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Industrial Solid Waste - Toxic

Elective Pollution Impact And Remedies

Solid waste is classified as HAZARDOUS by ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) of the US if it exhibits:

IGNITABILITY - can burst into flames easily; can irritate the skin, eyes, and lungs; and may give off harmful vapors. Gasoline, paint, and furniture polish are ignitable.

CORROSIVITY - can wear away (corrode) or destroy a substance. For example, most acids are corrosives that can eat through metal, burn skin on contact, and give off vapors that burn the eyes.

REACTIVITY - can explode or create poisonous gas when combined with other chemicals.

Chlorine bleach and ammonia are reactive and create a poisonous gas when they come
into contact with each other.

TOXICITY - can poison people and other life. Toxic substances can cause illness and even death if swallowed or absorbed through the skin. Pesticides, weed killers, and many household cleaners are toxic.


When it rains on soil at a waste site, it can carry hazardous waste deeper into the ground and the underlying groundwater. A toxic substance can cause injury or death to a person, plant, or animal if: o o o o o A large amount is released at one time A small amount is released many times at the same place The substance does not become diluted The substance is very toxic (for example, arsenic) Coming into contact with a substance is called an exposure

The effects of exposure depends on: o o o o How the substance is used and disposed of Who is exposed to it The concentration, or dose, of exposure How long or how often someone is exposed

Humans, plants, and animals can be exposed to hazardous substances through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure

Solubility oil soluble chemicals are more likely to enter a cell and stay in body Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Bioaccumulation: selective absorption Biomagnification: movement of toxin from prey into predator Persistence Plastics, pesticides (DDT) are used because they "stay around" but also better chance of interaction with unintended organism Chemical Interactions Antagonistic, additive, synergistic

Industrial waste amounts to some 400 million metric tons per year in the United States. In India, there are 36,165 nos. of hazardous waste generating industries, generating 62,32,507 Metric Tonnes of hazardous wastes every year. The category-wise classification of this quantity is as follows.


1. Sumgayit, Azerbaijan

2. Linfen, China
3. Tianying, China 4. Sukinda, India Twelve chromite ore mines dump untreated water into the river, and over 30 million tons of waste rock have been dumped in the valley's riverbanks, which has resulted in severe water contamination. 5. Vapi, India There are over 100 industries covering over 1,000 acres in the region that has contaminated local produce. 6. La Oroya, Peru 7. Dzerzhinsk, Russia 8. Norilsk, Russia 9. Chernobyl, Ukraine

10. Kabwe, Zambia

compiled by the Technical Advisory Board of the Blacksmith Institute, an environmental NGO based in New York.

In 1976 the Toxic Substances Control Act required the Environmental Protection Agency to regulate potentially hazardous industrial chemicals

TRI (Toxics Release Inventory) Program-Listed

Chemicals total number of chemicals and chemical categories is 682

593 individually listed chemicals and 30 chemical

categories (including 3 delimited categories containing 62 chemicals)

CATEGORIZATION OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: Hazard code "E" : an aqueous extract contains contamination in excess of that allowed

(e.g., arsenic >5 mg/l; barium >0.100 mg/l; cadmium >1 mg/l; chromium >5 mg/l; lead >5
mg/l). "acute hazardous waste" with code H: fatal to humans in low doses or has been found to be fatal in corresponding human concentrations in laboratory animals.

hazard code "T: designates wastes which have been found through laboratory studies to
be a carcinogen, mutagen, or teratogen for humans or other life forms.


Any method, technique or, process designed to change the physical, chemical, or biological character or composition of the hazardous waste, so as to neutralize the waste or to make the waste less hazardous and thereby safer for transport, increase potential for recovery, reuse or storage, or to reduce waste volume. A two-tier approach (a) prevention (b) control of environmental pollution.

Prevention- A Waste Minimisation Approach Reduction and recycling of wastes are inevitably site/plant specific. Waste minimisation techniques can be grouped into four major categories which are applicable for hazardous as well as non-hazardous wastes. These groups are as follows :
Inventory Management and Improved Operations Inventorisation and tracing of all raw materials Purchasing of fewer toxic and more non-toxic production materials Implementation of employees training and management feedback Improving material receiving, storage, and handling practices Modification of Equipment Installation of equipment that produce minimal or no wastes Modification of equipment to enhance recovery or recycling options Redesigning of equipment or production lines to produce less waste Improving operating efficiency of equipment Maintaining strict preventive maintenance programme

Production Process Changes Substitution of non-hazardous for hazardous raw materials Segregation of wastes by type for recovery Elimination of sources of leaks and spills Separation of hazardous from non-hazardous wastes Redesigning or reformulation for products to be less hazardous Optimisation of reactions and raw material use

Recycling and Reuse Installation of closed-loop systems Recycling off site for use Exchange of wastes
Waste Management at Source simple, inexpensive measures modifying production processes, through changes in raw materials/product design and by employing recovery/recycling and reuse techniques


In the past there has been little control over the disposal of industrial wastes It has only been during the last decade that even developed countries have brought in legislation to curb the uncontrolled and environmentally unacceptable practices that were widespread.

The most predominant and widely practiced methods for wastes disposal are : (a) Landfill (b) Incineration Landfill: Least expensive and most widely used waste management option for both municipal and industrial waste percolating rainwater or snowmelt which eventually flows out from the bottom of the landfill site and moves into the local groundwater system. Leachate is a liquid that is formed as infiltrating water migrates through the waste material extracting water-soluble compounds and particulate matter. These leachates, can contain large amount of inorganic and organic contaminants.


Destruction of hazardous waste by thermal process using incinerator Burning of hazardous waste in boiler or in industrial furnace in order to destroy them and/or for any recycling purpose and/or energy source.

NEW TECHNOLOGIES The Superfund program was an attempt at a quick solution to a complex problem of hazardous waste treatment. By mid-1984, four years into the program, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) could point to only six hazardous waste sites that had been permanently cleaned up. Under the Superfund law, EPA was ordered to develop a list of more than 400 priority sites nationwide, at least one in each state. Waste dewatering Bioremediation

In situ chemical extraction

Vapor stripping Multiphase remediation

Waste dewatering efficient and effective treatment method used for waste volume reduction. A variety of treatment systems are employed to dewater waste - including belt presses, centrifuges, and other devices. Bioremediation methods to stimulate and enhance natural biological processes that break down hazardous organic chemicals into nontoxic substances. oil industry and several other industries have successfully demonstrated this approach, primarily for industrial sludges. success has been realized with a wide range of chemical species, especially chlorinated hydrocarbons. The technique entails adding nutrients, hydrogen peroxide, or other innocuous substances to contaminated wells in order to accelerate degradation and solubilization of hazardous materials. In situ chemical extraction used for industrial applications such as paper processing, metal ore beneficiation, and synthetic resin reactivation At hazardous waste sites, acidic or alkaline solutions injected into the soil, where they would react with waste materials and form new compounds containing the target metals or organic chemicals. The substances would then be flushed from the subsurface and collected at recovery wells.

Vapor stripping forced movement of air through soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds The resulting vapors rise through the soil and are collected on the surface

Multiphase remediation introducing contaminant removing chemicals into subsurface pools Although used by the petroleum industry to recover oil from subsurface reservoirs, multiphase remediation has yet to be used to remove pollutants from contaminated aquifers