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# Chapter 8

Chapter 8

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary
5 4 (A) t n e r u C 3 2 1 0 0 2 6 4 Voltage (V) 8 10

Voltage sources
An ideal voltage source plots a vertical line on the VI characteristic as shown for the ideal 6.0 V source. Actual voltage sources include the internal source resistance, which can drop a small voltage under load. The characteristic of a nonideal source is not vertical.
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Voltage sources
A practical voltage source is drawn as an ideal source in series with the source resistance. When the internal resistance is zero, the source reduces to an ideal one.
RS VS +

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Voltage sources
If the source resistance of a 5.0 V power supply is 0.5 , what is the voltage across a 68 load?
RS VOUT RL 68

## Use the voltage-divider equation:

VS + 5.0 V

0.5

RL VL = VS RL + RS 68 = 5 V = 4.96 V 68 + 0.5
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary
5 4 (A) t n e r u C 3 2 1 0 0 2 6 4 Voltage (V) 8 10

Current sources
An ideal current source plots a horizontal line on the VI characteristic as shown for the ideal 4.0 mA source. current sources Practical have internal source resistance, which takes some of the current. The characteristic of a practical source is not horizontal.
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Current sources
A practical current source is drawn as an ideal source with a parallel source resistance. When the source resistance is infinite, the current source is ideal.

IS

RS

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Current sources
If the source resistance of a 10 mA current source is 4.7 k, what is the voltage across a 100 load? Use the current-divider equation:

## RS IL = IS RL + RS 4.7 k = 10 mA = 9.8 mA 100 + 4.7 k

Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

IS 10 mA

RS 4.7 k

RL 100

Chapter 8

Summary

Source conversions
Any voltage source with an internal resistance can be converted to an equivalent current source and viceversa by applying Ohms law to the source. The source resistance, RS, is the same for both. To convert a voltage source to a current source, I S =
VS RS

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Superposition theorem
The superposition theorem is a way to determine currents and voltages in a linear circuit that has multiple sources by taking one source at a time and algebraically summing the results. What does the ammeter read for I2? (See next slide for the method and the answer).
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

R
S 1

R k I2
+ -

. 8

. 7

. 8 V 8

k V

Chapter 8

Summary
R
S 1 1

## What does the ammeter read for I2?

-

R k I2
+ 1.56 mA -

. 8

Source 1: RT(S1)= 6.10 k I1= 1.97 mA I2= 0.98 mA Source 2: RT(S2)= 8.73 k I3= 2.06 mA I2= 0.58 mA Both sources I2= 1.56 mA The total current is the algebraic sum.
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall

Set up a table of pertinent information and solve for each quantity listed:

. 7

. 8 V 8

k V

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem Thevenins theorem states that any two-terminal, resistive circuit can be replaced with a simple equivalent circuit when viewed from two output terminals. The equivalent circuit is:

R V
T H

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem VTH is defined as the open circuit voltage between the two output terminals of a circuit. RTH is defined as the total resistance appearing between the two output terminals when all sources have been replaced by their internal resistances.

R V
T H

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem What is the Thevenin voltage for the circuit? 8.76 V What is the Thevenin resistance for the circuit? 7.30 k
R V
S 1

Output terminals

1 V

0 k 2
R
2

7 k

8 k

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem Thevenins theorem is useful for solving the Wheatstone bridge. One way to Thevenize the bridge is to create two Thevenin circuits from A to ground and from B to ground. The resistance between point A R1 R2 VS and ground is R1||R3 and the + RL A B resistance from B to ground is R2||R4. The voltage on each R3 R4 side of the bridge is found using the voltage divider rule.

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem For the bridge shown, R1||R3 = 165 and R2|| 179 voltage from A to ground (with R4 = . The 7.5 V no load) is and from B to ground (with no load) is . 6.87 V R R
VS

+15 V

+ -

330

A R3 330

RL 150

390

B R4 330

The Thevenin circuits for each of the bridge are shown on the following slide.
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall

Chapter 8

Summary

Thevenins theorem
RTH A RL VTH 7.5 V 165 150 ' B RTH 179

## ' VTH 6.87 V

Putting the load on the Thevenin circuits and applying the superposition theorem allows you to calculate the load current. The load current is: 1.27 mA

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8
Nortons theorem

Summary

Nortons theorem states that any two-terminal, resistive circuit can be replaced with a simple equivalent circuit when viewed from two output terminals. The equivalent circuit is:

IN

RN

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8
Nortons theorem

Summary

IN is defined as the output current when the output terminals are shorted. RN is defined as the total resistance appearing between the two output terminals when all sources have been replaced by their internal resistances.

