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SENTENCE STRUCTURE 2

Definition

1. Based on meaning: Sentence is a complete thought 2. Based on function: Sentence consists of a verb or more and a predicate or more 3. Based on meaning and function: Sentence is a group of words consisting of a verb or more and a predicate or more that express a complete thought.

The difference of Sentences and Clauses


Sentences Clauses

- Consist of a verb and a predicate - Have a complete thought - Express a complete thought

- Consist of a verb and a predicate - Independent clauses have a complete thought - Dependent clauses do not have a complete thought

SENTENCE CLASSIFICATION: A. BY TYPES B. BY PREDICATION

A. Sentence types
1. Declarative
2. Interrogative

3. Imperative
4. Exclamatory

Declarative Sentence
A declarative sentence, also known as a statement, is used to give information or state an opinion. It usually begins with a subject then a predicate. It is punctuated by a period/dot (.). Example: The dog in the neighbors yard is barking. Carol is happy. Johan is playing with his toys. An amoeba is a one-celled animal. Green plants need sun and water The child ate his dinner.

Interrogative Sentence
An interrogative sentence is used to ask a question. The position of subject and auxiliary/helping verb are exchanged; auxiliary/helping verb comes first and subject follows it. Interrogative sentences end in a question mark (?). It can be a yes/no question or a WH question.

Examples:
Yes/no Questions Is it raining? (is= aux verb, it=subject) Did you lock the door? Have you been to Italy? Does he love you? WH Questions Where do you work? Whom did you laugh at? What is your opinion about it? When will they come back from vacation?

Imperative Sentence
An imperative sentence is used to express a command or request. A command is conveyed less politely than a request because a command uses an exclamation mark while a request uses a word please. Thus, an imperative sentence can end in a period (.) or an exclamation mark (!). Examples: Close the door! (command) Please be quiet. (request) Show your parents some respect! Pass me the salt, please. Repeat my words!

Exclamatory Sentence
An exclamatory sentence is used to express kinds of emotion such as excitement, surprise, and other feelings. It begins with an exclamatory phrase of what or how and ends in an exclamation mark. It can be written as a statement but showing an emotion. Example: What a good dinner that was! How beautiful she is! What a pretty dress you are wearing! How rudely that kid talks! This is the most delicious pizza Ive ever tasted! *how usually precedes an adjective or adverb

Practice 1:
Identify the type for each sentence whether they are: descriptive, interrogative, imperative or exclamatory 1. Have you made a decision yet? 2. The girl in the white jacket is lost. 3. What a brilliant idea it is! 4. Give me a piece of pizza, please. 5. I did not finish my homework. 6. Where is my science book? 7. Please come with me to the movies. 8. I made a perfect score on this test! 9. Why is John late for our date? 10.Open your locker immediately!

Make your writing more interesting!


By using the four types of sentences in your writing, you can make your paragraphs more interesting. Read the sample paragraph below.

My favorite type of fast food is pizza. I could eat pizza morning, noon, or night. Pepperoni is my number one choice. I also like double cheese on top. I wish I could order a pizza right now.
Boring, right? Lets see how we can use the four types of sentences and make it more interesting to the reader.

What is your favorite type of fast food? My favorite is pizza. I just love pepperoni and double cheese. Sometimes I think I could eat pizza morning, noon and night! All of this talk about pizza is making me hungry. Lets order a pizza now.
This is more interesting, right? In this sample we used the four different types of sentences. They provided emotion, excitement, pizza to our paragraph.

B. Sentence by Predications

According to the number of subject and predicate, sentence is classified into four kinds: 1. Simple 2. Compound 3. Complex 4. Compound-Complex

1. Simple Sentence
A simple sentence consists of one independent clause that has simply one subject and one predicate. Examples: - Mary plays tennis. - Teddy bought a house. - Rony is a clever student. - I cook for breakfast. - We swim every weekends. - The pirates are cruel.

SIMPLE SENTENCE
SUBJECT PREDICATE

Mary Teddy Rony I We The pirates


one subject

Plays tennis. Bough a house. Is a clever student. Cook for breakfast. Swim every weekends Are cruel.
one predicate

Simple Sentence: Compound Subject


Tom and Mary Teddy and Winnie Rony and Rick My sister and I You and I The pirates and the robber
Compound Subject

Play tennis. Bought a house. Are clever students. Cook for breakfast. Swim every weekends. Are both cruel.

Predicate

Simple Sentence: Compound Subject and Compound Predicate

Tom and Mary

play tennis and swim.

Compound Subject &

Compound Predicate &

Make one simple sentence!

2. Compound Sentence
Compound sentence (kalimat majemuk setara) consists of two independent clauses and they are joined by: - Coordinating conjunctions; FANBOYS = For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So. - Transition: also, besides, moreover, still, therefore, consequently, otherwise, accordingly, however, nevertheless, thus, then, furthermore, on the other hand. - Use only semi colon (;)

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE
Coordinating Conjunction / Transition / Semi colon

INDEPENDENT CLAUSE

COMPOUND SENTENCE JOINED BY:

COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
- For (karena): Tom is rich, for he works hard. - And (dan): Tom is rich, and Mary is smart. - Nor (atau [dengan makna negatif]): Tom neither washes clothes himself, nor he does the dishes. - But (tapi): Tom has a car, but he cannot drive it. - Or (atau): Tom goes to work either by car, or he rides his bike. - Yet (tapi): Tom has a car, yet he cannot drive it. - So (maka/jadi): Tom is handsome, so every girl likes him.

