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# ME 464 Flight Mechanics

## Chapter 6 Elements of Airplane Performance

6.1 Introduction


First Europe, and then the globe, will be linked by flight, and nations so knit together that they will grow to be next-door neighbors. This conquest of the air will prove, ultimately, to be mens greatest and most glorious triumph. What railways have done for nations, airway will do for the world Claude Grahame-White, British aviator, 1914

Questions about airplane performances What is the maximum speed? (Vmax)  How fast can it climb to a given altitude? (R/C)max  How far can it fly on a given tank of fuel? (range)  How long can it stay in the air? (endurance)  Take-off, landing, turning, etc.


## Core of flight dynamics

Lift, drag, thrust, weight forces only

## Aerodynamic pressure, shear stresses converted into lift and drag

Drag Polar
Aerodynamic force and moments are from the pressure distribution and the shear stress distribution  Aerodynamicists provide performance engineers the pertinent data; drag polar for the complete airplane  CD=CD,e+CL2/TeAR


## Drag Polar; Parasite Drag

Parasite drag coefficient; profile drag of the wing, friction and pressure drag of the tail and fuselage, engine nacelles, landing gear and other components; including wave drag if applicable  Also, a function of E, angle of attack  CD,e =CD,0+rCL2


Drag Polar
CD=CD,0+(r+1/TeAR )CL2 CD,i Drag due to lift  CD=CD,0+CL2/TeAR CD,0; parasite drag coefficient at zero lift e; Oswald efficiency factor; span efficiency (non-elliptic lift distribution) plus the effect of the variation of parasite drag with lift


## Drag Polar; ideal case

CD
  

Drag=zero-lift drag + drag due to lift CD=CD,0+ CD,i CD,0; parasite drag coefficient at zero lift, at E=EL=0 Drag polar; graph CL vs CD

CD,0

CL CL
CD,0

CD

10

## Drag Polar; real case

 

CD=CD,0+(CL- CL min )2/TeAR drag Actually, zero-lift doesnt match with minimum drag EL=0 is slightly negative; negative pitch increases pressure (form) drag due to flow separation

CL

CD,min CD CD,0

11

Flight Path

ET

12

13

## 6.2 Equations of Motion

Inertia force=ma=mdV/dt  Centrifugal force=mV2/r  Equilibrium equations TcosETD-WsinU= mdV/dt L+ TsinETWcosU= mV2/r  Static performance; level (U=0) , unaccelerated flight TcosET=D L+ TsinET=W


14

## 6.2 Level, Unaccelerated Flight

When ET is small (usually is) T=D Equation of motion for level, unaccelerated flight L=W  T=D=qSCD  L=W=qSCL  T/W=CD/CL  Thrust required TR=W/(CL/CD)=W/(L/D)


15

Thrust Required TR



## At a given altitude, for varying V

TR

CL=W/ [VV2 S]  CD= CD,0 + CL2 /TeAR  Then get the CL/ CD
 

## Calculate TR=W/(CL/CD) Draw TR vs V curve

(L/D)max

16

17

Lift-to-drag ratio


L/D is a measure of the aerodynamic efficiency Minimum thrust angle of attack at maximum L/D ratio (2-50 for subsonic flight) Different angle-ofattack, different thrust required

L/D (L/D)max

18

Thrustrequired Curve
As V is high, q is also high (VV2 )  Then CL is not large small E  For low velocity, q decreases so CL and consequently Eincrease also increase induced drag

TR E
increase

19

## Minimum Thrust Required

TR ! D ! qg SCD ! qg S (C D ,0  C D ,i )
2 CL TR ! qg S (C D ,0  ) TeAR W as C L ! qg S

TR Net TR
Zero-lift TR Lift induced TR

TR ! qg SCD , 0 

W qg STeAR

V(L/D)max

20

## dTR dTR dVg ! dqg dVg dqg

Chain rule
Minimum or maximum, this case minimum

## dTR W2 ! SC D ,0  2 !0 dqg qg STeAR C D,0 W2 ! 2 2 qg S TeAR

2 2

W W 2 ! CL as 2 2 ! q S qg S g 2 W TR ! qg SC D , 0  qg STeAR C D,0
2 CL ! ! C D ,i TeAR

