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Language and Content Objectives

Language and Concept Development


Language provides labels and categories for familiar concepts. Language provides a means of describing or expressing already learned concepts. ELL need much more explicit language instruction & support.

Characteristics of Effective Instructional Objectives


Student-oriented: telling what students will do rather than what the teacher will do. Descriptive of learning outcomes: It is the learning outcome, not the learning activity that are described in IO. Clear & understandable: IO are explicit, using a clearly stated action/process verb Observable: IO indicate what behavior(s) demonstrate that students have mastered the objective.

SWBAT Verbs are Essential


Vague & unobservable To know To understand To learn To appreciate To study To realize To value To review

Observable actions/products To analyze To predict To locate To explain To summarize To select To list To choose To classify

Is it Language or is it Content?
Language
Key vocabulary Language functions Language skills Grammar or language structure Language learning strategies Academic language

Content
Factual knowledge & information about a topic Simple or complex concepts Concrete or abstract concepts Processes, dynamics & systems Critical thinking about content

Verbs for Instructional Objectives


Language Objectives
Listen for Describe Edit Retell Define Find the main idea Compare Summarize Paraphrase

Content Objectives
Generalize Identify Solve Investigate Distinguish Hypothesize Create Select Draw conclusions about cause & effect

Language Objectives
Promote student academic language growth. Include the use of either receptive (listening and reading) and/or productive language skills (speaking and writing) Connect clearly with the lesson topic or lesson activities Essential Question: Which of the four domains will the students use to accomplish the content objective?

Key Vocabulary Objectives


State what technical terms, concept words or labels, and other words or expressions students need to discuss, read, or write about the topic of the lesson. Are based on a determination of whether the vocabulary for the concept or the concept itself is unknown. Must include ordinary language about the topic for ELL with lower levels of language proficiency.

Language Functions Objectives


Define how students will use language in the lesson or demonstrate knowledge of the content. Must be made explicit for ELL since they may not have mastered the meta-language to talk about their thinking about the content. Often contain a critical thinking or analytical skill (categorize, compare & contrast, etc.) May refer to sentence frames, use of signal words or academic language students need to talk, read & write about a thought process or patterns among facts, concepts & information about the topic.

Language Skills Instructional Objectives for Listening


Determine listening objectives to increase discrimination & comprehension of sounds, words & sentences Use listening action words: Identify, names, match, select, list, define, sort, display, label...

Language Skills Instructional Objectives for Speaking


Determine speaking objectives to elicit authentic oral language use by purpose & function

Use speaking action words: retell, describe, recite, summarize, explain, narrate, role play, report

Language Skills Reading & Writing Objectives


Include critical thinking skills as well as mechanical and decoding skills Use action words: summarize, compare & contrast, explain cause & effect, distinguish fact & opinion, paraphrase, outline

Grammar or Language Structures


Describe spoken & written discourse patterns such as questioning patterns, verb tenses, paragraph writing, pronoun usage. May define specific word study processes and outcomes, such as prefixes & suffixes for descriptive words or for making comparisons. Require the use of language structures in context as well as explicit instruction in preteaching or analyzing authentic text. Avoid artificial or de-contextualized grammar & word study.

Lesson Task Objectives


Require analysis of the linguistic demands of a task in relationship to ELL students level of English language proficiency. Ex: Do students know the format for writing a report or does this require explicit teaching? Require analysis of the text students will read. Ex: Does the text have features that support students reading comprehension such as definitions of key vocabulary, graphs & charts to display data, maps, etc.?

Language Learning Strategies


Define self-monitoring & self-correcting strategies such as making & confirming predictions. Support students in using strategies to locate information within a text: Ex. Students will find embedded definitions within a text. Often involve translation or transformation of language or text into another form, such as outlining, paraphrasing, retelling in students own words, or representing information graphically. Address skills students need to help them when they dont understand or get stuck with unfamiliar language or content.

References
Echevarra, J., Vogt, M. & Short, D.J. (2010). Making Content Comprehensible for Secondary English Learners: The SIOP Model. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Vogt, Echevarra (2007) 99 Ideas and Activities for Teaching English Learners with the SIOP Model.