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Module 6.

4
Module 6.4

Curriculum
and
Instruction
(Science)
What to teach
 Knowledge
 Facts
 Concepts
 Principles
 Theories
Process Skills
 Observation
 Inference
 Classification
 Comparison
 Measurement
 Communication
 Prediction
 Identification
 Variables
 Formulating hypothesis
 Experiment
Scientific Attitudes

Curiosity
Honesty
Objectivity
Openness
Perseverance
Skepticism
Withholding judgment
How to teach…
Way of finding out rather than a
body of facts to be memorized
Emphasize learning by doing
Encourage interaction among
learners
Adapt science experiences to the
learners’ developmental level
Use a variety of approaches in
teaching science
Why teach…

Functional understanding
of science concepts and
principles
Real life situation
Acquire skills/scientific
attitudes/values
 Solving everyday problems

Health and sanitation


Nutrition
Food production
Environment and its
conservation
Lesson 2
 TEACHING STRATEGIES
Learner construct knowledge
for himself
 Constructs meaning as he
learns
 Constructing meaning is
learning
1. The Discovery Approach
2. Inquiry Approach
3. Reflective Thinking
4. Integrative Teaching
5. Cooperative Learning
6. Process Approach
7. Practical Work approach
Other strategies
 Lecture and student recitation
 Demonstration
 Practice or drill
 Review
 Role playing and simulation
 Field trips
 Concept mapping
 games
RESEARCH IN THE
CLASSROOM SCIENTIFIC
METHOD
 Identify the problem

 Formulate a hypothesis

 Design an investigation

 Work on the investigation

 Accept, modify or reject the


hypothesis
 Form conclusion
Classroom Assessment

 Formative
 Ask questions while discussion is
going on
 Summative test at the end of a
topic
What are the sources of
assessment information?

Authentic Assessment
Traditional (Kleinheider 1996)
Assessment
•Performance-based
•Fill-in-the blanks Assessment
•Portfolio
•Matching type •Concept Mapping
•True or False •Creative Assessment
•Journals & Oral Interview
•Multiple choice
•Problem Test
type
•Diagrams or Picture Type of
•Short-answer Test
question •Practical Assessment
•Self-evaluation
Lesson 6
Scoring Authentic
Assessment
Through Rubrics
Part I – The Multigrade
Program
1. The Multigrade
Program in the
Philippines
2. Basic Principles
Underlying Multigrade
Teaching
LEGAL BASES
 DECS Order No. 38, s. 1993
Improving Access to
Elementary Education by
Providing Complete Elementary
grade Levels in All Public
Elementary Schools Tr\hrough
Combination and/or MG Classes
 DECS Order No. __, s. 1996
January, 1996
MG Programme in the Philippine
Education: An Alternative Delivery
Scheme to Provide Quality Education
Services
 DECS Order No. 96, s. 1997
(November 14, 1997)
Policies and Guidelines in the
Organization and Operation of
MG Classes
 DECS Order No. 91, s. 1997

(November 6, 1997)
Special Hardship Allowance for
MG Teachers
MG schools – classes that
combine the students of
 Different ages ) one
 Different abilities ) classroom

They are usually:


 Mountain schools
 Coastal schools

 Island schools
• Remote, far-flung, hard to reach
• No available transportation
Multi-grade Teacher
(DECS Order No. 91, s. 1997
 A public school teacher handling a
class of two or more grades
Factors that led to the organization of
MG Classes-
 Distance of the barangay
 Small number of enrollees for each
grade level or sparsely populated
area
 Shortage of teachers, funds and
school buildings
Basic Principles Underlying
Multigrade Teaching
1. Children are unique.
2. Children learn best from
experience. Children learn
from doing.
3. Children can and do learn well
from one another.
1. Role of the teacher in a
classroom involves setting-up
and managing a learning
environment that will be
conducive to learning and
teaching.
2. The implementation of the
school curriculum must take
into consideration the varied
abilities, levels and interests of
a particular group.
6. Value of the program will be
judged according to how well it
has achieved goals -
Part II
The Components of a
Multi-grade Classroom
2. Human Resource

3. The Physical
Environment
Human Resource

 Learner

 Teacher

 Parents

 Benefactors

 NGO’s

 Private institution
ARRANGEMENT OF A STUDENT
CENTERED MULTI-GRADE CLASSROOM

(Using more MOBILE


FURNITURE for ALTERNATIVE
CLASSROOM
ARRANGEMENT)

(Desks are type attached to


chairs)
TEACHER’S DESK
.
ILLUSTRATION 3

AN OPEN
CLASSROOM
ILLUSTRATION 4

A SIMILAR
ARRANGEMENT
USING INDIVIDUAL
DESKS
DAILY CLASS SCHEDULE/PROGRAM
(per DepEd Order No. 36, s. 2005)
GRADE CLUSTERS
(1,II, I-III, II-III, 1-II-III)
TIME MINUTES LEARNING
AREAS

7:30 – 7:45 15 Flag Ceremony


7:45 – 8:15 30 CE/GMRC
8:15 – 9:45 90 English
9:45 – 10:00 15 Recess
10:00 – 11:20 80 Mathematics
11:20 – 12::00 40 Science & Health

1:30 – 2:40 70 Filipino


2:40 – 3:40 60 Makabayan
Sibika at Kultura
DAILY CLASS SCHEDULE/PROGRAM
(per DepEd Order No. 36, s. 2005)
GRADE CLUSTERS
(III-IV)

TIME MINUTES LEARNING


AREAS

7:30 – 7:45 15 Flag Ceremony


7:45 – 8:15 (III) 30 CE/GMRC
8:05(IV) 20
8:15 – 9:45 (III) 90 English
8:05 -9:15 (IV) 70 (30 MINS.
9:45 – 10:00 15 Remedial)
10:00 – 10:40 (III) 40 Recess
10:00 – 11::00 (IV) 60 Science
10:40 – 11:50 (III) 70
11:00 – 12:00 (IV) Math
TIME MINUTES LEARNING AREAS

1:30 – 2:40 (III) 70 Filipino


1:30 – 2:30 (IV) 60
2:30 – 3:30 (III) 60 Makabayan (SK)
2:30 – 4:00 (IV) 100 HKS (40)
EPP (40)
MSEP (20)
MULTIGRADE PROGRAM
OPTIONS
1. SUBJECT STAGGERING
Subject requiring more teacher pupil
interaction are grouped with those
requiring less in a 3-grade class.
e. 1 or 2 grades – independent or 1
grade recites with teacher
4. SUBJECT INTEGRATION
Subjects which easily lend themselves to
integration are presented by the teacher
to all grades at the same time.
EFFECTIVE INSTRUCTIONAL
APPROACH/STRATEGY
A. INDIVIDUALIZED INSTRUCTIONAL
Essence: Awareness of and consideration
of individual needs, abilities and styles of
learners for curriculum planning
TEACHER gets to know the pupils
determines their individual needs through
a variety of diagnostic devices and
strategies
 Observing pupils’ behavior
 Analyzing homework
 Interacting with pupil
while engaged in an
activity
 Analyzing patters of pupil
performance on tests
 Plans appropriate
activities in respond to
pupil needs
MG PROGRAM OPTIONS

SUBJECT STAGGERING
SUBJECT INTEGRATION
COMMON TIMETABLE
INTEGRATED DAY

SUBJECT GROUPING
Part IV – Teaching Strategies
too Multi-grade Classes
1. Methods commonly Used
2. Group Work and Grouping as
an Instructional Strategy
3. Self-Directed learning and
Independent Study