21

22

23

## Example 6.1; CP-1

Wing span b=35.8ft  Wing area S=174 ft2  Gross weight W=2950 lb  Fuel capacity 65gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant; 230 hp (at S.L.) single engine  Parasite drag coeff CD,0 0.025  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.8  Propeller efficiency=0.8


24

## HW 1: Example 6.1; CJ-1

Wing span b=53.3ft  Wing area S=318 ft2  Gross weight W=19,815 lb  Fuel capacity 1119gal (aviation gasoline)  Power plant; 3650-lb thrust, two turbofan engines  Specific fuel consumption 0.6lb fuel/(lb thrust)(h)  Parasite drag coeff CD,0 0.02  Oswald efficiency factor e=0.81


## 26 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CP-1?

Assume W Vg ! 200 ft / s ! 136.4mi / h 2950 ! ! 0.357 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.5 * 0.002377 * 200 *174 2 b 2 35.82 ! ! 7.37 AR ! S 174 2 CL 0.357 2 ! 0.025  ! 0.0319 C D ! C D,0  TeAR T * 0.8 * 7.37 L CL 0.357 ! ! ! 11.2 D C D 0.0319 W 2950 TR ! ! ! 263lb L / D 11.2

## 27 Excel Spreadsheet; CP-1 at sea-level

CP-1 Thrust and power required CD L/D TR
1.427 1.179 0.991 0.844 0.728 0.634 0.557 0.494 0.440 0.395 0.357 0.323 0.295 0.270 0.248 0.228 0.211 0.196 0.182 0.170 0.159 0.148 0.139 0.135 0.100 0.078 0.063 0.054 0.047 0.042 0.038 0.035 0.033 0.032 0.031 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.028 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.027 0.026 0.026 0.026 10.58 11.79 12.70 13.30 13.58 13.58 13.34 12.94 12.41 11.82 11.19 10.55 9.93 9.32 8.75 8.21 7.70 7.23 6.79 6.39 6.01 5.67 5.35 279 250 232 222 217 217 221 228 238 250 264 280 297 316 337 359 383 408 434 462 491 520 552

Vfree
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320

CL

PR
27889 27535 27866 28835 30414 32595 35376 38764 42773 47418 52719 58698 65377 72781 80936 89868 99606 110175 121605 133925 147162 161347 176509

## 28 How to obtain thrust required curve for the CJ-1?

Assume W Vg ! 500 ft / s ! 341mi / h 19,815 ! ! 0.210 CL ! 2 1 V gVg2 S 0.5 * 0.002377 * 500 * 318 2 b 2 53.32 ! ! 8.93 AR ! S 318 2 CL 0.212 ! 0.02  ! 0.022 C D ! C D,0  TeAR T * 0.81* 8.93 L CL 0.21 ! ! ! 9.55 D C D 0.022 W 19815 TR ! ! ! 2075lb L / D 9.55

## Use excel spreadsheet, iterating with V

V free CL
300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 510 520 530 0.583 0.546 0.512 0.481 0.454 0.428 0.405 0.383 0.363 0.345 0.328 0.312 0.297 0.284 0.271 0.259 0.248 0.237 0.228 0.218 0.210 0.202 0.194 0.187

CD
0.035 0.033 0.032 0.030 0.029 0.028 0.027 0.026 0.026 0.025 0.025 0.024 0.024 0.024 0.023 0.023 0.023 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022 0.022

L/D
16.68 16.48 16.24 15.94 15.61 15.25 14.87 14.48 14.07 13.66 13.25 12.85 12.44 12.05 11.66 11.28 10.91 10.56 10.21 9.88 9.56 9.25 8.95 8.67

TR
1188 1202 1220 1243 1269 1299 1332 1369 1408 1450 1495 1543 1593 1645 1700 1756 1816 1877 1940 2005 2073 2142 2213 2286

