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ME 464 Flight Mechanics

Chapter 6 Elements of Airplane Performance

6.1 Introduction


First Europe, and then the globe, will be linked by flight, and nations so knit together that they will grow to be next-door neighbors. This conquest of the air will prove, ultimately, to be mens greatest and most glorious triumph. What railways have done for nations, airway will do for the world Claude Grahame-White, British aviator, 1914

Questions about airplane performances What is the maximum speed? (Vmax)  How fast can it climb to a given altitude? (R/C)max  How far can it fly on a given tank of fuel? (range)  How long can it stay in the air? (endurance)  Take-off, landing, turning, etc.


Core of flight dynamics


Lift, drag, thrust, weight forces only

Aircraft is a rigid body

Aerodynamic pressure, shear stresses converted into lift and drag

Drag Polar
Aerodynamic force and moments are from the pressure distribution and the shear stress distribution  Aerodynamicists provide performance engineers the pertinent data; drag polar for the complete airplane  CD=CD,e+CL2/TeAR


CD,e; parasite drag coefficient

Drag Polar; Parasite Drag


Parasite drag coefficient; profile drag of the wing, friction and pressure drag of the tail and fuselage, engine nacelles, landing gear and other components; including wave drag if applicable  Also, a function of E, angle of attack  CD,e =CD,0+rCL2


Drag Polar
CD=CD,0+(r+1/TeAR )CL2 CD,i Drag due to lift  CD=CD,0+CL2/TeAR CD,0; parasite drag coefficient at zero lift e; Oswald efficiency factor; span efficiency (non-elliptic lift distribution) plus the effect of the variation of parasite drag with lift


Drag Polar; ideal case


CD
  

Drag=zero-lift drag + drag due to lift CD=CD,0+ CD,i CD,0; parasite drag coefficient at zero lift, at E=EL=0 Drag polar; graph CL vs CD

CD,0

CL CL
CD,0

CD

10

Drag Polar; real case


 

CD=CD,0+(CL- CL min )2/TeAR drag Actually, zero-lift doesnt match with minimum drag EL=0 is slightly negative; negative pitch increases pressure (form) drag due to flow separation

CL

CD,min CD CD,0

11

Flight Path

ET

12

6.2 Equations of Motion

13

6.2 Equations of Motion


Inertia force=ma=mdV/dt  Centrifugal force=mV2/r  Equilibrium equations TcosETD-WsinU= mdV/dt L+ TsinETWcosU= mV2/r  Static performance; level (U=0) , unaccelerated flight TcosET=D L+ TsinET=W


14

6.2 Level, Unaccelerated Flight


When ET is small (usually is) T=D Equation of motion for level, unaccelerated flight L=W  T=D=qSCD  L=W=qSCL  T/W=CD/CL  Thrust required TR=W/(CL/CD)=W/(L/D)


15

Thrust Required TR



At a given altitude, for varying V

TR

CL=W/ [VV2 S]  CD= CD,0 + CL2 /TeAR  Then get the CL/ CD
 

Calculate TR=W/(CL/CD) Draw TR vs V curve

(L/D)max

16

17

Lift-to-drag ratio


L/D is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency Minimum thrust angle of attack at maximum L/D ratio (2-50 for subsonic flight) Different angle-ofattack, different thrust required

L/D (L/D)max

18

Thrustrequired Curve
As V is high, q is also high (VV2 )  Then CL is not large small E  For low velocity, q decreases so CL and consequently Eincrease also increase induced drag

TR E
increase

19

Minimum Thrust Required


TR ! D ! qg SCD ! qg S (C D ,0  C D ,i )
2 CL TR ! qg S (C D ,0  ) TeAR W as C L ! qg S

