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Steps 1 to 3: The Broad Problem Area Preliminary Data Gathering Problem Definition

TOPICS DISCUSSED THE BROAD PROBLEM AREA PRILIMANARY DATA COLLECTION SOME INFORMATION VITAL FOR RESEARCH Background information on the Organization: Contextual Factors Structural Factors, Job Factors, Management Philosophy Perceptions, Attitudes, and Behavioral Responses
LITERATURE SURVEY Reasons for Literature Survey Conducting the Literature Survey Identifying the Relevant Sources Extracting the Relevant Information WRITING UP THE LITERATURE SURVEY OR THE LITERATURE REVIEW PROBLEM DEFINITION MANAGERIAL IMPLIVATIONS ETHICAL ISSUES

APPENDIX:
Online databases Bibliographical Indexes Referencing in the APA format Referencing and Quotation in the Literature Review Section CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After completing Chapter 4 you should be able to: 1. Identify the steps in the research process. 2. Identify problem areas that are likely to be studied in organizations. 3. Discuss how problem areas can be identified in work settings. 4. State research problems clearly and precisely. 5. Develop relevant and comprehensive bibliographies for any organizational research topic. 6. Write a literature review on any given topic, documenting the references in the prescribed manner. 7. Apply all you have learned to a group project that might be assigned.

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OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified

4 3
PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly Identified and labeled

5
GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES

6
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

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DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

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NO
Yes
DEDUCTION Hypotheses Substantiated? Research question Answered?

Variables clearly identified and labeled

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Report Writing

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Report Presentation

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Managerial Decision Making

Steps 4 and 5: Theoretical Framework Hypothesis Development


TOPICS DISCUSSED THE NEED FOR A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK VARIABLES Dependent Variable Independent Variable Moderating Variable Intervening Variable THE THEORETICAL FARAMEWORK AND ITS FIVE BASIC FEATURES HYPOTHESIS DEVELOPMENT Definition If-Then Statements Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses Null and Alternate Hypotheses MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

1
OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified

4 3
PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly Identified and labeled

5
GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES

6
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

7
DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly identified and labeled

8
NO
Yes
DEDUCTION Hypotheses Substantiated? Research question Answered?

9
Report Writing

10
Report Presentation

11
Managerial Decision Making

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After completing Chapter 5. you should be able to 1) Identify and label variables associated with any given situation. 2) Trace and establish the links among the variables and evolve a theoretical framework 3) Develop a set of hypotheses to be tested and state them in the null and the alternate. 4) Apply what has been learned to a research project.

Steps 6: Elements of Research Design


THE RESEARCH DESIGN PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: EXPLORATORY, DESCRIPTIVE, HYPOTHESIS TESTING CASE STUDY ANALYSIS TYPE OF INVESTIGATION: CAUSAL VERSUS CORRELATIONAL EXTENT OF RESEARCHER INTERFERENCE WITH THE STUDY STUDY SETTING : CONTRIVED VERSUS NONCONTRIVED UNIT OF ANALYSIS : INDIVIDUUALS, DYADS, GROUPS, ORGANIZATIONS, CULTURES TIME HORIZON OF STUDY : CROSS-SECTIONAL VERSUS LONGITUDINAL MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS

CHAPTER OBJECTIVES After completing this chapter you should be able to : 1. Understand the different aspects relevant to designing a research study. 2. Identify the scope of any given study and the end use of the results. 3. Decide for any given situation the type of investigation needed, the study setting, the extent of researcher interference, the unit of analysis, and the time horizon of the study.

4. Identify which of the two, a causal or a correlational study, would be more appropriate in a given situation.

1
OBSERVATION Broad area of research interest identified

4 3
PROBLEM DEFINITION Research problem delineated THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK Variables clearly Identified and labeled

5
GENERATION OF HYPOTHESES

6
SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DESIGN

7
DATA COLLECTION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

2
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

8
NO
Yes
DEDUCTION Hypotheses Substantiated? Research question Answered?

Variables clearly identified and labeled

9
Report Writing

10
Report Presentation

11
Managerial Decision Making

DETAILS OF STUDY
Purpose of the study Types of Investigation Establishing: -Causal relationships -Correlations -Group differences , ranks, etc. Extent of researcher Interference
Study setting

MEASUREMENT Measurement and measures Operational definition Items (measure) Scaling Categorizing Coding

PROBLEM STATMENT

Exploration Description Hypothesis testing

Minimal : Studying events as they nomally occur


Manipulation and/or Control and/or simulation

Contrived Noncontri ved

1.Feel for data

2.Goodness of data

Unit of analysis (population to be studied)

Sampling Design

Time Horizon

3.Hypothes es testing

Data-collection Method Observation Interview Questionnaire Physical Measurement Unobtrusive

Individuals Dyads Groups Organizations Machines etc.

Probability/ nonprobability Sample size (n)

One-shot (crosssectional) longitudinal