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FERMENTER DESIGN

BY:

ARUN KUMAR T M B090470CH S6 CH

INTRODUCTION
Fermenter Guidelines for fermenter design Requirements of a fermenter Parameters for fermenter design Gas transfer Heat transfer Nutrient transfer Aeration & agitation References

FERMENTER

Fermenter provide a suitable environment in which an organism can efficiently produce a target product, that might be: 1.Cell biomass 2.Metabolite 3.Bioconversion product The sizes of bioreactor can vary over several orders of magnitudes. 1.The microbial cell (few mm) 2.Shake flask (100-1000ml) 3.Laboratory fermenter (1-50 L) 4.Pilot scale (0.3-10 m) 5.Plant scale (2-500 m)

PARTS OF FERMENTER
1 Vessel 2.Impellers 3.Baffle 4.Sparger 5.Drain point 6.Shaft 7.Aseptic inoculation pipe 8.Sampling point

GUIDELINES FOR FERMENTER DESIGN AND OPERATION

Material: Stainless steel Height to diameter ratio of the vessel: 2 to 1 or 3 to 1 Impeller Two or three disk turbine impellers Diameter: 0.3 to 0.4 of tank diameter Agitation speed: 50 200 rpm Impeller shaft enters either from the top or bottom. Baffle Four equally spaced to prevent vortex formation Width: one tenth of the tank diameter Sparger Ring sparger (Single orifice for a small Fermenter) Heating or cooling coil For sterilization or to control the temperature

Cont.

-Agitation and aeration -Cell suspension -Enhance the aeration (oxygen limitation problem)

-Mixing
-Problem with shear-sensitive cells -Heating and cooling

-Sensors
-pH Control

DESIGN OF A FERMENTER

Factors to consider when designing a fermenter Aseptic and regulator capability, long-term reliability

Adequate aeration and agitation


Low power consumption Temperature and pH controls Sampling facilities

Cont..

Large volume & low value products


High value & low volume products

Productivity & yield


Product purification

Water management
Energy requirements

Waste treatment

REQUIREMENTS OF A FERMENTOR
The

vessel must be strong enough to withstand pressure vessel should not corrupt the fermentation product of growth of contaminating microorganism must be provided O2 Supply if fermentation is aerobic

The

Prevention

Efficient

Cont..

Addition of anti-foaming agent as demanded by the foaming state of the medium Fermenter should posses temperature Control Fermenter should posses a mechanism for detecting pH values of culture media There must be drain in the bottom of the fermenter

MIXING RELATED DESIGN ISSUES


Agitator selection. Power draw and torque calculations. Scale-up. Mechanical design. Blending performance (scale of agitation, turnovers-perminute, blend time, homogeneity). Heat removal, temperature field, possible heat damage. Solid-liquid mixing (just-suspended speed, settled solids fraction, cloud height).

Cont.. Reaction performance (productivity, selectivity). Surface motion, solids and gas drawdown. Shear rates and impact velocities, possible shear damage. Optimum feed locations. Substrate concentration field, nutrient starvation. Oxygen starvation or poisoning (local or global). CO2 or other product poisoning (local or global). pH control. Gas-liquid mixing (mass transfer, gas holdup, power factors).

PARAMETERS FOR THE FERMENTER DESIGN

Physical Parameters
Chemical Parameters Biochemical Parameters Biological Parameters

PHYSICAL PARAMETERS
1. 2.

3.
4. 5.

6.
7. 8.

9.
10.

Agitation power & speed Broth volume Color Density Foaming Gas flow rate & humidity Heat generation rate & transfer rate Liquid flow rate Temperature Osmotic pressure

CHEMICAL PARAMETERS
Amino acid 2. CO2 3. Cat ion level 4. Conductivity 5. Ionic strength 6. Malliard reaction products 7. Nitrogen 8. Nutrient composition 9. O2 10. Phosphorous
1.

BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

Amino acids ATP/ADP/AMP Carbohydrates Cell mass composition Enzyme NAD/NADH Vitamins & nucleic acid

BIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS

Age distribution Aggregation & contamination Genetic instability Mutation Total cell count Degeneration Doubling time

GAS TRANSFER

The theory of gas transfer refers to a process where the gaseous form of a compound is eventually dissolved into or driven out of the water .The rate at which the gas is transferred from air to water or vice versa is proportional to the area of the gas-liquid interface and the difference between saturation concentration and the actual concentration in the water. These dictate both the direction and rate of gas transfer at the gas-water interface.

The availability of the oxygen to the biological system depends upon:

1.Solubility 2.Mass transfer rate of oxygen in the fermentation broth 3.Rate of utilization of DO by microbial biomass

Solubility decreases as temperature or salinity increases. For example, the saturation level of dissolved oxygen is lower in warmwater than coldwater systems. Gas solubility increases as the total pressure (sum of atmospheric and hydrostatic pressure) or mole fraction increases. In other words, the saturation level increases as the total pressure of the system increases. The rate of dissolution of a gas into water is proportional to: The difference between actual and saturation concentrations of the gas in solution, Cs C The area of the gas-liquid interface, a(m) The thickness of the liquid fi lm, d The diffusion coefficient, D

dC/dt = KL . a . (Cs C)
Where: dC/dt = rate of gas transfer KL . a = overall mass transfer coefficient

DETERMINATION OF OXYGEN TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS

KLa =no2/(C* CL )-------1.)