TR Net TR
Zero-lift TR Lift induced TR

TR ! qg SCD , 0 

W qg STeAR

Take a derivative to obtain the minimum point

V(L/D)max

20

dTR dTR dVg ! dqg dVg dqg

Chain rule
Minimum or maximum, this case minimum

dTR W2 ! SC D ,0  2 !0 dqg qg STeAR C D,0 W2 ! 2 2 qg S TeAR


2 2

W W 2 ! CL as 2 2 ! q S qg S g 2 W TR ! qg SC D , 0  qg STeAR C D,0
2 CL ! ! C D ,i TeAR

21

Cessna Skyline which is simulated as CP-1

22

Cessna Skyline which is simulated as CP-1

23

Example 6.1; CP-1


Wing span b=35.8ft  Wing area S=174 ft2  Gross weight W=2950 lb  Fuel capacity 65gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant; 230 hp (at S.L.) single engine  Parasite drag coeff CD,0 0.025  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.8  Propeller efficiency=0.8


24

HW 1: Example 6.1; CJ-1


Wing span b=53.3ft  Wing area S=318 ft2  Gross weight W=19,815 lb  Fuel capacity 1119gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant; 3650-lb thrust, two turbofan engines  Specific fuel consumption 0.6lb fuel/(lb thrust)(h)  Parasite drag coeff CD,0 0.02  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.81


25 Thrust required curve for the CJ-1

26 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CP-1?


Assume W Vg ! 200 ft / s ! 136.4mi / h 2950 ! ! 0.357 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.5 * 0.002377 * 200 *174 2 b 2 35.82 ! ! 7.37 AR ! S 174 2 CL 0.357 2 ! 0.025  ! 0.0319 C D ! C D,0  TeAR T * 0.8 * 7.37 L CL 0.357 ! ! ! 11.2 D C D 0.0319 W 2950 TR ! ! ! 263lb L / D 11.2

Use excel spreadsheet, iterating with V

27 Excel Spreadsheet; CP-1 at sea-level


CP-1 Thrust and power required CD L/D TR
1.427 1.179 0.991 0.844 0.728 0.634 0.557 0.494 0.440 0.395 0.357 0.323 0.295 0.270 0.248 0.228 0.211 0.196 0.182 0.170 0.159 0.148 0.139 0.135 0.100 0.078 0.063 0.054 0.047 0.042 0.038 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.026 0.026 0.026 10.58 11.79 12.70 13.30 13.58 13.58 13.34 12.94 12.41 11.82 11.19 10.55 9.93 9.32 8.75 8.21 7.70 7.23 6.79 6.39 6.01 5.67 5.35 279 250 232 222 217 217 221 228 238 250 264 280 297 316 337 359 383 408 434 462 491 520 552

Vfree
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320

CL

PR
27889 27535 27866 28835 30414 32595 35376 38764 42773 47418 52719 58698 65377 72781 80936 89868 99606 110175 121605 133925 147162 161347 176509

28 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CJ-1?


Assume W Vg ! 500 ft / s ! 341mi / h 19,815 ! ! 0.210 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.5 * 0.002377 * 500 * 318 2 b 2 53.32 ! ! 8.93 AR ! S 318 2 CL 0.212 ! 0.02  ! 0.022 C D ! C D,0  TeAR T * 0.81* 8.93 L CL 0.21 ! ! ! 9.55 D C D 0.022 W 19815 TR ! ! ! 2075lb L / D 9.55

Use excel spreadsheet, iterating with V

29 Excel Spreadsheet

V free CL
300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 0.583 0.546 0.512 0.481 0.454 0.428 0.405 0.383 0.363 0.345 0.328 0.312 0.297 0.284 0.271 0.259 0.248 0.237 0.228 0.218 0.210 0.202 0.194 0.187

CD
0.035 0.033 0.032 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.027 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.024 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022

L/D
16.68 16.48 16.24 15.94 15.61 15.25 14.87 14.48 14.07 13.66 13.25 12.85 12.44 12.05 11.66 11.28 10.91 10.56 10.21 9.88 9.56 9.25 8.95 8.67

