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Introduction to 3G

Introduction to 3G

Introduction to 3G
OBJECTIVES
After this module the participant shall be able to : Understand the Evolution to 3G with its key characteristics. Understand the Genesis of UMTS. Understand UMTS key features, requirements,QoS classes. Understand GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture.

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Introduction to 3G

Introduction to 3G
1.1. Evolution to 3G
1.1.1 Requirements of 3G 1.1.2 3G key characteristics

1.2. Genesis of UMTS 1.3. UMTS Key features 1.4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture

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Introduction to 3G

Evolution to 3G
3G or third generation technology services provide the ability to transfer voice ,video and data. The main reason for the change is basically the limited capacity of the existing 2G networks 3G wireless networks are the evolution of wide area cellular telephone networks which hope to incorporate high-speed internet access and video telephony to these networks.

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Requirements of 3G

Introduction to 3G

The basic requirement to 3G by ITU is that it must provide both voice communication and multi-media data services. In an indoor, outdoor low-speed and high-speed moving environment at a data rate of 2Mbps, 384Kbps, and 144Kbps, respectively. With high service quality, high frequency efficiency and low cost.

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Introduction to 3G

The detailed requirements are


Usability on all popular modes (cellular telephone, e-mail, paging, fax, video conference, and Web browsing) High speed data transmission (upwards of 2 Mbps) Routing flexibility (repeater, satellite, LAN) Operation at approximately 2 GHz transmit and receive frequencies Roaming capability worldwide

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Introduction to 3G

3G Key Characteristics
The most significant characteristic offered by third generation (3G) mobile technologies are the momentous capacity and broadband capabilities to support greater numbers of voice and data customers especially in urban centers - plus higher data rates at lower incremental cost than 2G. By using the radio spectrum in bands identified which is provided by the ITU for Third Generation IMT-2000 mobile services, it subsequently licensed to operators, 3G uses 5 MHz channel carrier width to deliver significantly higher data rates and increased capacity compared with 2G networks.

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Introduction to 3G

The 5 MHz channel carrier provides optimum use of radio resources for operators who have been granted large, contiguous blocks of spectrum. On the other hand, it also helps to reduce the cost of 3G networks while having the capability of providing extremely highspeed data transmission to users. Besides that, it also allows the transmission of 384kbps for mobile systems and 2Mbps for stationary systems. 3G users are expected to have greater capacity and improved spectrum efficiency which allows them to access the global roaming between different 3G networking.
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Introduction to 3G

The bandwidth and location information available to 3G devices gives rise to applications not previously available to mobile phone users. Some of the applications are: Mobile TV a provider redirects a TV channel directly to the subscriber's phone where it can be watched. Video on demand a provider sends a movie to the subscriber's phone. Video conferencing subscribers can see as well as talk to each other. Tele-medicine a medical provider monitors or provides advice to the potentially isolated subscriber. Location-based services a provider sends localized weather or traffic conditions to the phone, or the phone allows the subscriber to find nearby businesses or friends
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3G Optimization and Quality Workshop

Introduction to 3G

Introduction to 3G
1.1. Evolution to 3G

1.2. Genesis of UMTS 1.2.1. History of UMTS 1.2.2. UMTS requirements on 3G 1.2.3. UMTS versus GSM/GPRS 1.3. UMTS Key features
1.4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture

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History of UMTS

Introduction to 3G

Vision of a single 3rd Generation standard allowing worldwide roaming ITU (International Telecommunication Union) defined concept for IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications at 2000 MHz) requirements unified proposals from different regional standardization bodies IMT-2000 is a family of compatible systems multimode terminals will be able to access all of them "compatible" means roaming same, personalized, services UMTS is a member of the IMT-2000 family

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Introduction to 3G

3GPP Standards
Phase 1 1992 GSM Features Phase 2 1995 GSM Features, EFR Codec, Release 96 1997 Q1 GSM Features, 14.4 kbit/s User Data Rate, Release 97 1998 Q1 GSM Features, GPRS

Release 98 1998 GSM Features, AMR, EDGE, GPRS for PCS1900


Release 99 2000 Q1 Specified the first UMTS 3G networks, incorporating a CDMA air interface

Release 4 2001 Q2 Originally called the Release 2000 - added features including an all-IP Core Network[
Release 5 2002 Q1 Introduced IMS and HSDPA
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Introduction to 3G

Standardization of 3G cellular networks


3GPP is a co-operation between standardization bodies ETSI (Europe), ARIB/ TTC (Japan), CCSA (China), ATIS (North America) and TTA (South Korea) GSM EDGE UMTS WCDMA FDD WCDMA TDD TD SCDMA