Sodium sulfite oxidation method Dynamic method Direct method

Oxygen yield coefficient method

SODIUM SULFITE OXIDATION METHOD

This method employs the oxidation of sodium sulfite by oxygen in the presence of copper or cobalt which act as catalyst.

NaSO3 + O2

Na2SO4

To find KLa by this method, air is sparged through a 1 N Na2SO3

solution in the presence of copper ions at a conc. Of 10 M & mechanical agitation.

The conc. Of dissolved oxygen in the liquid is nearly zero since the oxidation reaction is extremely fast. Therefore,

KLa = no /C*
2

Where,

no2 =rate of oxygen transfer


C*=saturation dissolved oxygen conc. in solution

DYNAMIC METHOD

This method is the simplest one since it requires only the dynamic oxygen balance in a batch culture, which has the following form

dCL/dt = KL . a . (C* CL)-Qo2X


Where

Qo2X=rate of oxygen consumption per unit mass of


cell

This method contains three versions: Addition of lethal agent The gassing out method Dynamic oxygen balance Frequency response technique

Therefore, KLa can be calculated as:

KLa = Qo2X/ C* CL

DIRECT METHOD

This method based upon oxygen balance in inlet & outlet gas streams around a fermenter. oxygen balance for the sparged air yields

no2.T = 1/VL(no2.i no2.o)


Where

no2.T = rate of oxygen transfer


VL=volume of fermentation broth The dissolved & saturated oxygen conc., CL & C*, need to be measured experimentally in order to determine KLa

C* can be calculated from the partial pressure of oxygen in the exit gas stream in small scale fermenter.

Cont.

But in large scale fermenter, the assumption of a perfectly mixed gas stream may not be valid. So, the log.

mean of the driving force i.e.,(C* CL)log.mean, between the inlet & outlet of the fermenter should be used in the following equation determining KLa,

KLa = no2.T/ (C* CL)log.mean

OXYGEN YIELD COEFFICIENT METHOD

The rate of oxygen transfer can be related to the growth rate of microorganism using the Oxygen yield coefficient according to the following eq.

no2.T = uX/Yo2

Where U = specific growth rate of microorganism X = cell conc.

Yo2 = yield coefficient of oxygen

no2.T = oxygen transfer rate


Once no2.T is determined by this equation then equation 1.) can be used to calculate the KLa provided that the dissolved oxygen conc. is measured.

HEAT TRANSFER
Efficient heat transfer is important in controlling the temperature during sterilization operations Heat generated in the fermentor needs to be dissipated by cooling Optimum temp. should be maintain in the fermentor This can be achieved by:

External jackets Internal coils External surface heat exchanger

TRANSPORT OF NUTRIENT

Transport of reactants to & from phase to the biological component has a significant impact on the performance of the reactor.

It is affected if the rate of the transport of the limiting nutrients is slower than the rate of utilization by the cells.

AERATION AND AGITATION

The primary purpose of aeration is to provide microorganism in submerged culture with sufficient oxygen for metabolic requirements. Agitation should ensure that a uniform suspension of microbial cells is achieved in a homogenous nutrient medium. The structural components are: -- Impellers -- Baffles -- Spargers -- Stirrer gland

IMPELLERS

Impeller types can be radial, mixed flow, axial and peripheral and are selected on the basis of the pump design and the application. The number of vanes will affect the efficiency, in general more vanes are more efficient.. The agitator is required to achieve a no. of mixing objectives ex..bulk fluid & gas phase mixing, oxygen transfer, heat transfer, air dispersion & maintaining a uniform environment through out the vessel contents.

SPARGER

What is a Sparger? Sparger is a technical term for injecting gas into a liquid or for spraying a liquid onto a solid. Spargers are porous disc or tube assemblies that are also referred to as Bubblers, Carbonators, Aerators, Porous Stones and Diffusers. Porous Metal Spargers are widely used in Gas-Liquid contacting applications that affect everyday living. A common example of sparging can be seen in an aquarium where air is bubbled into the tank through a fine porous stone in order to maintain the level of the dissolved oxygen in the water..

Cont. Types of spargers:


Porous Orifice Nozzle Combined

sparger

sparger- agitator

Typical sparger installation

BAFFLES
Four

baffles are normally incorporated into vessel of all sizes to prevent a vortex & to improve aeration efficiency. agitation increased with wider baffles but drops sharply with narrow baffles.

The

STIRRER GLAND

The satisfactory sealing of the stirrer shaft assembly has been one of the most difficult problems to overcome in the construction of fermentation equipment which can be operated aseptically for long periods.

Types of stirrer glands:


Stuffing box Simple bush seal Mechanical seal Magnetic drive

REFERENCES

Principles of fermentation technology, 2nd edition by P.F.STANBURY & A.WHITAKER Bioprocess engineering, basic concepts, 2nd edition by M.L.SHULER & F.KARGI ebook.com www.google.com

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