TR
1188 1202 1220 1243 1269 1299 1332 1369 1408 1450 1495 1543 1593 1645 1700 1756 1816 1877 1940 2005 2073 2142 2213 2286

30 Thrust Available andMaximum Velocity

Constant power

Constant thrust

31 Example 6.2 maximum velocity of CJ-1

Thrust available TA=2*3650=7000 lb

Maximum velocity; 975 ft/s

Mmax=Vmax/a=975/1117=0.87 at sea level

32

Power required for level, unaccelerated flight

Power=energy/time=F*s/(t=FV  Power required PR=TRV  Substitute TR, PR=TRV = (W/CL/CD)V  Substitute V




L=W= q SCL= V V2 S CL V =sqrt(2W/V S CL)


 PR =  PR =

(W/CL/CD) (2W/ V S CL) (2W3 CD 2/V S CL3)~1/[CL3/2 /CD]

33

Power required of CP-1 at sea-level (Propeller)

CL3/2 /CD

34

Power required for level, unaccelerated flight

Note that for propeller  PR~1/[CL3/2 /CD]  For jet (constant thrust)  TR ~1/[CL/CD]  PR=TRV= DV (true for level flight T=D)  PR= DV= qS( CD,0 + CL2 /TeAR)V  PR=[zero-lift power required]+[Liftinduced power required]


35
2 CL PR ! qg SCD , 0Vg  qg SVg TeAR

1 2 W / V gVg S 1 1 2 3 3 ! V gVg SCD ,0  V gVg S 2 2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg S 1 3 2 ! V gVg SCD ,0  2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg2 S dPR 3 2 ! V gVg2 SC D, 0  dVg 2 TeAR

3 2 W 2 / V gVg4 S 2 required 3 4 ! V gVg2 S C D ,0  2 TeAR CD,0 =1/3 CD,i 1 2 CL 3 1 3 ! V gVg2 S C D, 0  CD ,i ! 0 ! V gVg2 S C D ,0  3 3 2 TeAR 2

Minimum power

36 Lift-induced, zero-lift and net power required

CD,0 =1/3 CD,i

Minimum thrust; CD,0 =CD,i

37

Minimum thrust required vs minimum power required PR=TR* V


Minimum slope gives minimum thrust

d ( PR / Vg ) d (TRVg / Vg ) dTR ! ! !0 dVg dVg dVg

38

HW2: Example 6.3


Calculate the power-required curves for CP-1 at sea level  Calculate the power-required curves for CJ-1 at 22,000 ft


39 Power required for the CJ-1 at 22,000 ft Change air density 0.001184 slug/ft3 PR=TR* V

40 Power Available

Power available=(propeller efficiency)*(shaft brake power)

41 Power available for propeller and jet engine

propeller hpA=L*bhp

jet PA=TA* V TA is constant for jet

42

Example 6.4
 

Find maximum velocity for CP-1 at sea level and for the CJ-1 at 22,000 ft CP-1 horsepower rating at sea level 230hp, propeller efficiency 0.8

hpA=L*bhp=0.8*230=184 hp, map on PR graph, Vmax=265 ft For CJ-1, hpA=(TA* V)/550 Thrust is proportional (also power) to V/V0; V0=0.002377, V(at 22,000ft)=0.001184 hpA, alt=(0.001184/0.002377)(3650*2) (V)/550=6.61 V

43 CP-1 hpA=184hp Vmax=265ft/s

CJ-1 hpA, alt=6.61 V Vmax=965ft/s

44 Altitude effect on power-required curve


Assumed the same CL and CD

V0 ! Valt !

2W , V 0 SC L 2W , VSC L V0 V ,

PR ,0 ! PR ,alt !