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Introduction to 3G

Standardization of 3G cellular networks


3GPP2 is a co- operation between standardization bodies ARIB / TTC(Japan), CCSA (China), TIA (North America) and TTA (South Korea) CDMA2000 - CDMA2000 1X - CDMA2000 1XEV-DO

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Introduction to 3G

IMT 2000 frequency allocations

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Introduction to 3G

Standardization of WCDMA / UMTS


The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
Role: Create 3G Specifications and Reports
3G is standardized based on the evolved GSM core networks and the supporting Radio Access Technology
GSM

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Standardization of WCDMA / UMTS


Introduction of GPRS / E-GPRS

Introduction to 3G

3GPP Release 99

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Standardization of WCDMA / UMTS


3GPP Release 4

Introduction to 3G

3GPP Release 5-6 All IP Vision

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Introduction to 3G

Standardization of WCDMA / UMTS


WCDMA Air Interface, Main Parameters
Multiple Access Method
Duplexing Method Base Station Synchronization Channel Separation Chip Rate Frame Length Service Multiplexing Multirate Concept Detection Multiuser Detection, Smart Antennas
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DS-CDMA
FDD/TDD Asychronous Operation 5MHz 3.84 Mcps 10 ms Multiple Services with different QoS Requirements Multiplexed on one Connection Variable Spreading Factor and Multicode Coherent, using Pilot Symbols or Common Pilot Supported by Standard, Optional in Implementation
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UMTS requirements on 3G

Introduction to 3G

global access with single device global standard unified spectrum high coverage seamless handover support of multimedia services high data rates services with variable bandwidths symmetrical and asymmetrical data transfer circuit-switched and packet- switched transfer high speech (and multimedia) quality - as good as GSM extendable multi-service network easy to deploy new services gateway to Internet high security tight control over network resources by network owner sophisticated charging functionality backwards compatibility to 2G systems (GSM)

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UMTS vs. GSM/GPRS

Introduction to 3G

Compared to GSM, the major difference of UMTS is the air interface. The air interface uses GRAN, or Generic Radio Access Network. This means it can be connected to a wide range of networks, such as the internet, ISDN, GSM, or to another UMTS network its self. GRAN uses the lower 3 layers of the OSI model, layer 3, the network layer is the RRM, or Radio Resource Management protocol. The RRMs manage the channels between the base stations and the fixed network. UMTS is not compatible with GSM, but UMTS phones which are currently sold are dual mode, which means they can work on GSM as well as UMTS. If a user wants to make a call, but is out of a UMTS area, the device can use GSM. Even if this happens while on a call, the phone can be switched over to the GSM network, completely uninterrupted, transparently to the end user. Although the newer wave of 3G phones can be used on both networks, GSM phones cant be used on UMTS networks.
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Introduction to 3G
1.1. Evolution to 3G 1.2. Genesis of UMTS 1.3. UMTS Key features 1.2.1. UMTS features 1.2.2. UMTS and the 3G requirements 1.2.3. Backward compatibility with GSM/GPRS 1.2.4. UMTS QoS Classes 1.4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture
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Introduction to 3G

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UMTS Features

Introduction to 3G

High Speed UMTS has the ability to provide data rates upto 2 Mbps. This is maximum if we compare it with other 2G and 2.5G networks. This would in turn bring features such as video conferencing, real time streaming and other high bandwidth applications into reality. Furthermore, Bearer services have different QoS (Quality Of Service) parameters for maximum transfer delay, delay variation and bit error rate. Offered data rates could be 144 kbps for satellite/rural outdoor, 384 kbps for urban outdoor, 2048 kbps for indoor and low range outdoor.

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Introduction to 3G

Packet Transmission Current cellular systems are based upon circuitswitched data while UMTS is based on packet switching technology. This will also allow to have several forms of billing such as pay per download, pay per session etc depending upon the requirement of the service used. UMTS is also providing "data rate on demand" feature which could make the charges more cheap.

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Introduction to 3G

Consistent Service and Coverage UMTS is perceived as a global system of communication. Hence, it is also providing compatibility with other networks such as GSM and Satellite. Satellite is the major way to provide global access, hence UMTS has been standardized to ensure an efficient and effective roaming and handover between satellite and terrestrial networks. UMTS will also provide consistent set of services while a user switches from one network to another during roaming. This terminology is also referred to as VHE (Virtual Home Environment).
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Introduction to 3G

UMTS and 3G requirements


UMTS stands for Universal Mobile Telephone System. It is one of the 3G or third generation mobile systems created and developed inside the framework of the ITU IMT-2000.

