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ORGANISATION

Scope of the Project


Description of the Project Components of RFID Model

Working Scenario
Frequencies Used in RFID Unique Features for the Proposed Project Alternative Thought while Designing the Project Cost and Benefit Expected

Scope of the Project


The project is implemented with the help of Radio

Frequency Identification Technology. Mainly deals with identification of vehicles and ticketing the passengers Another added feature will be the accuracy in data recorded. Human errors will be rectified to the maximum there by enhancing the efficiency of the system. The area of application is wide and the technology has already proved its value. Thus the implementation and practice of such digital system would always be worth.

Description of the Project


RFID technologies uses radio waves to automatically

identify people or objects. An RFID system consists of a tag, which is made up of a microchip with an antenna and an interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends out EM waves. The tag antenna is tuned to receive these waves. The chip then modulates the waves that the tag sends back to the reader and converts the new waves into digital data.

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For the purpose of vehicle identification the tags are

embedded into the vehicle. The reader sends the EM waves to the tag. The tag draws power from this wave and returns back the vehicle information which are stored in its memory reader. The reader again demodulates the wave and convert it into digital data.

Components of RFID Model


RFID Reader
RFID Tags

RFID Reader
An RFID reader is one that can read tags operating at

different frequencies or using different methods of communication between the tags and readers.

RFID Tags
An RFID Tag is comprised of a microchip containing

identifying information and an antenna that transmits this data wirelessly to a reader. There are three types of Tags available 1. Active Tags 2. Passive Tags 3. Semi-Passive Tags

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Active Tags

Active RFID tags have a transmitter and their own power source (typically battery). The power source is used to run the microchips circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader.
Passive Tags

Passive tags have no battery. Instead, they draw power from the reader, which sends out electromagnetic waves that induce a current in the tags antenna.
Semi passive Tags

Semi passive tags use a battery to run the chips circuitry, but communicate by drawing power from the reader.

Working Scenario

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The antenna senses the tag and the information are fed

into the reader. The reader then decodes these data and sends it to the host system through require means. Once the reader has activated the transponder, the transponder responds by emitting a signal to the readers antenna, which is converted into electrical signal RF module.

Frequencies in RFID
RFID systems generate and radiate EM waves.
It is important to ensure that RFID systems do not

interfere with nearby radio, television ,mobile and security services. Four types of frequencies are used in RFID Low Frequency (LF) High Frequency (HF) Ultra High Frequency Microwave Frequency

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LF tags are used for small scale applications requiring

shorter read ranges. HF systems are used for applications requiring longer read ranges such as vehicle tracking and ticketing etc. UHF, this is a crowded frequency spectrum because mobile and cordless phones, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices operate in this range of frequencies. RFID tags with Microwave frequency do have greater read ranges and higher reading speeds than LF tags, but they tend to be line of sight dependent, orientation sensitive and require more power.

Unique Features of the Proposed Project


RFID systems are used for a varieties of industrial and end

user applications It has overcome the various short comings of existing technologies For example, BARCODE technology uses the line of sight technology, by contrast, it doesnt require line of sight, RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a reader RFID uses the low end of the electromagnetic spectrum, thus waves coming from readers are not dangerous.

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Just as our radio tunes into different to hear different

channels, RFID tags and readers are tuned to the same frequencies to communicate. Radio waves travel through most non-metallic materials, so they can be embedded in packaging or encased in protective plastic for weatherproofing and greater durability. Easy administration and planning.

Alternative thoughts while Designing the project


Barcode, but the problem is with the line of sight.
Vehicle tracking using GPS technology, but

implementation cost is very high and can be used only for vehicle tracking. Bio metric SMART LABEL

Cost and Benefit Expected


Cost of RFID Tags
Cost is based on volume, the amount of memory on the

tag and the packaging of the tag. Generally, a 96 bit tag costs from INR 9.00 to INR 18.00. Low frequency transponders in glass capsules are about INR 160 each and transponder in a plastic can be INR 182. High frequency transponders range from about INR 114 to INR 270.

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Cost of RFID Reader A low frequency reader model can be under INR 4,500.00 High frequency reader modules are typically ranges from INR 9.500.00 to 13,500.00. Most UHF readers costs from INR 45,500.00 to 36,500.00.

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Benefits of VTS Speed of transaction Increased safety Cost reduction Fewer queues Greater reliability of equipment

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Benefits of RFID Non contact or Non line of sight nature of technology. Tag can be read in different weather conditions Faster reads rates as high as 100 milliseconds Paper less tracking of equipment and personnel. Multiple tags can be read in single pass across the reader. High degree of scalability.

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