2 2W 3C D 3 V 0 SC L 2 2W 3C D 3 VSC L

Valt ! V0

PR ,alt ! PR ,0

V0

Square root of density ratio


V

45 Effect of altitude on power required

46 Propeller
At higher altitude, power available drops and maximum velocity reduces

Jet
At higher altitude, slope of the power available drops and maximum velocity reduces

47 At high enough altitude, low limit is Vmin instead of Vstall

48 H.W. 3 : Example 6.5 Obtain PR curve at sea level converting from the 22,000ft altitude Sea level

22,000 ft

49

Rate of Climb
L=W cos U

L and D is smaller during climbing than level flight (lower induced drag)

T=D+W sin U TV=DV+WV sin U DV]/W= V sin U

[TV-

(Excess power)/W=R/C= rate of climb

50

Excessive Power

Propeller-driven

jet-driven

51 Maximum rate of climb

[Excess power]/W=R/C Maximum rate of climb occurs at maximum excess power

52 Hodograph for climb performance

High climb angle doesnt give maximum climb rate

53

H.W. 4: Example 6.6




Obtain rate of climb vs velocity for CP-1 and CJ-1

54

55

Gliding Flight

L=W cos U D=W sin U D/L=sin Ucos U tan U=1/(L/D) Higher L/D, shallow glide angle, long distance

56

Example 6.7 CP-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft. Find the maximum range and glide angle; maximum L/D=13.6

U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/13.6]=4.20 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=136,000ft=25.6mi

57

Example 6.8 CJ-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft. Find the maximum range and glide angle; maximum L/D=16.9

U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/16.9]=3.390 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=169,000ft=32mi Higher L/D gives longer range

58
Example 6.8 CP-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft and 2000ft each. Find the equilibrium glide velocity. maximum L/D=13.6
Angle and range; L/D

1 L ! V gVg2 SCL ! W cos U 2 2 cosU Vg ! V gCL W S

Wing loading determines speed

W 2950 ! ! 16.95 S 174


From 10,000ft

2 4.2 0 16.95 cos Vg ! ! 174.3 ft / s 0.0017556 0.634

2 4.2 0 16.95 cos From 2,000ft Vg ! ! 154.3 ft / s 0.0022409 0.634 CL; from max L/D calculation

59

Absolute and service ceilings


Rate of climb=[Excess power]/W

60

Absolute and service ceilings

Service ceilings; R/C=100 ft/mim Absolute ceilings; R/C=0

61

At Absolute Ceiling

No excess power; only level flight is possible

62 H.W.5: Example 6.10 Obtain absolute and service ceiling

63

Time to Climb
The faster, the better; fighter; civil airline clear congested traffic area and to better weather condition sooner dh=(R/C)dt

dh t! R 0 C

h2

Integration of (R/C)-1 over altitude

64 H.W.6 : Example 6.11 Find time required to climb to 20,000 ft for CP-1, and CJ-1

65

Range and Endurance Range; total distance (measured wrt ground) traversed by the airplane on a tank of fuel  Endurance; total time that an airplane stays in the air on a tank of fuel  The parameters are different for maximizing endurance and range; also different for propeller and jet


66

Range and Endurance; propeller-driven Airplane


  

Specific fuel consumption Weight of fuel consumed per unit power per unit time SFC=(lb of fuel)/(bhp*h)
Note: for jet use TSFC (Thrust specific fuel consumption)

 

(lb of fuel)/h SFC*hpR Minimum pounds of fuel per hour maximum endurance; occurs at minimum power required condition; CL3/2 /CD

67

Range and Endurance; propeller-driven Airplane




   

Maximum endurance occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL3/2 /CD is maximum (lb of fuel)/(h* V) (SFC*hpR)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) (SFC*hpR)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range hpR/V tangential line of PR curve maximum CL/CD Maximum range occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL/Cd is maximum

68 Maximum endurance and range for propeller-driven airplane

Max CL3/2 /CD

Max CL/Cd

69 Endurance Equation; propeller

SFC ! c !

lb fuel

ft * lb / s s

cPdt ! d fuel lb Wl ! W0  W f dW f ! dW !  d fuel ! cPdt lb dW dt !  cP dW dt ! E ! w cP 0 l