IN

RN

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8
Nortons theorem

Summary

What is the Norton current for the circuit? 17.9 mA What is the Norton resistance for the circuit? 359

R1 VS + 10 V 560

Output terminals

R2 1.0 k

RL 820

## The Norton circuit is shown on the following slide.

Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall

Chapter 8
Nortons theorem

Summary

IN 17.9 mA

RN 359

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

Maximum power transfer The maximum power is transferred from a source to a load when the load resistance is equal to the internal source resistance.
RS VS + RL

The maximum power transfer theorem assumes the source voltage and resistance are fixed.
Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd Copyright 2006 Prentice-Hall

Chapter 8

Summary

Maximum power transfer What is the power delivered to the matching load?
RS

## The voltage to the load is 5.0 V. The power delivered is

V 2 ( 5.0 V ) PL = = = 0.5 W RL 50
2

VS + 10 V

50 RL 50

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

-to-Y and Y-to- conversion The -to-Y and Y-to- conversion formulas allow a three terminal resistive network to be replaced with an equivalent network. RC For the -to-Y conversion, each resistor in the Y is equal to the product of the resistors in the two adjacent branches divided by the sum of all three resistors.

RA

R1

R3

R2 RB

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Summary

-to-Y and Y-to- conversion The -to-Y and Y-to- conversion formulas allow a three terminal resistive network to be replaced with an equivalent network. R
C

For the Y-to- conversion, each resistor in the is equal to the sum of all products of Y resistors, taken two RA at a time divided by the opposite Y resistor.

R1

R3

R2

RB

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Key Terms

Current source A device that ideally provides a constant value of current regardless of the load. Maximum power Transfer of maximum power from a source transfer to a load occurs when the load resistance equals the internal source resistance. Nortons A method for simplifying a two-terminal linear theorem circuit to an equivalent circuit with only a current source in parallel with a resistance. Superposition A method for analysis of circuits with more theorem than one source.

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Key Terms

Terminal The concept that when any given load is equivalency connected to two sources, the same load voltage and current are produced by both sources. Thevenins A method for simplifying a two-terminal linear theorem circuit to an equivalent circuit with only a voltage source in series with a resistance. Voltage source A device that ideally provides a constant value of voltage regardless of the load.

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

1. The source resistance from a 1.50 V D-cell is 1.5 . The voltage that appears across a 75 load will be a. 1.47 V b. 1.50 V c. 1.53 V d. 1.60 V
VS + 1.5 V RS 1.5 RL 75 VOUT

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

2. The internal resistance of an ideal current source a. is 0 b. is 1 c. is infinite d. depends on the source

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

3. The superposition theorem cannot be applied to a. circuits with more than two sources b. nonlinear circuits c. circuits with current sources d. ideal sources

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

4. A Thevenin circuit is a a. resistor in series with a voltage source b. resistor in parallel with a voltage source c. resistor in series with a current source d. resistor in parallel with a current source

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

4. A Norton circuit is a a. resistor in series with a voltage source b. resistor in parallel with a voltage source c. resistor in series with a current source d. resistor in parallel with a current source

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

5. A signal generator has an output voltage of 2.0 V with no load. When a 600 load is connected to it, the output drops to 1.0 V. The Thevenin resistance of the generator is a. 300 b. 600 c. 900 d. 1200 .

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

6. A signal generator has an output voltage of 2.0 V with no load. When a 600 load is connected to it, the output drops to 1.0 V. The Thevenin voltage of the generator is a. 1.0 V b. 2.0 V c. 4.0 V d. not enough information to tell.

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

7. A Wheatstone bridge is shown with the Thevenin circuit as viewed with respect to ground. The total Thevenin resistance (RTH + RTH) is R1 R2 a. 320 b. 500 c. 820 d. 3.47 k.
RTH VTH RL ' RTH VS + 1.0 k A R3 1.0 k RL 100 B R4 470

1.0 k

' VTH

Chapter 8

Quiz

## 8. The Norton current for the circuit is a. 5.0 mA b. 6.67 mA c. 8.33 mA d. 10 mA

VS + 10 V R1 1.0 k R2 1.0 k RL 1.0 k

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

9. The Norton resistance for the circuit is a. 500 b. 1.0 k c. 1.5 k d. 2.0 k
VS + 10 V R1 1.0 k R2 1.0 k RL 1.0 k

## Principles of Electric Circuits - Floyd

Chapter 8

Quiz

10. Maximum power is transferred from a fixed source when a. the load resistor is the source resistance b. the load resistor is equal to the source resistance c. the load resistor is twice the source resistance d. none of the above