It presents the new generation of broadband multimedia mobile telecommunications technology. The area covered by service providers will be on a global scale.

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Introduction to 3G

UMTS FDD Frequency band evolution


Release 99 I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX 1920 -1980 MHz 1850 -1910 MHz 1710 -1785 MHz 1710 - 1755 MHz 824 - 849 MHz 830 - 840 MHz 2500 - 2570 MHz 880 - 915 MHz 1749.9 - 1748.9 MHz 2110-2170 MHz 1930-1990 MHz 1805-1880 MHz 2110 - 2155 MHz 869 - 894 MHz 875 - 885 MHz 2620 - 2690 MHz 925 960 MHz 1844.9 1879.9 MHz GSM900 Japan
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UMTS only in Europe, Japan US PCS, GSM1900 GSM 1800 US 2.1 GHz band US Cellular, GSM850 Japan

New in Release 5 New in Release 6

New in Release 7

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Introduction to 3G

UMTS Air Interface technologies


UMTS Air Interface is built based on two technological solutions WCDMA FDD WCDMA TDD WCDMA FDD is the more widely used solution FDD: Separate UL and DL frequency band WCDMA TDD technology is currently used in limited number of networks TDD: UL and DL separated by time , Utilizing same frequency Both technologies have own dedicated frequency bands
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Introduction to 3G

WCDMA FDD technology


Multiple access technology is wideband CDMA ( WCDMA) All cells at same carrier frequency Spreading codes used to separate cells and users Signal bandwidth 3.84MHz Multiple carriers can be used to increase capacity Inter Frequency functionality to support mobility between frequencies Compatibility with GSM technology Inter system functionality to support mobility between GSM and UMTS
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WCDMA technology

Introduction to 3G

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Introduction to 3G

UMTS & GSM Network Planning

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Introduction to 3G

Difference between WCDMA & GSM


Carrier spacing Frequency reuse factor Power control frequency Quality control
WCDMA 5 MHz 1 GSM 200 KHz 1 18

1500 Hz Radio resource management algorithms

2 Hz or lower Network planning (frequency planning)

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Introduction to 3G

WCDMA
Frequency diversity

GSM

5 MHz bandwidth Frequency gives multipath hopping diversity with Rake receiver Load Based packet scheduling Timeslot based Scheduling with GPRS

Packet data

Downlink transmit Supported for Not supported by diversity improving the standard, but downlink capacity can be applied
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Introduction to 3G

Backward Compatibility with GSM/GPRS


UMTS networks can be operated with GSM/GPRS networks. Systems use different frequency bands, so BTSs and mobiles will (should) not interfere with each other. Some vendors claim their core network (MSC/HLR/SGSN etc) and BSC/RNC are UMTS compatible, but most operators will prefer to build a totally separate/independent UMTS network. Some of the latest GSM BTSs can also have UMTS radio parts and share the same rack.

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Introduction to 3G

UMTS QoS classes


Network Services are considered end-to-end, this means from a Terminal Equipment (TE) to another TE. An End-to-End Service may have a certain Quality of Service (QoS) which is provided for the user of a network service. It is the user that decides whether he is satisfied with the provided QoS or not.

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Introduction to 3G

To realize a certain network QoS a Bearer Service with clearly defined characteristics and functionality is to be set up from the source to the destination of a service.
A bearer service includes all aspects to enable the provision of a contracted QoS. These aspects are among others the control signaling, user plane transport and QoS management functionality. A UMTS bearer service layered architecture is depicted below, each bearer service on a specific layer offers it's individual services using services provided by the layers below.

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QoS Architecture

Introduction to 3G

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Introduction to 3G

UMTS network services have different QoS classes for four types of traffic: Conversational class (voice, video telephony, video gaming) Streaming class (multimedia, video on demand, webcast) Interactive class (web browsing, network gaming, database access) Background class (email, SMS, downloading)

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UMTS QoS Classes


Traffic class Conversational class Real Time - Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Streaming class Real Time - Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Interactive class Best Effort Fundamental characteristics

Introduction to 3G

Background class Best Effort

- Request response -Destination is pattern not expecting the data within a -Preserve payload certain time content -Preserve payload content

-Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) Example of the voice streaming video web browsing application
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telemetry, emails
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Introduction to 3G

List of UMTS Bearer Services Attributes


Traffic class ('conversational', 'streaming', 'interactive', 'background') Maximum bit rate (kbps) Guaranteed bit rate (kbps) Delivery order (y/n) Maximum SDU size (octets) SDU format information (bits) SDU error ratio Residual bit error ratio Delivery of erroneous SDUs (y/n/-) Transfer delay (ms) Traffic handling priority
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Introduction to 3G