E w0

70 Range Equation; propeller

SFC ! c !

lb fuel

ft * lb / s s

cPVg dt ! Vg d fuel ! Vg dW lb Vg dW Vg dt ! ds !  cP Vg dW ds ! R ! w cP 0 l
R w0

Multiply both side with V

71 Graphic solution to obtain maximum range and endurance

Range; area under (V/cP)

Endurance; area under (1/cP)

72

Breguet Formulas (for propeller); Range


PA DVg P! ! L L
0 VgLdW LdW R! ! cDVg cD wl wl 0 L WdW L L dW ! R! cD W cD W wl wl

Level flight
w

w0

w0

Multiply W up and down, W=L for level flight

L CL R! c CD

w0

dW L CL W0 W ! c CD ln W1 wl

Maximum propeller efficiency, minimum c, maximum L/D, maximum fuel

73

Breguet Formulas (for propeller); Endurance


P! PA DVg ! L L
w0 w

Level flight

0 LdW LdW ! E! cP cDVg wl wl

w0

E!

L WdW L L dW ! cDVg W w c DVg W wl l 2W 1 , L ! W ! V gVg2 SC L 2 V g SC L V g SC L dW 2 W 3/ 2


1/ 2

w0

Multiply W up and down, W=L for level flight

Vg !
w0

E!

L CL c CD wl

3 L CL / 2 Vg S 1 / 2 W0 ! 2 W Wl c CD 2 3 L CL / 2 ! 2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 c CD

High L, low c, large fuel, CL3/2 /CD, sea level (V)

74 H.W. 7 : Example 6.12 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CP-1
0.8 2950 L CL W0 R! ln 13.62 ln ! 7 c C D W1 2.27 *10 2583 c ! 0.45lb fuel / hp * h ! 0.45 ! 2.27 *10 7 ft 1 550 * 3600 3 CL CL / 2 From example 6.1 ! 13.62, max ! 12.81 max C C D D R ! 6.38 *106 ft ! 1207 mi
3 L CL / 2 2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 E! c CD

0.8 1/ 2 12.81 2 * 0.002377 *174 25831/ 2  29501/ 2 7 2.27 *10 ! 5.19 *10 4 s ! 14.4h !

75

CL max C ! 13.62 D
3 CL / 2 max C ! 12.81 D

CP-1 at sea level

76

Range and Endurance; Jet Airplane


      

flight)

Weight of fuel consumed per unit thrust per unit time TSFC = (lb of fuel)/(lb of thrust*h) (lb of fuel)/h TSFC*TA Endurance of jet TA (equals TR for level Minimum thrust of jet; at maximum L/D (lb of fuel)/(h*V) (TSFC* TA)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) (TSFC* TA)/ V

77

Range and Endurance; Jet Airplane


     

(lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range minimum (TA /V) tangential line of TR curve TR /V= D /V=( V V2 S CD)/ V= V V S CD V = (2W/ V S CL)1/2 TR /V= V S(2W/ V S CL)1/2CD TR /V 1/[CL1/2/CD] Flight at the maximum [CL1/2/CD] gives maximum range

78

CL1/2/CD

L/D

79 Endurance Equation; jet

TSFC ! c !

lb fuel

lbthrust s
Multiply W up and down, TA=TR=D, W=L

lb  ctTA dt ! d fuel ! dW dW dt !  ctTA


E w0

dW 1 L dW dt ! E ! w ctTA ! w ct D W 0 l l 1 C L W0 E! ln ct C D Wl
Minimum ct, maximum fuel, max CL/CD

w0

80 Range Equation; jet

Vg dW ds ! Vg dt !  ctTA
R w0 w0

Level flight

Vg dW VgWdW ds ! R ! w ctTA ! w ctTRW 0 l l Vg LdW Vg C L dW ! ! ! ct DW ct C DW wl wl wl !


