DIODE WAVEFORM:

AB Charging of junction capacitance BC Electron and hole plasma formation by depressed field DE Plasma extraction EF Residual extraction FG Charging of diode GA Constant voltage after full charging

ANALYSIS OF TRAPATT DIODE:


1. The current density is given by, 2. Electric field is given by,

Where,

Where,

3. Avalanche zone velocity is given by,

SALIENT FEATURES OF TRPATT DIODE


1. It is a high efficiency diode oscillator . 2. Its oscillations depend on delay in current caused by avalanche process. 3. The diode diameter is about 50 mm for CW operations and is about 750 mm at lower frequency for high peak power application. 4. It can be operated over a range of 400MHz to 12GHz. 5. Its has an efficiency of 20% - 40%.

ADVANTAGES OF TRAPATT DIODE:


1. Its efficiency is relatively high. 2. It can be used over a frequency range of a few hundred MHz to several GHz.

DISAVANTAGE OF TRAPATT DIODE:


1. It has high noise figure. 2. Its use at upper microwave frequencies is limited . 3. It generate strong harmonics due to the short duration of current pulse.

APPLICATION OF TRAPATT DIODE :


It is used in

in pulse radar as local oscillator. in radio altimeter. air borne and marine radars. in microwave beacons and landing system. in low power Doppler radars.

APPLICATION OF

MICROWAVE ENGINEERING IN BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTS

BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTS
The Signal Processing and Instrumentation Section (SPIS) provides electrical, electronic, electro-optical, and computer engineering support to clinical and biomedical research projects involving advanced real-time signal transduction, signal processing, and control.

FIG: A JARVIK-7 artificial heart, an example of a biomedical engineering

1. APPLICATION IN STERILIZING MEDICAL EQUIPMENTS


Sterilization (or sterilisation) is a term referring to any process that eliminates (removes) or kills all forms of life, including transmissible agents (such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, spore forms, etc.) present on a surface, contained in a fluid, in medication, or in a compound such as biological culture media. Sterilization can be achieved by applying the proper combinations of heat, chemicals, irradiation, high pressure, and filtration.

FIG: Sterilizing surgical instruments

HOW MICROWAVES ARE USED FOR STERILIZING PROCESS?


Low-cost technology to kill harmful bacteria has been developed at Glyndr University in Wrexham.
Researchers found that by attaching a vacuum vessel to a microwave oven, atomic oxygen and ozone - both aggressive gases - can be generated. The modified microwave used by the team cost less than 2,000, compared to 70,000 for conventional systems.

The new method, developed by a team led by senior research scientist Dr Andy Wright, provides a chemical-free solution to killing harmful bacteria on medical tools used in GP, dentist and veterinary surgeries.

2. APPLICATION IN HISTOPATHOLOGY
Refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease.

Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides.

FIG: Micrograph showing contraction band necrosis, a histopathologic finding of myocardial infarction (heart attack)

HOW MICROWAVES ARE USED IN HISTOPATHALOGY ?


Microwave accelerated procedures are useful at every step of sample preparation for microscopy by speeding up reaction process and saving time.
Even more important , microwave procedures improves the retention of soluble Antigen immuno reactivity better than conventional methods. In short, microwave accelerated techniques can be used to improve the efficiency of variety of histopathology laboratory procedures, such as fixation, decalcification , processing of specimens for paraffin wax or resin embedding and staining.

Two types of microwave devices are being used in histopathology laboratory setting :
1. Microwave instruments specifically designed and certified as medical devices 2. Commercial grade microwave units modified for lab/clinics

Laboratory microwave devices are designed with exhaust fans and safety features to protect microwave devices.

Presented By: GROUP 4 Roll No: 41 to 50