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Thursday, 1st March 2012 Summary: - Sentence connectors. - Connectors of contrast.

CONNECTORS AND LINKING WORDS

What is a connector or linking word?


A connector is a word that is used to join words or sentences.

In this lesson, I would like to introduce you connectors and words that are commonly used in professional, business, and university writing. Although the words have different grammatical names, they share one thing in common: they all continue or add to ideas that were written in the preceding sentence.

WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT CONNECTORS?

And Or But

BASIC CONNECTORS
Additionally In Addition Also Moreover As well as Furthermore Nevertheless Not only ... but also Yet As long as Until

RULES TO REMEMBER
1. These words are not interchangeable. In other words, you cannot remove one of these words and add any other. 2. In general, do not use two of these words or phrases in the same sentence. The following sentence is incorrect/wrong:
My professor is an extremely fascinating person. Furthermore, she tells some of the most interesting stories I have ever heard as well.

3.

In general, when you use these words and connectors, make sure the two sentences/ideas are related.
The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to do research. Furthermore, lots of people like to go to libraries to read.

EXAMPLES
The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to do research. Moreover, it has hundreds of the most respected magazines and journals in the world The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to do research. In addition, it has hundreds of the most respected magazines and journals in the world. The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to do research. It has hundreds of the most respected magazines and journals in the world as well. The library on 5th Avenue in New York City is one of the best places to do research. It has hundreds of the most respected magazines and journals in the world, too.

4. Don't overuse connectors! It is unnecessary to use them everywhere in your writing.

Use connectors when you want to do the following:


clearly show a relationship between ideas add information that builds on the idea in the preceding sentence

CONTRAST CLAUSES

to express contrasting ideias

Aimee was disabled

she gave up. so

no contrast

She was disabled.

She didnt give up.

How to link contrasting ideas?


ALTHOUGH + subj + verb + MAIN CLAUSE

ALTHOUGH she was disabled, she didnt give up.


MAIN CLAUSE ALTHOUGH + subj + verb + .. THOUGH

She didnt give up ALTHOUGH she was disabled. She didnt give up THOUGH she was disabled.
In spoken English, it is common to use though at the end of the sentence.

She was disabled. She didnt give up, though.

+ noun group DESPITE (no verb) IN SPITE OF

MAIN CLAUSE

In spite of her disability, she didnt give up. Despite her disability, she didnt give up. DESPITE + -ing form IN SPITE OF MAIN CLAUSE

In spite of being disabled, she didnt give up.

Despite being disabled, she didnt give up.


The order of the clauses can be inverted.

DESPITE the fact that IN SPITE OF

+ subj + verb + ..

In spite of the fact that she was disabled,

Despite the fact that she was disabled,

she didnt give up.

Aimee Mullins has a severe physical limitation. She keeps on breaking world records. In spite of having a severe physical limitation, Aimee
Mullins keeps on breaking records.

In spite of

her severe physical limitation, Aimee Mullins keeps on breaking world records.

the fact that she has a severe physical In spite of limitation , Aimee Mullins keeps on breaking world records.

Aimee participated in the Paralympic Games. She knew her opponents wouldnt like it. Although she knew her opponents wouldnt like it, Aimee participated in the Paralympic Games. Despite knowing her opponents wouldnt like it, Aimee participated in the Paralympic Games.

AND NOW

STUDY!!!!