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8D Problem Soving

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3/20/12

What is 8Ds
v The 8D Problem Solving (Eight Disciplines) approach can be used to identify, correct and eliminate the recurrence of quality problems. v It is a methodology for product and process improvement which is structured into eight disciplines emphasizing team synergy. v The team as a whole is believed to be better and smarter than the quality sum of individuals. 8D or TOPS 8D v 8D is also known as: Global 8D, Ford 3/20/12

Origin of 8D
The U.S. Government first used an 8D like process during the Second World War referring it as Military Standard 1520. The standard focused on nonconforming material and the disposition of the material. The FORD motor Company first documented the 8D method in 1987 in a course manual entitled Team Oriented Problem Solving. The course was written at the request of the senior management of the Power Train organization of Ford, 3/20/12 which was facing

Usage/Applications
Major Non-Conformance Areas Customer Complaints Reoccurring Issues Team Approach Needed
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Steps In 8D Problem Solving Process


D1: Establish the Team Assemble a CrossFunctional Team that has the knowledge, time, authority and skill to solve the problem and implement corrective actions. D2: Describe the Problem Define the problem in measureable terms. Specify the internal and external customer problems in specific Quantifiable terms. Who, what, When, 3/20/12 where, why (5 whys).

D5: Choose & Verify Corrective Actions Confirm that the selected corrective actions will resolve the problem for the customer and will not cause undesirable side effects. D6: Implement & Validate Permanent Corrective Actions Choose ongoing controls to ensure the root cause is eliminated. Monitor the long term effects and implement additional controls and contingency actions as necessary. D7: Prevent Recurrence Identity and implement steps that need to be taken to prevent the similar problems from occurring in future. D8: Congratulate the Team Recognize the collective efforts of your team, publicize your achievement and share your knowledge and learning throughout the organization.
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Is / Is Not Approach
8D is a counterintuitive approach to problem solving. As a problem is encountered, it intuitively try solutions to uncover what the root cause Is. 8D also takes the opposite approach by removing possible causes that are not contributors. The Is Not approach limits the number of trial and error attempts at fixing the problem. 8D achieves this by defining the problem with increasing detail based on facts as they are available. The problem description is the result of a scientific study of; what, where, when and how much. The Q-1 method develops theories with collected facts after removing possible causes not agreeing with the problem description. These root cause theories are compared to the problem description prior to physical verification. 3/20/12

G8D
Many disciplines are typically involved in the "8D" process, such as, "Is/Is Not" worksheet is a common tool employed at D2, and Ishikawa, or "fishbone," diagrams and "5-why analysis" are common tools employed at step D4. In the late 1990s, Ford developed a revised version of the 8D process, that they call "Global 8D" (G8D) which is the current global standard for Ford and many other companies in the automotive supply chain. The major revisions to the process are as follows: Addition of a D0 (D-Zero) step as a gateway to the process. At D0, the team documents the symptoms 3/20/12 that initiated the effort along with any emergency