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ISO 17799

InfoSec: Can you dig it?

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Introduction and Purpose Risk Assessment, Controls and Guiding Principles Success Factors Examples of it in terms of InfoSec Policy and Organizational Security Implementing an Information Security Management Systems Environment Gaining ISO17799 Certification: A Blue Print Using the SANS auditing template A risk assessment with ISO17799 Pitfalls Conclusion and Questions

Is it ISO or just BS?

International Standard ISO/IEC 17799 was prepared by the British Standards Institution (as BS 7799) and was adopted, under a special fast-track procedure, by Joint Technical Committee ISO/IEC JTC 1, Information technology, in parallel with its approval by national bodies of ISO and IEC. Provides common approaches to manage risks Not applicable to every system and not always practical in smaller organizations

ISO17799 BS17799

ISO 17799:2000

BS 7799-2:2002

Code of Practice For Information Security Management Best practices framework From 7.2.1, Equipment siting and protection: Equipment should be sited or protected to reduce the risks from environmental threats.

Information Security Management Systems Specification With Guidance For Use Auditing specification From 7.2.1, Equipment shall be sited or protected. ISO has begun the study period of BS 7799-2:2002 towards adoption

10 Areas: To have and to hold

Security policy: Adopting a security process that outlines an organization's expectations for security, which can then demonstrate management's support and commitment to security. Security organization: Having a management structure for security, including appointing security coordinators, delegating security management responsibilities and establishing a security incident response process. Asset classification and control: Conducting a detailed assessment and inventory of an organization's information infrastructure and information assets to determine an appropriate level of security. Personnel security: Making security a key component of the human resources and business operations. This includes writing security expectations in job responsibilities (IT admins and end users), screening new personnel for criminal histories, using confidentiality agreements when dealing with sensitive information and having a reporting process for security incidents. Physical and environmental security: Establishing a policy that protects the IT infrastructure, physical plant and employees. This includes controlling building access, having backup power supplies, performing routine equipment maintenance and securing off-site equipment.

10 Areas: To have and to hold

Communications and operations management: Preventing security incidents by implementing preventive measures, such as using antivirus protection, maintaining and monitoring logs, securing remote connections and having incident response procedures. Access control: Protecting against internal abuses and external intrusions by controlling access to network and application resources through such measures as password management, authentication and event logging. Systems development and maintenance: Ensuring that security is an integral part of any network deployment or expansion, and that existing systems are properly maintained. Business continuity management: Planning for disasters--natural and man-made--and recovering from them. Compliance: Complying with any applicable regulatory and legal requirements, such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) and cryptography export controls.

Need for Security

Establishing Security Requirements


main sources

Risk Assessment identified, evaluated and estimated Legal, Statutory, Regulatory contractual requirements the organization must fill Principle and Objectives requirements to support operations

Assessing Risks

Risk Assessment

Considered on a systematic basis

Business impact to CIA Likelihood of impact threat vs controls

Guides and determines actions and priorities

Process of selecting controls is iterative per business unit and system Reviews based on

Changing business requirements New threats and vulnerabilities Confirmation that current controls are effective

Assessments performed at a high level and then more specifically for detailed risk.

Selecting Controls

Should be selected based on a cost benefit analysis.


$1000.00 fence around a $50.00 asset.

Reputation should also be a factor in that decision.

InfoSec Guiding Principles

Two Points of View

Legislative InfoSec Best Practice

Data protection and privacy of personal information b) Safeguarding of organizational records c) Intellectual property rights

InfoSec Guiding Principles

InfoSec Best Practices

a) b) c) d) e)

Information security policy document Allocation of information security responsibilities Information security education and training Reporting security incidents Business continuity management

*Note: These are suggestions and should only be implemented based upon the risk assessment.

Code of Practice
71 Pages of Security Management Goodness Similar to CISSP and derived partially from TCSEC, Common Criteria. Its apparent in the requirements Some of it is infeasible and is a utopian organization, politics acceptance changing culture.

