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INTRODUCTION : Control the breathing channels (valves) of an IC engine Connected to camshaft which is operated by crankshaft Cams push open

en valves at proper time & guide their closure Engineers could not vary timing, lift & duration of valve opening infinitely Eliminated mechanical linkages Could provide infinite variation of valve parameters

INTRODUCTION :-

WORKING OF CONVENTIONAL ENGINE:-

The crankshaft turns camshaft which operates valves by mechanism as in figure Spring brings back valve to initial position Timing of engine valves depends on shape of cams

CONVENTIONAL ENGINE VALVE:-

CONVENTIONAL ENGINE VALVE:-

Engineers must design cams in the development stages This design compromises b/n engine power & fuel efficiency Considering this compromise automobile companies brought variable valve timing mechanisms But is effects were limited

AN OVERVIEW OF CAMLESS ENGINE :ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT

SENSORS

ACTUATORS

ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CAMLESS VAVLE TRAIN (ECV) :-

HYDRAULIC PENDULUM:-

OPERATION OF HYDRAULIC PENDULUM:-

MODIFIER ROD: Used to impart Unequal lift to the paired valves Zero motion to any valve

UNEQUAL LIFT CONTROL OPERATION:-

ADVANTAGES OF CAMLESS ENGINE :-

Offers continuously variable & independent control of all aspects of valve motion - lift, operation duration, event of opening ECV system can control valve velocity, valve acceleration and deceleration

RESULTANT ADVANTAGES :-

Better fuel economy- 7 to 10 % increase Higher torque & power- 10 to 15 % increase Lower exhaust emissions- EGR system is eliminated since EGR effect occurs on its own & thus reduces NOx emissions Reduction in size & weight

DISADVANTAGES :Opening & closing of valves requires some powerElectromechanical- alternator Electrohydraulic- accumulator Sophisticated electronic control required for gentle seating of valves Current solenoids cannot run at high rpms; Hidden cost of microprocessor & software controls

CONCLUSION :1. The main difference between camless engine and conventional engine arose when we deal with the valve actuating methods in both of these engines. 2. In conventional engines the valves are actuated by using camshafts, lobes and gears. But in camless internal combustion engines all these are eliminated by using actuators like electro-hydraulic or electromechanical type by which we can overcome the problems with conventional i.c.engines. 3. The system employs the hydraulic pendulum principle, which contributes to low hydraulic energy consumption.

1. The electro hydraulic valve train is integral with the cylinder head, which lowers the head height and improves the engine packaging. 2. Review of the benefits expected from a camless engine points to substantial improvements in performance, fuel economy, and emissions over and above what is achievable in engines with camshaft-based valve trains. 3. The development of a camless engine with an electro hydraulic valve train described in this report is only a first step towards a complete engine optimization. Further research and development are needed to take full advantage of this system exceptional flexibility. 4. From all these we can conclude that by applying camless technology to internal combustion engines the overall performance