Constant power

Constant thrust

32



 PR =  PR =

33

CL3/2 /CD

34

## Power required for level, unaccelerated flight

Note that for propeller  PR~1/[CL3/2 /CD]  For jet (constant thrust)  TR ~1/[CL/CD]  PR=TRV= DV (true for level flight T=D)  PR= DV= qS( CD,0 + CL2 /TeAR)V  PR=[zero-lift power required]+[Liftinduced power required]


35
2 CL PR ! qg SCD , 0Vg  qg SVg TeAR

1 2 W / V gVg S 1 1 2 3 3 ! V gVg SCD ,0  V gVg S 2 2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg S 1 3 2 ! V gVg SCD ,0  2 TeAR 1 W 2 / V gVg2 S dPR 3 2 ! V gVg2 SC D, 0  dVg 2 TeAR

3 2 W 2 / V gVg4 S 2 required 3 4 ! V gVg2 S C D ,0  2 TeAR CD,0 =1/3 CD,i 1 2 CL 3 1 3 ! V gVg2 S C D, 0  CD ,i ! 0 ! V gVg2 S C D ,0  3 3 2 TeAR 2

Minimum power

37

## Minimum thrust required vs minimum power required PR=TR* V

Minimum slope gives minimum thrust

38

## HW2: Example 6.3

Calculate the power-required curves for CP-1 at sea level  Calculate the power-required curves for CJ-1 at 22,000 ft


39 Power required for the CJ-1 at 22,000 ft Change air density 0.001184 slug/ft3 PR=TR* V

40 Power Available

## 41 Power available for propeller and jet engine

propeller hpA=L*bhp

## jet PA=TA* V TA is constant for jet

42

Example 6.4
 

Find maximum velocity for CP-1 at sea level and for the CJ-1 at 22,000 ft CP-1 horsepower rating at sea level 230hp, propeller efficiency 0.8

hpA=L*bhp=0.8*230=184 hp, map on PR graph, Vmax=265 ft For CJ-1, hpA=(TA* V)/550 Thrust is proportional (also power) to V/V0; V0=0.002377, V(at 22,000ft)=0.001184 hpA, alt=(0.001184/0.002377)(3650*2) (V)/550=6.61 V

## 44 Altitude effect on power-required curve

Assumed the same CL and CD

V0 ! Valt !

2W , V 0 SC L 2W , VSC L V0 V ,

PR ,0 ! PR ,alt !

2 2W 3C D 3 V 0 SC L 2 2W 3C D 3 VSC L

Valt ! V0

PR ,alt ! PR ,0

V0

V

## 45 Effect of altitude on power required

46 Propeller
At higher altitude, power available drops and maximum velocity reduces

Jet
At higher altitude, slope of the power available drops and maximum velocity reduces

## 47 At high enough altitude, low limit is Vmin instead of Vstall

48 H.W. 3 : Example 6.5 Obtain PR curve at sea level converting from the 22,000ft altitude Sea level

22,000 ft

49

Rate of Climb
L=W cos U

L and D is smaller during climbing than level flight (lower induced drag)

[TV-

50

Excessive Power

Propeller-driven

jet-driven

53



## Obtain rate of climb vs velocity for CP-1 and CJ-1

54

55

Gliding Flight

L=W cos U D=W sin U D/L=sin Ucos U tan U=1/(L/D) Higher L/D, shallow glide angle, long distance

56

Example 6.7 CP-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft. Find the maximum range and glide angle; maximum L/D=13.6

## U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/13.6]=4.20 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=136,000ft=25.6mi

57

Example 6.8 CJ-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft. Find the maximum range and glide angle; maximum L/D=16.9

U=tan -1[1/(L/D)]= tan -1[1/16.9]=3.390 R=h/tan U!h*(L/D)=169,000ft=32mi Higher L/D gives longer range

58
Example 6.8 CP-1 power-off glide from 10,000ft and 2000ft each. Find the equilibrium glide velocity. maximum L/D=13.6
Angle and range; L/D

