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Examples of activities that involve a pushing force.

Examples of activities that involve a pulling force.

Examples of activities that involve both pulling and


Effect of a force.
Change the shape of an object

i) An object will change its shape when a force is exerted on it.

i) A force can change the direction of a moving object. ii) A force can make an object move fast or slowly. iii) A force can stop a moving object

Effect of a force
Move a stationary object

Change the motion of an object

A heavier object produce greater frictional force.

Affected by the weight of an object

Affected by the condition of the surface of the object FRICTION Rough surfaces such as sand paper and carpets produce greater frictional force. Smooth surfaces such as glass and rubber mats produce smaller frictional force. If two objects are pushed with the same force, the object that moves on a smooth surface moves faster due to the smaller frictional force.

This force opposes motion

A type of force

Produced when two surfaces in contact rub against each other

ADVANTAGES: a) It enables us to hold an object. b) It enables us to walk without slipping.

c) It enables a knife to be sharpened.

d) It enables us to light a match.

DISADVANTAGES: a) It makes a surface of an object wear out. b) It causes an object hard to move. c) It produces heat in the engine.


Every object that moves has speed. Speed shows how fast an object moves. An object which moves faster travels a longer distance in a given time. An object which moves faster takes a shorter time to travels in a given distance. To speed of an object can be calculated by using the following formula: Speed = Distance Time Examples : a) A lorry takes three hours to reach a destination of 240 km away. Speed = 240 = 80 km/hour 3 b) A toy car takes 2 minutes to travel a distance of 50 cm. Speed = 50 2 = 25 cm/min

Increasing and decreasing friction:

Ways to reduce friction


a) Using rollers or ball bearing b) Using lubricants such as oil , wax or grease. c) Using talcum powder or air cushion. d) Smoothing the surfaces. e) Using an aerodynamic shape.

a) Using rough materials. b) Making patterns on the surface.

Ways to increase friction

Microorganisms such as bacteria, moulds and yeast can caused food to spoil. Perishable foods like fish and vegetables turn bad faster compared to dried foods because the presence of water helps bacteria and fungi to grow


Spoilt food is unsuitable and unsafe to be eaten.

Food becomes spoilt when its texture, flavour and taste are damaged and change.

The conditions needed by microorganisms to grow are: a) Air b) water c) nutrient d) suitable temperature

e) Suitable acidity

Helps to slow down the spoilage of food A process which makes food keep longer


The concept of food preservation

The following are different types of food preservation: a) Drying This method removes water from food. It can be done by sunning food. This method can prevent the growth of microorganisms because bacteria and moulds cannot grow without the presence of water.

Fishes are dried in the Sun.

b) Smoking Food is preserved and flavoured through the use of smoke. The heat and aroma from the smoke dry and preserve food without cooking it.

Inside the smoke place

Fishes are smoked until they become dry.

C) Salting. Salt is used to preserve food such as fish, eggs and fruit. Salting can be done by soaking food in a concentrated salt solution. Salting can prevent the growth of microorganisms on food.

This process changes the taste and colour of food.


Salted fish
d) Pickling.

Salted egg

Pickling is the method of preserving food by placing it in a solution such as vinegar, salt or sugar.

Salt, sugar and vinegar solution retard the growth of bacteria and fungi on food.
Food that is preserved in this way has its taste and colour changed as well as its nutrient content reduced. Examples of food that can be preserved in this way are papayas, mangoes, guavas and chillies.

e) Cooling.
The temperature for cooling food is between 0C to 5 C. Low temperatures prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. Cooling does not kill bacteria but only prevents them from growing. Bacteria and fungi will be active again after food is taken out from the refrigerator so food must be cooked or eaten immediately. Food that can be preserved by cooling are vegetables and fruit. f)

Vacuum packing. This method of preserving food is done by keeping food in a condition without air. The steps involved in this method are: Food is kept in a plastic bag. The air inside the plastic bag is pumped out. The vacuum plastic bag is then sealed or tightly closed. Bacteria and fungi cannot breed without the presence of air. Food that can be preserved in this way includes roasted peanut fruits and biscuit.

g) Canning and bottling. This method involves the process of heating food to kill bacteria and storing it in airtight containers. This method enables food to be kept for a very long period up to a few years. Bacteria and fungi cannot breed without the presence of air. The steps involved in canning are: a) Food is cut and cleaned. b) The food is then heated or cooked. c) The food is kept in a can and heated again. d) The can is sealed when the food is still hot. SARDINES

h) Boiling. In this process, food is heated to the boiling point of water, that is 100C for 30 minutes. This temperature can kill microorganisms. Examples of food preserved by using this method are fruit, jelly and jam.