Introduction to 3G
1.1. Evolution to 3G

1.2. Genesis of UMTS


1.3. UMTS Key features 1.4. GSM/GPRS/EDGE Architecture 1.4.1. GSM Voice architecture 1.4.2. GPRS data architecture 1.4.3. Enhancements provide by EDGE

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GSM System Architecture


BSC MS BTS

Introduction to 3G

PSTN ISDN PDN

MSC
GMSC

BTS MS BTS MS

BSC VLR

EIR AUC HLR

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GSM System Architecture


Mobile Station (MS) Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Home Location Register (HLR) Visitor Location Register (VLR) Authentication Center (AUC) Equipment Identity Register (EIR)
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Introduction to 3G

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Mobile Station (MS)


The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1. 2. Mobile Equipment (ME) Subscriber Identity Module (SIM)

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Mobile Station (MS)


Mobile Equipment Portable, vehicle mounted, hand held device Uniquely identified by an IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) Voice and data transmission Monitoring power and signal quality of surrounding cells for optimum handover 160 character long SMS.

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Mobile Station (MS) contd.


Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) Smart card contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) Allows user to send and receive calls and receive other subscribed services Encoded network identification details - Key Ki,Kc and A3,A5 and A8 algorithms Protected by a password or PIN Can be moved from phone to phone contains key information to activate the phone

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System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)

Introduction to 3G

Base Station Subsystem is composed of two parts that communicate across the standardized Abis interface allowing operation between components made by different suppliers 1. 2. Base Transceiver Station (BTS) Base Station Controller (BSC)

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


Base Transceiver Station (BTS): Encodes, encrypts, multiplexes, modulates and feeds the RF signals to the antenna. Frequency hopping Communicates with Mobile station and BSC Consists of Transceivers (TRX) units

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Base Station Subsystem (BSS)


Base Station Controller (BSC) Manages Radio resources for BTS Assigns Frequency and time slots for all MSs in its area Handles call set up Transcoding and rate adaptation functionality Handover for each MS Radio Power control It communicates with MSC and BTS

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Introduction to 3G

System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem (NSS)


Mobile Switching Center (MSC) Heart of the network Manages communication between GSM and other networks Call setup function and basic switching Call routing Billing information and collection Mobility management - Registration - Location Updating - Inter BSS and inter MSC call handoff MSC does gateway function while its customer roams to other network by using HLR/VLR.

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Introduction to 3G

Home Location Registers (HLR)

System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem


- permanent database about mobile subscribers in a large service area(generally one per GSM network operator) - database contains IMSI, MSISDN, prepaid/postpaid, roaming restrictions, supplementary services.

Visitor Location Registers (VLR) - Temporary database which updates whenever new MS enters its area, by HLR database - Controls those mobiles roaming in its area - Reduces number of queries to HLR - Database contains IMSI,TMSI,MSISDN,MSRN,Location Area, authentication key
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Introduction to 3G

Authentication Center (AUC) - Protects against intruders in air interface - Maintains authentication keys and algorithms and provides security triplets ( RAND,SRES,Kc) - Generally associated with HLR

System Architecture Network Switching Subsystem

Equipment Identity Register (EIR) - Database that is used to track handsets using the IMEI (International Mobile Equipment Identity) - Made up of three sub-classes: The White List, The Black List and the Gray List - Only one EIR per PLMN
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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Network Architecture


SMS-GMSC SMS-INMSC Gd SGSN Gp

Other GPRS
PLMN

Gb Gf BTS BSC Gs

Gn Gr

GGSN GGSN

PDN Gc Gi

BTS

EIR D MSC/VLR

HLR+GPRS Register

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Interfaces

Introduction to 3G

Gb Connects BSC with SGSN Gn SGSN SGSN/GGSN (in the same network) Gp SGSN GGSN (in different networks) Gf For equipment querying at registering time Gi Connects PLMN with external Packet Data Networks (PDNs) Gr To exchange User profile between HLR & SGSN Gs To exchange Database between SGSN & MSC Gd Interface between SMS & GPRS

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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Architecture
GPRS is a data network that overlays a secondgeneration GSM network. This data overlay network provides packet data transport at rates from 9.6 to 171 kbps. Additionally, multiple users can share the same air-interface resources simultaneously. GPRS attempts to reuse the existing GSM network elements as much as possible, but to effectively build a packet-based mobile cellular network, some new network elements, interfaces, and protocols for handling packet traffic are required.
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Introduction to 3G

GSM Network Element


Mobile Station (MS)

Modification or Upgrade Required for GPRS.