From 10,000ft

## 2 4.2 0 16.95 cos Vg ! ! 174.3 ft / s 0.0017556 0.634

2 4.2 0 16.95 cos From 2,000ft Vg ! ! 154.3 ft / s 0.0022409 0.634 CL; from max L/D calculation

59

## Absolute and service ceilings

Rate of climb=[Excess power]/W

60

## Service ceilings; R/C=100 ft/mim Absolute ceilings; R/C=0

61

At Absolute Ceiling

## 62 H.W.5: Example 6.10 Obtain absolute and service ceiling

63

Time to Climb
The faster, the better; fighter; civil airline clear congested traffic area and to better weather condition sooner dh=(R/C)dt

dh t! R 0 C

h2

## Integration of (R/C)-1 over altitude

64 H.W.6 : Example 6.11 Find time required to climb to 20,000 ft for CP-1, and CJ-1

65

Range and Endurance Range; total distance (measured wrt ground) traversed by the airplane on a tank of fuel  Endurance; total time that an airplane stays in the air on a tank of fuel  The parameters are different for maximizing endurance and range; also different for propeller and jet


66

## Range and Endurance; propeller-driven Airplane

  

Specific fuel consumption Weight of fuel consumed per unit power per unit time SFC=(lb of fuel)/(bhp*h)
Note: for jet use TSFC (Thrust specific fuel consumption)

 

(lb of fuel)/h SFC*hpR Minimum pounds of fuel per hour maximum endurance; occurs at minimum power required condition; CL3/2 /CD

67

## Range and Endurance; propeller-driven Airplane



   

Maximum endurance occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL3/2 /CD is maximum (lb of fuel)/(h* V) (SFC*hpR)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) (SFC*hpR)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range hpR/V tangential line of PR curve maximum CL/CD Maximum range occurs when the airplane is flying at a velocity such that CL/Cd is maximum

Max CL/Cd

SFC ! c !

lb fuel

ft * lb / s s

E w0

## 70 Range Equation; propeller

SFC ! c !

lb fuel

ft * lb / s s

cPVg dt ! Vg d fuel ! Vg dW lb Vg dW Vg dt ! ds !  cP Vg dW ds ! R ! w cP 0 l
R w0

72

## Breguet Formulas (for propeller); Range

PA DVg P! ! L L
0 VgLdW LdW R! ! cDVg cD wl wl 0 L WdW L L dW ! R! cD W cD W wl wl

Level flight
w

w0

w0

## Multiply W up and down, W=L for level flight

L CL R! c CD

w0

dW L CL W0 W ! c CD ln W1 wl

73

P! PA DVg ! L L
w0 w

Level flight

w0

E!

1/ 2

w0

## Multiply W up and down, W=L for level flight

Vg !
w0

E!

L CL c CD wl

3 L CL / 2 Vg S 1 / 2 W0 ! 2 W Wl c CD 2 3 L CL / 2 ! 2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 c CD

## High L, low c, large fuel, CL3/2 /CD, sea level (V)

74 H.W. 7 : Example 6.12 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CP-1
0.8 2950 L CL W0 R! ln 13.62 ln ! 7 c C D W1 2.27 *10 2583 c ! 0.45lb fuel / hp * h ! 0.45 ! 2.27 *10 7 ft 1 550 * 3600 3 CL CL / 2 From example 6.1 ! 13.62, max ! 12.81 max C C D D R ! 6.38 *106 ft ! 1207 mi
3 L CL / 2 2 V g S 1/ 2 Wl 1/ 2  W0 1/ 2 E! c CD

0.8 1/ 2 12.81 2 * 0.002377 *174 25831/ 2  29501/ 2 7 2.27 *10 ! 5.19 *10 4 s ! 14.4h !