COMPOUND SENTENCE WITH


COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: Analysis

Tom is rich, and Mary is smart.


clause 1 coordinator clause 2

Independent
Comma is used before coordinating conjunction in compound sentences!

Independent

COMPOUND SENTENCE: TRANSITION

- Mr. Hartanto is the richest man in this town; moreover, he is helpful. - The city provides many cultural opportunities; besides, it has an excellent central of art and culture. - The players tried their best to win; nevertheless, they lost. - He has been late for class lately; therefore, the teacher punished him. - Rina is angry at his boy friend; on the other hand, she keeps smiling at him.

COMPOUND SENTENCE WITH TRANSITION: Analysis

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.


clause 1 independent transition clause 2 independent

Note: Semicolon before transitions and comma after transition!

Transition Positions:
AT THE BEGINNING, IN THE MIDDLE, AT THE END

Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.

Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.

COMPOUND SENTENCE:
SEMICOLON (;)

- Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic. -Mr. Hartanto is the richest man in this town; he is helpful. - The city provides many cultural opportunities; it has an excellent central of art and culture. - The players tried their best to win; they lost. - He has been late for class lately; the teacher punished him.

Make one complex sentence! You may use coordinating conjunction, transition, or semi colon.

3. Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more dependent clause joined by subordinating conjunctions. If the independent clause comes first, it does not use a comma (,). But if the dependent clause comes first, it uses a comma (,). Independent clause
Subordinating conjunction

Dependent clause,
Subordinating conjunction

Dependent clause

Independent clause

Subordinating conjunctions
After Before In order that Since Though Whenever Whether Although Even if Once So that Unless Where While As Even though Provided that Than Until Whereas Why Because If Rather than That When Wherever How

Examples
1. - Sam is popular even though she is not fashionable. - Even though Sam is not fashionable, she is popular. 2. - You should lock the door before you leave. - Before you leave, you should lock the door. 3. - He will be allowed to go to the zoo, provided that his homework is finished in time. - Provided that his homework is finished in time, he will be allowed to go to the zoo. 4. - When the conductor appeared on the stage, the audience applauded loudly. - The audience applauded loudly when the conductor appeared on the stage.

COMPLEX SENTENCE WITH


SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS: Analysis

Sam is popular even though she is not fashionable.


Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Dependent

Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.


Clause 1
Dependent

Clause 2
Independent

Analysis
-You should lock the door before you leave. You should lock the door = independent clause Before you leave = dependent clause Before = subordinating conjunction - Provided that his homework is finished in time, he will be allowed to go to the zoo. Provided that his homework is finished in time= dependent clause Provided that = subordinating conjunction He will be allowed to go to the zoo = independent clause - When the conductor appeared on the stage, the audience applauded loudly. When the conductor appeared on the stage = dependent clause When = subordinating conjunction The audience applauded loudly = independent clause

Make one compound sentence! Remember to use a subordinating conjunction.

4. Compound-Complex Sentence
A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
Independent clause
Coordinating conjunction

Independent clause
Subordinating conjunction

Dependent clause

Remember that in compoundcomplex sentence: Coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS, transitions, or semi colon) are used to join independent clauses. Subordinating conjunctions are used to join an independent clause with a dependent clause.

Examples of compound-complex sentences


1. Naoki passed the test because he studied hard and he understood the material. Naoki passed the test = independent clause Because he studied hard = dependent clause And he understood the material = independent clause 2. The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the contents. The package arrived in the morning = independent clause But the courier left = independent clause Before I could check the contents = dependent clause

3. There are many problems to solve before this program can be used, but engineers believe that they will be able to solve them soon. There are many problems to solve = independent clause Before this program can be used = dependent clause But engineers believe = independent clause That they will be able to solve them soon = dependent clause.

Make one compound-complex sentence! Remember to use a coordinating conjunction to join independent clauses and a subordinating conjunction to join an independent clause with a dependent clause.

Practice 2: Analyze these sentences Ottawa is the capital of Canada, but Toronto is the capital of Ontario. 2. Democracy is a noble goal; it is important, however, to protect the minority from the tyranny of the majority.
1.

3. Unless my girlfriend postpones her visit from Calgary, I will not have time to study for my exam. 4. Susanne wanted to be here, but she cannot come until she finished her homework.

5. The football game was cancelled because it was raining. 6. The president likes travelling; he is very adventurous. 7. The Island was filled with many trails winding through the thick underbrush, a small lake, and dangerous wild pigs.

SUMMARY
A. Sentence types: descriptive, interrogative, imperative and exclamatory B. Sentence by predication: - Simple sentence = one independent clause - Compound sentence = two independent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS, transitions, or semi colon) - Complex sentence = one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses joined by subordinating conjunctions. - Compound-complex sentence = two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses joined by coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.

References

Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999. The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.

Thank you

Titih Ratih tira_sari30@yahoo.com