w0 w0 w0

2W C L dW V g SCL ct C DW
Min ct, max fuel, CL1/2/CD ,High altitude

2 C1/ 2 1 L (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) V g S C D ct

81 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1
1 CL C L/ 2 max C ! 16.9, max C ! 23.4 D D From example 0 .6 ct ! 0.6 lb fuel / lb fuel * h ! ! 1.667 *10  4 s 1 3600 1 2 C L/ 2 1 (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) R!2 V g S C D ct

6.1

2 1 23.4 !2 ( 19815  12352 ) 4 0.001184 * 318 1.667 *10 ! 19.2 *106 ft ! 3630mi

82 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1

1 C L W0 E! ln ct C D Wl 1 19815 16.9 ln ! 4 1.667 *10 12352 E ! 4.79 *10 s ! 13.3hr


4

83 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 CJ-1

Ex

84

Takeoff performance

F=ma=mdV/dt; dV=(F/m)dt V=(F/m)t or t=Vm/F ds=Vdt=(F/m)tdt s=(F/m)(t2/2)= (V2m)/(2F) Rolling resistance R=Qr(W-L) F=T-D-R=T-D- Qr(W-L)=mdV/dt

85
1 V gVg2 SC L 2 2 1 CL 2 D ! V gVg S C D ,0  J 2 TeAR L!

16h / b 2 J! 2 1  h / b 16
J ground effect; air cushion, or float; tendency to flare

Note that F is rather uniform, even though L, D varies with velocity

86

Takeoff performance

V 2m V 2 (W / g ) s! ! 2F 2 T  ?D  Q r  L Aavg W

A
Lift off speed=1.2 stall speed

VLO ! 1.2Vstall ! 1.2 s LO

2W V g SC L max

1.44W 2 ! gV g SC L max T  ?D  Q r  L Aavg W

?D  Q r W  L Aavg ! ?D  Q r W  L A0.7V
s LO 1.44W 2 ! gV g SC L maxT

LO

substitute average value with 0.7VLO

Can be simplified if T is large

87

Takeoff performance

sLO


1.44W ! gV g SC L maxT

Distance is very sensitive to the Weight  As T is proportional to density, distance is proportional to 1/V2 (hot day at higher airport needs longer runway)  Increase CLmax, and T can decrease s

88

H.W. 9: example 6.17


Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume paved runway (friction 0.02), CLmax=1.0, the wings are 6 ft above the ground when rolling


89

Take-off Speed

Vs; stalling speed Vmc; minimum control system; if a critical engine fails, the airplane is able to maintain straight flight at that speed with zero yaw or with a bank angle of less than 50. At these conditions at this speed, the required rudder force may not exceed 180 lb.

90

Take-off speeds
V1; the critical engine failure speed; the average pilot could safely continue with the takeoff in the event of a critical engine failure  VR; takeoff rotation speed; equal to V1 or 5% higher than Vmc, the pilot rotates the airplane; keep on accelerating


91

Take-off speeds
Vmu; minimum unstick speed; the pilot could lift the airplane off the runway and continue takeoff, even with one engine inoperative, without any hazardous characteristics.  VLOF; 10% higher than Vmu for extra safety  V2; takeoff speed (can clear 35 ft above ground obstacles); 1.2 Vs or 1.1 Vmc


92 Landing Performance
 D  Q r  L ! m W dV dt

Thrust is zero (if not reversal)

93

Landing performance
V 2m VT2 (W / g ) s! ! W 2F 2?D  Q r  L A .7VT 0 VT ! 1.3Vstall ! 1.3 2W V g SC L max

landing speed=1.3 stall speed

1.69W 2 sL ! gV g SC L max ?D  Q r  L A .7VT W 0

W  L ! m dV  TR  D  Q r
dt
2

substitute average value with 0.7VT

1.69W sL ! gV g SC L max TR  ?D  Q r  L A0.7VT W

With thrust reversal

94

Example 6.18
Estimate the landing ground roll distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume no thrust reversal, spoilers employed so L=0, but increase 10% of zero-lift drag coefficient, empty feul tank, CLmax=2.5 with flaps fully employed