Critical Success Factors

The following is a list of factors which are found to be essential to the implementation of InfoSec at an organization
Security policy, objectives and activities that reflect business objectives An approach to implementing security that is consistent with the organizational culture* 3. Visible support and commitment from management* 4. A good understanding of the security requirements, risk assessment and risk management 5. Effective marketing of security to all managers and employees 6. Distribution of guidance on information security policy and standards to all employees and contractors 7. Providing appropriate training and education* 8. A comprehensive and balanced system of measurement which is used to evaluate performance in information security management and feedback suggestions for improvement. *Most important factors.
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A brief peek inside

Information Security Policy Organizational Security

Information Security Policy

To provide management direction and support for information security. A policy document should be approved by management, published and communicated, as appropriate, to all employees. It should state management commitment and set out the organizations approach to managing information security. Policy owner should periodically review the policy; on effectiveness, efficiency and controls.

Information Security Policy

Essential Requirements:

of InfoSec, objectives and scope. Management statement of support. Definition of responsibilities of management in InfoSec. Brief explanation of policies, principles standards and compliance. References to documents that support the policy with details for specific systems.

Organizational Security
A management framework should be established to initiate and control the implementation of information security within the organization. Details


Information Security Forum

Requires a Champion to lead it. Reviews, Monitors and Approves

Responsibilities, incidents, threats enhancements

Organizational Security

Information security co-ordination


functional forum of management reps (geared at large company)

Assigns roles and responsibilities Agrees on methodology and process Supports awareness programs Assures security a place in the SDLC and planning Evaluates implementations of controls Review incidents Give infoSec high visibility

Organizational Security

Allocation of information security responsibilities



Ex. Appoint an owner for each information asset and its dayto-day operations. It can then be further delegated, but owner takes responsibility. Clearly identify and define security processes for each system Responsibility should be documented and agreed in some kind of SLA Clearly define authorization levels.


Organizational Security

Authorization process for information processing facilities


management authorization process for new information processing facilities should be established. Controls to be considered

User management, hardware and software compatibility, personal information processing facilities

Specialist information security advice


by internal or external security specialists at the onset of an incident. He/she will coordinate in-house knowledge and experience to ensure consistency.

Organizational Security

Co-operation between organizations

Appropriate contacts with law enforcement authorities, regulatory bodies, information service providers and telecommunications operators should be maintained Membership of security groups and industry forums should be considered. Exchanges of security information should be restricted to ensure that confidential information of the organization is not passed to unauthorized persons. The Information Security Policy should receive independent reviews from a third party. (Internal auditor, manager or specializing third party)

Independent review of information security

Organizational Security

Security of third party access

To maintain the security of organizational information processing facilities and information assets accessed by third parties. Identification of risks from third party access

Two Types


Physical access, e.g. to offices, computer rooms, filing cabinets; Logical access, e.g. to an organizations databases, information systems. Provide services to an organization and are not located onsite but may be given physical and logical access

Reasons for access

Organizational Security

Security requirements in third party contracts


InfoSec policy, Procedures and controls for asset protection, Integrity and Availability, NDA, liability etc.


maintain the security of information when the responsibility for information processing has been outsourced to another organization.

Organizational Security

Asset classification and control

Accountability for assets To maintain appropriate protection of organizational assets. All major information assets should be accounted for and have a nominated owner. Accountability ensures appropriate protection is maintained. Owners should be identified for all major assets and the responsibility for the maintenance of appropriate controls should be assigned. Responsibility for implementing controls may be delegated. Accountability should remain with the nominated owner of the asset.

Information Security Management System (ISMS)

Manage and maintain secure information system environment

A framework to facilitate a relationship between processes and products. Implementation and maintenance or process and procedures; and must address the following,
ID InfoSec needs Strategy to meet those needs Measurement of results Improving strategies over time

Approach must be Hollistic

Human Technology Process

PDCA Model Applied to ISMS

Plan (establish the ISMS)

Establish security policy, objectives, targets, processes and procedures relevant to managing risk and improving information security to deliver results in accordance with an organizations overall policies and objectives.

Do (implement and operate the ISMS)

Implement and operate the security policy, controls, processes and procedures.
Assess and, where applicable, measure process performance against security policy, objectives and practical experience and report the results to management for review. Take corrective and preventive actions, based on the results of the management review, to achieve continual improvement of the ISMS.