New Mobile Station is required to access GPRS services. These new terminals will be backward compatible with GSM for voice calls.

BTS
BSC

A software upgrade is required in the existing base transceiver site.


The base station controller (BSC) requires a software upgrade and the installation of new hardware called the packet control unit (PCU). The PCU directs the data traffic to the GPRS network and can be a separate hardware element associated with the BSC. The deployment of GPRS requires the installation of new core network elements called the serving GPRS support node (SGSN) and gateway GPRS support node (GGSN). All the databases involved in the network will require software upgrades to handle the new call models and functions introduced by GPRS.
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GPRS Support Nodes (GSNs)

Databases (HLR, VLR, etc.)

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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Mobile Stations


GPRS Mobile Stations: New Mobile Station are required to use GPRS services because existing GSM phones do not handle the enhanced air interface or packet data.

A variety of MS can exist, including a high-speed version of current phones to support high-speed data access, a new PDA device with an embedded GSM phone, and PC cards for laptop computers.
These mobile stations are backward compatible for making voice calls using GSM.
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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Base Station Subsystem


Each BSC requires the installation of one or more Packet Control Units (PCUs) and a software upgrade. The PCU provides a physical and logical data interface to the base station subsystem (BSS) for packet data traffic. The BTS can also require a software upgrade but typically does not require hardware enhancements.

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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Base Station Subsystem


When either voice or data traffic is originated at the
subscriber mobile, it is transported over the air interface to the BTS, and from the BTS to the BSC in the same way as a standard GSM call. However, at the output of the BSC, the traffic is separated; voice is sent to the mobile switching center (MSC) per standard GSM, and data is sent to a new device called the SGSN via the PCU over a Frame Relay interface / IP

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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Support Nodes


Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN): The Gateway GPRS Support Node acts as an interface and a router to external networks. The GGSN contains routing information for GPRS mobiles, which is used to tunnel packets through the IP based internal backbone to the correct Serving GPRS Support Node. The GGSN also collects charging information connected to the use of the external data networks and can act as a packet filter for incoming traffic.
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Introduction to 3G

GPRS Support Nodes


Serving GPRS support node (SGSN): The Serving GPRS Support Node is responsible for authentication of GPRS mobiles, registration of mobiles in the network, mobility management. collecting information for charging for the use of the air interface.

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Introduction to 3G

Routing Area
GPRS introduces the concept of a routing area. This is much the same as a Location Area in GSM, except that it will generally contain fewer cells. Because routing areas are smaller than Location Areas, less radio resources are used when a paging message is broadcast.

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Enhancements by EDGE

Introduction to 3G

Enhanced data for global evolution (EDGE) is a highspeed mobile data standard, intended to enable secondgeneration global system for mobile communication (GSM) and time division multiple access (TDMA) networks to transmit data at up to 384 kilobits per second (Kbps). As it was initially developed just for GSM systems, it has also been called GSM384. Vendors intended the technology for those network operators who failed to win spectrum auctions for third-generation networks to allow high-speed data transmission.

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Introduction to 3G

Enhancements by EDGE
EDGE provides speed enhancements by changing the type of modulation used and making a better use of the carrier currently used, for example the 200kHz carrier in GSM systems. EDGE also provides an evolutionary path to thirdgeneration IMT-2000-compliant systems, such as universal mobile telephone systems (UMTS), by implementing some of the changes expected in the later implementation in third-generation systems.

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Introduction to 3G

Enhancements by EDGE
EDGE builds upon enhancements provided by general
packet radio service (GPRS) and high-speed circuit switched data (HSCSD) technologies that are currently being tested and deployed. It enables a greater data-transmission speed to be achieved in good conditions, especially near the base stations, by implementing an eight-phase-shift keying (8 PSK) modulation instead of Gaussian minimum-shift keying (GMSK).

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Introduction to 3G

Configuration
Technology
CSD HSCSD

Download (kbit/s)
9.6 28.8

Upload (kbit/s)
9.6 14.4

TDMA Timeslots allocated


1+1 2+1

HSCSD GPRS
GPRS EDGE EDGE

43.2 80.0
60.0 236.8 177.6

14.4 20.0 (Class 8 & 10 and CS-4)


40.0 (Class 10 and CS-4) 59.2 (Class 8, 10 and MCS-9) 118.4 (Class 10 and MCS-9)

3+1 4+1
3+2 4+1 3+2

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Introduction to 3G

Enhancements by EDGE
Latencies are reduced and bit rates are higher It provides thrice as better speed as GPRS It improves the speed of present application and also new applications as voice calls on mobile etc. are supported

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Introduction to 3G

Summary
Candidate to write Summary for Module-1 :

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