95 Example 6.18
VT ! 1.3 2W 2 *12352 ! 1.3 0.002377 * 318 * 2.5 V g SC L max 0.7VT ! 104 ft / s

VT ! 148.6 ft / s

C D , 0 ! 0.02  0.1* 0.02 ! 0.022

1 1 2 D ! V gVg SC D , 0 ! 0.002377 *104 2 * 318 * 0.022 ! 89.9lb 2 2 1.69W 2 sL ! gV g SC L max TR  ?D  Q r  L A .7VT W 0

Use the speed of 0.7 VT

1.69 *12352 2 ! A 32.2 * 0.002377 * 318 * 0.022?0  ? .9  0.4 89 12352  0 A ! 842 ft

Use Qr=0.4 for paved runway (with braking)

96

Turning Flight; level turn


Bank angle J W=L cos J Fr=L sin J Fr2=L2-W2
W Vg2 Fr ! W n 2  1 ! g R R! V
2 g

Load factor n= L/W

g n2 1

Small R, large [ large n and small V

g n2 1 [! Vg

V=R[

97

Pull-up maneuver
When L > W, pull up Fr=L-W=W(n-1)
W Vg2 Fr ! W n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g n  1 g n  1 [! Vg

98

Pull-down maneuver

Inverted such that Fr=L+W=W(n+1)


W Vg2 Fr ! W n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g n  1 g n  1 [! Vg

99

High-performance military fighter


n is large (3-10)  n+1 n and n-1 n

Wing loading W/S; the smaller, the better

Vg2 2L 2 W ! ! R! gn V g SC L g ( L / W ) V gC L g S gn [! ! Vg L! gn ! 2L V g SC L V gC L n gn !g 2nW 2W S V gCL S

1 2L V gVg2 SC L , Vg2 ! V g SC L 2

Insert V n=L/W

100

V-n Diagram


Wing loading (W/S); F-15; 66, F-16; 74, Beech craft Bonanza 18.8
Rmin W 2 ! V g C Lmax g S

Best performance at sea level [

nmax; structural V g C L ,max nmax max ! g constraint, stall; 2W S see V-n diagram 1 V gVg2 SC L 1 L 2 2 C L , max , n max ! V gVg n! ! W 2 W W S 2nmax W Corner velocity; min R V* ! V g C L ,max S

max [n

101

V-n diagram
Maneuver point

Corner velocity

102

Accelerated rate of Climb; Energy Method


      

Maneuver banned during WWII AFIT later could explain in energy terms Total A/C energy=PE+KE=mgh+mv2 Specific energy He (energy height) He=(PE+KE)/W He=h+V2/2g Differentiate with t dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt

103 Energy Height At higher energy state

104 How to increase energy height?

dV W dV T  D  W sin U ! m ! dt g dt
Multiple V/W on both 1 dV T  D ! W sin U  sides g dt TV  DV excess power V dV ! ! Ps ! V sin U  W W g dt V sin U ! R / C ! dh / dt

Ps !

dh V dV  dt g dt

This equation is dHe/dt

Ps=dHe/dt

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Time rate of change of energy height dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt=Ps  Pilot can use excessive power to obtain rate of climb or acceleration or both  Example excessive power =Ps=300 ft/s while flying at 800 ft/s


Pilot can climb at 300 ft/s = dh/dt Use for acceleration; Ps=(V/g)dV/dt; 300*32.2/800=dV/dt=12.1 ft2/s Or combination of climb and acceleration

106 Specific excess-power contour; subsonic

107 Specific excess-power contour; supersonic

108 F-104G supersonic fighter, n=1, W=18,000lb at maximum thrust


Flight path for Minimum time to climb

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