75

CL max C ! 13.62 D
3 CL / 2 max C ! 12.81 D

76

## Range and Endurance; Jet Airplane

      

flight)

Weight of fuel consumed per unit thrust per unit time TSFC = (lb of fuel)/(lb of thrust*h) (lb of fuel)/h TSFC*TA Endurance of jet TA (equals TR for level Minimum thrust of jet; at maximum L/D (lb of fuel)/(h*V) (TSFC* TA)/ V (lb of fuel)/(mi) (TSFC* TA)/ V

77

## Range and Endurance; Jet Airplane

     

(lb of fuel)/(mi) maximum range minimum (TA /V) tangential line of TR curve TR /V= D /V=( V V2 S CD)/ V= V V S CD V = (2W/ V S CL)1/2 TR /V= V S(2W/ V S CL)1/2CD TR /V 1/[CL1/2/CD] Flight at the maximum [CL1/2/CD] gives maximum range

78

CL1/2/CD

L/D

## 79 Endurance Equation; jet

TSFC ! c !

lb fuel

lbthrust s
Multiply W up and down, TA=TR=D, W=L

## lb  ctTA dt ! d fuel ! dW dW dt !  ctTA

E w0

dW 1 L dW dt ! E ! w ctTA ! w ct D W 0 l l 1 C L W0 E! ln ct C D Wl
Minimum ct, maximum fuel, max CL/CD

w0

## 80 Range Equation; jet

Vg dW ds ! Vg dt !  ctTA
R w0 w0

Level flight

## Vg dW VgWdW ds ! R ! w ctTA ! w ctTRW 0 l l Vg LdW Vg C L dW ! ! ! ct DW ct C DW wl wl wl !

w0 w0 w0

2W C L dW V g SCL ct C DW
Min ct, max fuel, CL1/2/CD ,High altitude

## 2 C1/ 2 1 L (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) V g S C D ct

81 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1
1 CL C L/ 2 max C ! 16.9, max C ! 23.4 D D From example 0 .6 ct ! 0.6 lb fuel / lb fuel * h ! ! 1.667 *10  4 s 1 3600 1 2 C L/ 2 1 (W01/ 2  Wl1/ 2 ) R!2 V g S C D ct

6.1

2 1 23.4 !2 ( 19815  12352 ) 4 0.001184 * 318 1.667 *10 ! 19.2 *106 ft ! 3630mi

82 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 estimate the maximum range and maximum endurance for the CJ-1

4

## 83 H.W. 8 : Example 6.13 CJ-1

Ex

84

Takeoff performance

F=ma=mdV/dt; dV=(F/m)dt V=(F/m)t or t=Vm/F ds=Vdt=(F/m)tdt s=(F/m)(t2/2)= (V2m)/(2F) Rolling resistance R=Qr(W-L) F=T-D-R=T-D- Qr(W-L)=mdV/dt

85
1 V gVg2 SC L 2 2 1 CL 2 D ! V gVg S C D ,0  J 2 TeAR L!

16h / b 2 J! 2 1  h / b 16
J ground effect; air cushion, or float; tendency to flare

## Note that F is rather uniform, even though L, D varies with velocity

86

Takeoff performance

V 2m V 2 (W / g ) s! ! 2F 2 T  ?D  Q r  L Aavg W

A
Lift off speed=1.2 stall speed

2W V g SC L max

## 1.44W 2 ! gV g SC L max T  ?D  Q r  L Aavg W

?D  Q r W  L Aavg ! ?D  Q r W  L A0.7V
s LO 1.44W 2 ! gV g SC L maxT

LO

## Can be simplified if T is large

87

Takeoff performance

sLO


1.44W ! gV g SC L maxT

Distance is very sensitive to the Weight  As T is proportional to density, distance is proportional to 1/V2 (hot day at higher airport needs longer runway)  Increase CLmax, and T can decrease s

88

## H.W. 9: example 6.17

Estimate the liftoff distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume paved runway (friction 0.02), CLmax=1.0, the wings are 6 ft above the ground when rolling


89

Take-off Speed

Vs; stalling speed Vmc; minimum control system; if a critical engine fails, the airplane is able to maintain straight flight at that speed with zero yaw or with a bank angle of less than 50. At these conditions at this speed, the required rudder force may not exceed 180 lb.