Check (monitor and review the ISMS)

Act (maintain and improve the ISMS)

PDCA Model Applied to ISMS


Defining Scope and Relationships

Identifying Intangible Assets


Process ISMS security policy forms the basis of the process

Two phase approach

Planning Implementation the controls or guidelines as provided by ISO17799.

Assess whether the guidelines apply Third party audit

First step: pick a process

Implement process ex. New employee screening Then check to see if all new employees are screened Plan-Do-Check-Act Iterative process that requires feedback Must be tailored to fit

Second step: check for compliance


Product ISMS

of software products

Third party eval Software is subject to detailed series of tests Ex. TCSEC B2
For example, Class B2: Structured Protection Trusted Oracle8i was evaluated EAL4 under the Common Criteria (CC 2002)


Certified product categories protection class/control area

ISMS Protection Classes

Implementation of the controls in each one of the ten sections of ISO17799.

You can define 4 classes of protection

Class 1: Inadequate protection Sections of a code-of-practice will be classified in this class if no effort was made by the organization to implement any of the recommended controls for their specific requirements. This is the lowest class. Certified products Do not have any influence on the classification of sections on this level. Class 2: Minimal protection If minimal effort was put into implementing some of the recommended controls, it will be possible to classify some sections in this class. The same requirement as for Class 1 is applicable for the code-of-practice controls in some of the sections. Certified products do not have any influence on the classification of sections on this level either.


Class 3: Reasonable protection The same requirement as for Class 2 is applicable for the code-of-practice controls in some of the sections. The majority of the sections must satisfy additional requirements based on implemented processes and procedures to prove that the recommended controls from the code-of-practice are implemented on a reasonable level. Some sections have an additional requirement for certified products to be used. Class 4: Adequate protection For a section to be classified as adequately protected, it must be verifiable that considerable effort was made to implement the complete set of recommended controls for the section. This implies full compliance to a code-of practice for that specific section. Furthermore, the majority of sections have an additional requirement that certified products, in all the product categories, must be implemented to illustrate adequate protection. If there are no related product categories for an ISO17799 section, it is possible for that section to advance to this class in the absence of certified products.


Illustration of protection classes

ISO17799 A Blue Print

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Client board decides to implement Senior Management must visually commit to adopting the standard Decide InfoSec Policy InfoSec policy once adopted must be furnished to all trained employees Senior Mngmt then decides which business units will be offered up for certification The orgs scope fo rthis project produces an SMS Scope Doc The Risk Assessment (RA) is carried out for the Scope Doc(ID asset , threat , vuln.).= RA doc




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Org decides risk approach and determines acceptable degree of risk Org must decide to how to manage the idd risk so that residual deg. of risk is within acceptable limits. Once action, accountability and ownership are established, it is documented Controls to required to reduce risk to acceptable levels are identified. Controls selected from ISO17799 and documented Selected controls must be traceable to the risk they address. This is documented in the Statement of Acceptibality (SoA)

Achieving ISO Compliance

ISO17799 A Blue Print

Sans Auditing Template

10 Areas of Audit
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Security Policy Organizational Security Asset Classification and Control Personnel Security Physical and Environmental Security Communications and Operations Management Access Control System Development and Maintenance Business Continuity Planning Compliance

36 Control Objectives 127 Controls

Sans Auditing Template

ISO17799: The world is not enough

The standard's flexibility, however, is also its Achilles' heel. Critics say ISO 17799 is too vague and too loosely structured to have any real value. In some cases, they charge, the standard could inadvertently give an organization a false sense of security.
Lawrence Walsh, Information Security Magazine

Mile Wide and an Inch Deep

BSI says 7799 was never intended to be a technical standard. Unlike other security standards--such as the Commonly Accepted Security Practices and Regulations (CASPR) or ISO 15408/Common Criteria-ISO 17799 provides a broad, nontechnical framework for protecting information in any form.

No certification portion as in PII of BS17799 Meant for any organization: rarely is that possible Rarely attempts to provide guidance in evaluating or understanding existing security measures.

Doesnt discuss pros and cons of different controls No common sense advice (dont enable all defaults) Expensive and short on methodology

Future of ISO17799

Most U.S. public companies will need to seriously manage the security of their information assets

and intangible People, process, technology

ISO 17799 compliance will be necessary to play in many markets for U.S. informationintensive businesses ISO 17799 certification will be a discriminator