Freezing. In this method, food is kept at very low temperatures, as low as -15C. The very low temperature and lack of water prevent the growth of microorganisms. However, frozen food must be cooked immediately after taking out from the freezer because bacteria becomes active at room temperature.
Pasteurising In this process, food is heated to a specific temperature for a certain period. The taste and nutrient content of food do not change and can be maintained. This process is usually used for milk and fruit juice.



k) Waxing. Wax such as beeswax is coated onto surface of food such as fruit and vegetables. Wax is used to replace the natural wax produced by food and it can keep food dry. This method can increase the shelf life of food for more than two weeks.

The Importance of preserving food. To make food last longer. To store food easily. To reduce wastage of food. To ensure that food is safe for consumption. To protect food against microorganisms.

The Effects Of Improper Waste Disposal On The Environment.

anything that is not used anymore and needs to be thrown away or disposed off
The types of waste produced include: Produced every day.


a) Paper
b) Plastic c) Glass d) Metal e) Chemical waste

f) Organic waste

Improper Ways Of Waste Disposal

Improper ways of waste disposal
Cause bad effects
a) Not throwing

waste into rubbish

dumps such as dustbins.

Examples of improper ways of waste disposal

b) Throwing waste into drains or rivers. c) Open burning. d) Burying waste that is dangerous or does not decay such as plastic materials, glass and toxic wastes.

Waste Effect
Bad smell

Breeding place for germs and pest

Air pollution: It is cause by open burning , forest fires, releasing smoke from factories and vehicles.

Flash flood -The improper waste disposal will clog up the river and the drain that will prevent the flow of water. -The water will overflow into the land. -It will cause flash floods during heavy rain.

Effects of improper waste disposal

Acid rain -Smoke and gases that come from factories and vehicles dissolve in rain water to form acid. - It cause iron to become rusty.

Water Pollution -Rubbish and waste are thrown into the river , drain and sea. The sources of water become polluted. -The toxic waste can kill the aquatic animals. It will reduce the content of oxigen in the water.

Affect health - People will have respiratory problem

Garbage truck will collect waste

The waste is sent to landfill

The proper ways to dispose rubbish by local authority

Waste is also burnt in an incinerator

Use biodegradable plastic

Process the waste as food for farm animals

How to improve waste disposal

Reuse the recycle material

Waste Decay
Examples waste that can decay:
Food residues, paper boxes, newspaper, dead plants and dead animals. Advantages: * Prevents waste from piling up in the environment. * Add nutrients to the soil.

Examples of waste that cannot decay:

Glass, metal, plastic. Disadvantages: * Produces poisonous gases


Eclipse of the Moon..

The Phenomenon of an eclipse

Because of the following properties of light: a) Light travel in a straight Occurs when the Earth, the Moon and the Sun are in a straight line line. b) Light cannot pass through on opaque object.

An eclipse of the moon occurs when the Earth is between the Sun and the Moon.

During this eclipse , the Moon will appear dark because the Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the Moon.

An eclipse of the moon can only be observed at night.

An eclipse of the moon occurs during the phase of full moon.

An eclipse of the Moon occurs in stages as shown below:



V : No eclipse
W : Partial eclipse

X : Total eclipse

Y : Partial eclipse

Z : No eclipse

When the whole Moon is in the Earths darker shadow (position X), a total eclipse occurs.

When the Moon is in the Earths lighter shadow (position W and Y), a partial eclipse occurs.

Eclipse of the Sun

The eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon is between the Sun and The Earth in a straight line.

The Moon blocks sunlight from reaching the Earth.

The shadow of the Moon will cover a part of the Earths surface.


Earth w x y



W : Partial eclipse


Y : Partial eclipse

x : Total eclipse

Simple Machines..

The ancient Egyptians were very clever. They figured out how to use the lever. They built pyramids with stones that weighed a lot. Inclined planes helped to move them to the right spot. Why not use wheels? Im not certain. History sometimes holds mysteries behind a time curtain. Did the Egyptian invention work out? See a pyramid and you have no doubt

A device that allows us to use less force to do work. Help us to do work easily, quickly and conveniently.

Simple Machines
Types of simple machines: Lever Gear Screw Wheel and axle Inclined plan wedge



1. Pulley A pulley is a simple machine that uses grooved wheels and a rope to raise, lower or move a load.

2. Lever A lever is a stiff bar that rests on a support called

a fulcrum which lifts or moves loads.

3. Wedge A wedge is an object with at least one slanting side ending in a sharp edge, which cuts material apart.

4. Wheel & Axle A wheel with a rod, called an axle, through its center lifts or moves loads.

5. Inclined Plane An inclined plane is a slanting surface connecting a lower level to a higher level. 6. Screw A screw is an inclined plane wrapped around a pole which holds things together or lifts materials. 7. Gear Gear is a wheel with jagged edges like teeth. Use to change the speed

of object and change direction of


Complex Machines

Examples of Complex Machines

A tool that has more than one simple machine.
Hand drill Scissors Wedge, lever, Screw Wheelbarrow Lever, wheel and axle. Wedge, Screw, gear, wheel and axle