90

Take-off speeds
V1; the critical engine failure speed; the average pilot could safely continue with the takeoff in the event of a critical engine failure  VR; takeoff rotation speed; equal to V1 or 5% higher than Vmc, the pilot rotates the airplane; keep on accelerating


91

Take-off speeds
Vmu; minimum unstick speed; the pilot could lift the airplane off the runway and continue takeoff, even with one engine inoperative, without any hazardous characteristics.  VLOF; 10% higher than Vmu for extra safety  V2; takeoff speed (can clear 35 ft above ground obstacles); 1.2 Vs or 1.1 Vmc


92 Landing Performance
 D  Q r  L ! m W dV dt

## Thrust is zero (if not reversal)

93

Landing performance
V 2m VT2 (W / g ) s! ! W 2F 2?D  Q r  L A .7VT 0 VT ! 1.3Vstall ! 1.3 2W V g SC L max

## 1.69W 2 sL ! gV g SC L max ?D  Q r  L A .7VT W 0

W  L ! m dV  TR  D  Q r
dt
2

## With thrust reversal

94

Example 6.18
Estimate the landing ground roll distance for the CJ-1 at sea level  Assume no thrust reversal, spoilers employed so L=0, but increase 10% of zero-lift drag coefficient, empty feul tank, CLmax=2.5 with flaps fully employed


95 Example 6.18
VT ! 1.3 2W 2 *12352 ! 1.3 0.002377 * 318 * 2.5 V g SC L max 0.7VT ! 104 ft / s

VT ! 148.6 ft / s

96

## Turning Flight; level turn

Bank angle J W=L cos J Fr=L sin J Fr2=L2-W2
W Vg2 Fr ! W n 2  1 ! g R R! V
2 g

g n2 1

## Small R, large [ large n and small V

g n2 1 [! Vg

V=R[

97

Pull-up maneuver
When L > W, pull up Fr=L-W=W(n-1)
W Vg2 Fr ! W n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g n  1 g n  1 [! Vg

98

Pull-down maneuver

## Inverted such that Fr=L+W=W(n+1)

W Vg2 Fr ! W n  1 ! g R Vg2 R! g n  1 g n  1 [! Vg

99

## High-performance military fighter

n is large (3-10)  n+1 n and n-1 n


## Vg2 2L 2 W ! ! R! gn V g SC L g ( L / W ) V gC L g S gn [! ! Vg L! gn ! 2L V g SC L V gC L n gn !g 2nW 2W S V gCL S

1 2L V gVg2 SC L , Vg2 ! V g SC L 2

Insert V n=L/W

100

V-n Diagram


Rmin W 2 ! V g C Lmax g S

## Best performance at sea level [

nmax; structural V g C L ,max nmax max ! g constraint, stall; 2W S see V-n diagram 1 V gVg2 SC L 1 L 2 2 C L , max , n max ! V gVg n! ! W 2 W W S 2nmax W Corner velocity; min R V* ! V g C L ,max S

max [n

101

V-n diagram
Maneuver point

Corner velocity

102

## Accelerated rate of Climb; Energy Method

      

Maneuver banned during WWII AFIT later could explain in energy terms Total A/C energy=PE+KE=mgh+mv2 Specific energy He (energy height) He=(PE+KE)/W He=h+V2/2g Differentiate with t dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt

## 104 How to increase energy height?

dV W dV T  D  W sin U ! m ! dt g dt
Multiple V/W on both 1 dV T  D ! W sin U  sides g dt TV  DV excess power V dV ! ! Ps ! V sin U  W W g dt V sin U ! R / C ! dh / dt

Ps !

dh V dV  dt g dt

## This equation is dHe/dt

Ps=dHe/dt

105

Time rate of change of energy height dHe/dt=dh/dt+(V/g)dV/dt=Ps  Pilot can use excessive power to obtain rate of climb or acceleration or both  Example excessive power =Ps=300 ft/s while flying at 800 ft/s


Pilot can climb at 300 ft/s = dh/dt Use for acceleration; Ps=(V/g)dV/dt; 300*32.2/800=dV/dt=12.1 ft2/s Or combination of climb and acceleration

## 108 F-104G supersonic fighter, n=1, W=18,000lb at maximum thrust

Flight path for Minimum time to climb

109

110

111